Medical radiation countermeasures for nuclear and radiological emergencies: Current status and future perspectives
Rajesh Arora1, Raman Chawla1, Rohit Marwah1, Vinod Kumar1, Rajeev Goel1, Preeti Arora2, Sarita Jaiswal3, Rakesh Kumar Sharma1
1 Division of CBRN Defence, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Brig. SK Mazumdar Road, Timarpur, Delhi - 110 054, India
2 Centre for Disaster Management Studies, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi - 110 006, India
3 Department of Plant Sciences, Room 4D70-51, Campus Drive College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A8, Canada
Division of CBRN Defence, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Brig. SK Mazumdar Road, Timarpur, Delhi - 110 054
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs) occurred globally and recent incidences in India are indicating toward the need for comprehensive medical preparedness required both at incident site and hospitals. The enhanced threat attributed toward insurgency is another causative factor of worry. The response capabilities and operational readiness of responders (both health and non-health service providers) in contaminated environment need to be supported by advancement in R & D and technological efforts to develop prophylactics and radiation mitigators. It is essential to develop phase 1 alternatives of such drugs for unseen threats as a part of initial preparedness. At the incident site and hospital level, external decontamination procedures need to be standardized and supported by protective clothing and Shudika kits developed by INMAS. The medical management of exposure requires systematic approach to perform triage, resuscitation and curative care. The internal contamination requires decorporation agents to be administered based on procedural diagnostics. Various key issues pertaining to policy decisions, R & D promotion, community awareness, specialized infrastructure for NREs preparedness has been discussed. The present review is an attempt to provide vital information about the current status of various radiation countermeasures and future perspective(s) ahead.