|Year : 2009 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 43-46
Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn
Naveen Goyal1, Sumitra Singh2, Surendra K Sharma2
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rajendra Institute of Technology and Sciences, Sirsa - 125 055, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar - 125 001, India
|Date of Submission||14-Nov-2009|
|Date of Decision||30-Nov-2009|
|Date of Acceptance||04-Dec-2009|
|Date of Web Publication||23-Apr-2010|
Surendra K Sharma
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar - 125 001
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn.) sweet (Malvaceae) commonly called 'Country Mallow' is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g) was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80C), methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g), while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals' models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.
Keywords: Abutilon indicum Linn, analgesic, Malvaceae, kangi
|How to cite this article:|
Goyal N, Singh S, Sharma SK. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2009;1:43-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Goyal N, Singh S, Sharma SK. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2009 [cited 2020 Apr 5];1:43-6. Available from: http://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2009/1/1/43/62686
Plants are an essential and integral component in the world of prescription medicine and have the ability to make various constituents like flavonoids, proteins, alkaloids, and steroids, which are in turn used to alleviate many diseases. A review has revealed that several plants possess analgesic activities, namely, Emblica officinalis Linn. (Fam. Euphorbiaceae),  Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Fam. Rutaceae),  Martynia annua Linn. (Myrtaceae),  Chenopodium album Linn. (Fam. Chenopodiaceae),  and many more. Abutilon indicum Linn. (Malvaceae) commonly called 'Country Mallow' is a perennial plant, up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract, in the hotter parts of India, and adjoining countries like Malaya, Philippine Islands, and Indo-China. The plant is used in traditional medicine in India, Pakistan, China, and the Philippines for treatment of several diseases such as, bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, and diarrhea. ,,,
Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,  hypoglycemic,  antimicrobial,  male contraceptive,  and antidiarrheal  activities. A large number of phytoconstituents have been isolated from different parts of Abutilon indicum Linn., namely, carbohydrates, essential oil, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids, amino acids, and sterols. ,, To determine the medicinal properties of the Abutilon indicum Linn. root, we investigated the analgesic activities of various extracts using standard animal models.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The fresh root of Abutilon indicum Linn. was collected from CCS HAU Campus, Hisar, India, in May 2004. Dr. M.P. Sharma, Taxonomist, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India, and Dr. H. B. Singh, Head, Raw materials, Herbarium and Museum Division, NISCAIR, New Delhi, India, conducted the botanical authentication. The root was air dried under shade and powdered in a grinding mill.
Preparation of extracts
The dried powdered root (900 g) of the plant was subjected to successive solvent extractions with solvents in an increasing order of polarity (Petroleum ether (60 - 80°C), methanol and ethanol) by using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted with water by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The extracts were distilled off and dried in a dessicator to obtain petroleum ether extract (3.1%), methanol extract (4.3%), ethanol extract (4.9%), and water extract (2.1%).
The extracts were then subjected to preliminary qualitative tests to identify the phytoconstituents present in the root. It was observed that petroleum ether extract contained steroids and fatty acids, whereas, alcoholic and aqueous extracts contained steroidal saponins, flavonoids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Adult swiss albino mice of either sex, weighing between 20 - 30 g (supplied by Germ Free Animal House, CCS HAU, Hisar, India), were used in the study. All the animals were housed in a animal house of the institution and were handled in conformation with the ethical guidelines. Prior permission from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar, was obtained as per the prescribed guidelines. The animals were fasted for 18 hours prior to commencement of the experiment, but water was provided ad libitum.
Preparation of doses
All dried extractives were suspended in gum acacia solution (2%) and then they were dissolved in distilled water, to dispense the doses of the extract and standard drug. Aspirin (100 mg/kg)  and pentazocine (10 mg/kg i.p.)  (Vardhman Health Care, Mullana, India) were taken as the standard drugs for analgesic activity. Gum acacia solution dissolved in distilled water was taken as the control group.
The peripheral and central analgesic activity was assessed by the writhing method,  tail flick method,  and tail immersion method,  separately. Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g) were selected, weighed, and divided into 10 groups of six animals each. All these animals were fasted for 18 hours prior to commencement of the experiment, but water was provided ad libitum. Animals of group I received 2% gum acacia aqueous solution as the solvent. Animals of group II to IX received petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, ethanol extract, and water extract, respectively, at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, in a similar manner, and animals of group X received aspirin (100 mg/kg), for the writhing method, through the oral route, while for the tail immersion and tail flick method pentazocine (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered as a standard for evaluation of the central analgesic activity.
Mice were made to writhe by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% v/v aqueous acetic acid (10 ml/kg). Test substances (petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, ethanol extract, and water extract; 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetyl salicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered 90 minutes before injection of acetic acid. The animals were kept under observation immediately after acetic acid injection and the number of writhes were counted for 20 minutes.
Tail flick method
Analgesia was assessed with a tail flick apparatus (Analgesiometer). Baseline latency (reaction time) was observed prior to drug (extract) treatment and half-hour, one hour, two hours, and three hours after drug (extract) administration.
Tail immersion test
Prior to the analgesic experiments, the animals were screened for a sensitivity test by immersing the tip of the tail gently in hot water (55°C - 55.5°C). The animals, which lifted the tail from hot water within 3 seconds, were selected for the study. The test samples were administered orally and the reaction time was measured at zero, half, one, two, and three hours.
Results are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Student's t-test was used to analyze the significance of the results.
| Results and Discussions|| |
The petroleum ether extract, ethanol extract, and water extract of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. caused a significant (P < 0.01) inhibition of control writhes at a dose of 400 mg/kg, p.o. [Table 1]. The maximum inhibition was with petroleum ether extract followed by water extract and ethanol extract (30.78, 25, and 14.28%, respectively). The effect produced by the petroleum ether extract was comparable to that produced by aspirin 100 mg/kg (31.12%). The methanol extract did not produce any significant inhibition of writhes.
[Table 2] and [Table 3] show the effect of the extracts on baseline latency (reaction time). There was a significant and dose-dependent increase in the reaction time in the tail flick method and tail immersion method. The main reaction time for petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, and pentazocine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was 10.07 ± 0.89, 6.39 ± 0.57, 7.57 ± 0.48, 9.49 ± 0.64, and 11.89 ± 0.28 seconds, respectively, after three hours of drug treatment in the tail flick method. In the tail immersion method, the mean reaction time for petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, and pentazocine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was 10.07 ± 0.89, 6.39 ± 0.57, 7.57 ± 0.48, 9.49 ± 0.64, and 11.89 ± 0.28 seconds, respectively, after three hours of drug treatment. Thus, the maximum increase in reaction time was with petroleum ether extract similar to that produced by pentazocine 10 mg/kg, i.p. followed by water extract and ethanol extract, after three hours of drug treatment.
| Conclusion|| |
The results show that petroleum ether extract, ethanolic extract, and water extract significantly reduce the acetic acid-induced writhes and increase the baseline latency in the tail flick and tail immersion methods, which suggests that the analgesic effects of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. are both centrally and peripherally mediated. The mechanism by which the inflammatory effect occurs is not fully understood. The inhibition of prostaglandin may not be the main factor, but may be one of the several possibilities. The ability of various extracts, in this study, to reduce the number of writhes and increase the reaction time to thermal stimuli confirms the analgesic properties, which may count for the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
| References|| |
|1.||Perianayagam JB, Sharma SK, Joseph A, Christiana AJ. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Embelica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:85. |
|2.||Dash GK, Patro CP, Maity AK. Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Abutilon indicum. Hamdard Med 2004;47:22. |
|3.||Kar DM, Nanda BK, Pardhan D, Sahu SK, GK Dash. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of fruits of Martynia annua Linn. Hamdard Med 2004;47:32. |
|4.||Dai Y, Ye WC, Wang ZT, Matsuda H, Kubo M, But PP. Antipruritic and antinociceptive effects of Chenopodium album L. in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:245. |
|5.||Kirtikar KR, BD Basu. Indian Medicinal Plants. Dehradun: International Book Distributor; 1987. p. 314. |
|6.||Anonymus. Wealth of India. Vol. 1, New Delhi: CSIR; 1985. p. 20. |
|7.||Parrotta JA. Healing plants of Peninsular India. Delhi: CAB International; 2001. p. 477. |
|8.||Prajapati ND, Purohit SS, Sharma AK, Kumar T. A Handbook of Medicinal Plants. Jodhpur (India): AGROBIOS; 2003. p. 3. |
|9.||Porchezhian E, Ansari SH. Hepatoprotective activity of Abutilon indicum on experimental liver damage in rats. Phytomedicine 2005;12:62. |
|10.||Lakshmayya, Nelluri NR, Kumar P, Aggarwal NK, Gouda TS, Setty SR. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of leaves of Abutilon indicum. Indian J Trad Know 2003;2:79. |
|11.||Mehta BK, Neogi R, Kotra S, OP Mali. Antimicrobial activity of Abutilon indicum. Fitoterapia 1997;68:273. |
|12.||Shah MJ, Subhan F, Tahir F, Alam W. Male contraceptives from traditional drugs. Hamdard Med 1997;40:34. |
|13.||Chandrashekhar VM, Nagappa AN, Channesh TS, Habber PV, Rao KP. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of Abutilon indicum Linn. leaf extracts. J Nat Rem 2004;4:12. |
|14.||Ahmed Z, Kazmi SN, Ahmed W, Malik A. Phytochemical studies on the species of Genus Abutilon. Hamdard Med 1993;36:28. |
|15.||Gaind KN, Chopra KS. Phytochemical investigation of Abutilon indicum. Planta Med 1976;30:174-88. |
|16.||Matawska I, Sikorska M. Flavonoid compounds in the flowers of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (Malvaceae). Acta Pol Pharm 2002;59:227-9. |
|17.||Turner RA. Screening Methods in Pharmacology. London: Academic Press Inc. Ltd; 1965. p. 113. |
|18.||Kulkarni SK. A Hand Book of Experimental Pharmacology, Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan; 1993. p. 49. |
|19.||Palanichamy S, Nagarajan S. Analgesic activity of Cassia alata leaf extract and kaempferol 3-o-sophoroside. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;29:73-8. |
|20.||Al-Ghamdi MS. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of Nigella sativa. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;76:45-8. |
|21.||Kumar V, Singh PN, Bhattacharya SK. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Indian Hypericum perforatum L. Indian J Exp Biol 2001;39:339-43. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]