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LETTER
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 84  

Stem cells: Challenges in endodontics


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, People's Dental Academy, Bhopal, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India

Date of Web Publication9-Feb-2012

Correspondence Address:
B S Deepak
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, People's Dental Academy, Bhopal
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.92744

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How to cite this article:
Deepak B S, Nandini D B. Stem cells: Challenges in endodontics. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2012;4:84

How to cite this URL:
Deepak B S, Nandini D B. Stem cells: Challenges in endodontics. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Apr 26];4:84. Available from: http://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2012/4/1/84/92744

Sir,

Four types of human dental stem cells have been isolated. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papillae (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Studies have demonstrated that gene variations occurred within the different sources of the same cells and these variations determine their lineage propensity toward specific destination. Stem cells of deciduous teeth retained their plasticity over the passages, where as permanent stem cells lost their plasticity and were shown to be more committed towards neuronal lineage. [1] For successful regeneration, revascularization is necessary. For endodontic treatment it is recommended to create a blood clot after the infection control procedure. The Proangiogenic factors, i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) play essential roles in neovascularization. The expression of specific antigens for endothelial cells, including von-Willebrand factor, CD31, CD146 side population cells and angiotensin converting enzyme is observed, suggesting an angiogenic potential for DPSCs. [2]

Hunang et al, found Dental stem cells when seeded onto a poly-d,l,-lactide and glycolide (PLG) scaffold, which was then inserted into the fabricated tooth root. The cell-seeded tooth fragments were transplanted subcutaneously and harvested after three to four months. Analyses of the harvested implants revealed the formation of well-vascularized soft tissue in the root canal space. [3]

DPSCS, SHED, SCAP are derived from neural crest mesenchyme. Therefore, these cells may act as source for neural cells. These stem cells have expressed a variety of neural markers like nestin, glutamine and decarboxylase, neuronal nuclei, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament M, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase. [4],[5]

Further understanding of stem cell research and positive in vivo studies will lead to a ground-breaking treatment modality in endodontics.

 
   References Top

1.Govindasamy V, Abdullah AN, Ronald VS, Musa S, Ab Aziz ZA, Zain RB, et al. Inherent differential propensity of dental pulp stem cells derived from human deciduous and permanent teeth. J Endod 2010;36:1504-15.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.d'Aquino R, Graziano A, Sampaolesi M, Laino G, Pirozzi G, De Rosa A, et al. Human postnatal dental pulp cells co-differentiate into osteoblasts and endotheliocytes: A pivotal synergy leading to adult bone tissue formation. Cell Death Differ 2007;14:1162-71.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Huang GT, Yamaza T, Shea LD, Djouad F, Kuhn NZ, Tuan RS, et al. Stem / progenitor cell mediated de novo regeneration of dental pulp with newly deposited continous layer of dentin in an in vivo model. Tissue Eng Part A 2010;16:605-15.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
4.Nosrat IV, Smith CA, Mullally P, Olson I, Nosrat CA. Dental pulp cells provide neutrophic support for dopaminergic neurons and differentiate into neurons in vitro: Implication for tissue engineering and repair in the nervous system. Eur J Neurosci 2004;19:2388-98.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Arthur A, Rychkov G, Shi S, Koblar SA, Gronthose S. Adult human dental pulp stem cells differentiate toward functionally active neurons under appropriate environmental cues. Stem Cells 2008;26:1787-95.  Back to cited text no. 5
    



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