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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL/BRIEF
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 10-11  

Cartilage targeted chemical delivery of naproxen and ibuprofen for the treatment of arthritis


Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication21-Mar-2012

Correspondence Address:
Mange Ram Yadav
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.94119

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   Abstract 

NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescription drugs, for the treatment of pain and inflammation, particularly arthritis. Inhibitor of COX and NSAIDs relieve the signs and symptoms of inflammation by decreasing PG production but may cause GI and renal damage. Synthesis, stability studies and Y-imaging studies are carried out. Cartilage targeting strategy for conventional NSAIDs has been explored for reducing their local and systemic side effect of the NSAIDs site specific delivery of quarternary ester derivatives could have to be an effective strategy for long term therapy of inflammatory conditions like arthritis.

Keywords: COX, NSAIDs, arthritis


How to cite this article:
Pawar V, Gohil V, Tamboli R, Giridhar R, Yadav MR. Cartilage targeted chemical delivery of naproxen and ibuprofen for the treatment of arthritis. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2012;4, Suppl S1:10-1

How to cite this URL:
Pawar V, Gohil V, Tamboli R, Giridhar R, Yadav MR. Cartilage targeted chemical delivery of naproxen and ibuprofen for the treatment of arthritis. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2020 Jan 23];4, Suppl S1:10-1. Available from: http://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2012/4/5/10/94119

NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescription drugs, for the treatment of pain and inflammation, particularly arthritis. As inhibitors of COX isozymes, traditional NSAIDs relieve the signs and symptoms of inflammation by decreasing prostaglandin (PG) production but may cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) and renal damage, especially with the long term use. To improve the GI tolerance of NSAIDs by masking the free carboxylic group temporarily, numerous ester and amide prodrugs of NSAIDs have been designed and evaluated in the past. However, it is still not possible to avoid the systemic side effects of the parent drugs by the prodrug approach. An alternative way to reduce the adverse reactions is to carry the drugs selectively to their target tissue. The observation that quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds are selectively and intensively concentrated in the cartilaginous tissue prompted us to study the tropinol esters of some NSAIDs after quaternization, for their localization into the inflamed tissues and their antiinflammatory activity in a chronic model. Tropinol esters specifically were chosen for the study due to their higher stability in the in vitro experiments. [1]


   Materials and Methods Top


All the reagents used are of laboratory reagent grade and solvents were of analytical grade. Ibuprofen and naproxen were provided by Macleods pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd. as gift samples. EDC. HCl, methyl iodide and other reagents were purchased from sigma chemicals. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of purity and stability study of synthesized derivatives.


   Result and Discussion Top


Synthesis

Naproxen (8) and ibuprofen (9) were coupled with tropinol (3) using ethyl dimethylamino propyl carbodimide (EDC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) to obtain the esters (4-5) as oily products. The esters (4-5) were quaternized with methyl iodide to obtain the desired quaternary derivatives (6-7) as shown in Scheme 1. All the compounds were characterized by their spectral and elemental data.



Stability study

HPLC method has been developed for the determination of purity and stability study of the synthesized derivatives in phosphate buffer ph 7.4 and in human plasma. All synthesized derivatives shows good stability in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 (half life of disappearance 30-45 h) but get hydrolysed fast in human plasma (half life 8-12 h).

γ-Imaging studies

In order to check the site specific concentration of these quaternary derivatives (6-7) radiolabelling was done using radioactive 99m Tc, Radiolabeling of the compounds with 99m Tc was carried out by direct labeling method to form complex and study their site specific localization tendency in the inflamed tissue. The in vitro stability of radiolabeled complexes was determined in sodium chloride (0.9%) and in human serum. Once the complexed derivatives ( 99m Tc-QA) were found to be stable then imaging study was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats using a Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography gamma camera and both derivatives shows higher affinity towards cartilage than parent NSAID.


   Conclusions Top


Cartilage targeting strategy for the conventional NSAIDs has been explored for reducing their local and systemic side effects the NSAIDs. These esters showed the tendency for selective accumulation into the inflamed tissues. Selective concentration of these ester derivatives into the tissue in demand could also allow reduction in their doses. It could be concluded that site specific delivery of these quaternary ester derivatives could prove to be an effective strategy for long term therapy of inflammatory conditions like arthritis. [2],[3]

 
   References Top

1.Giraud I, Rapp M, Maurizis J, Madelmont J. Application to a cartilage targeting strategy: Synthesis and in vivo biodistribution of 14c-labeled quaternary ammonium-glucosamine conjugates. Bioconjugate Chem 2000;11:212-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Nicolas C, Verny M, Giraud I, Oller M, Rapp M, Maurizis J, et al. New quaternary ammonium oxicam derivatives targeted toward cartilage: Synthesis. pharmacokinetic studies, and anti-inflammatory potency. J Med Chem 1999;42:5235.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Yadav MR, Pawar VA, Marvaniya SM, Halen PK, Giridhar R, Mishra AK. Site specific chemical delivery of NSAIDs to inflamed joints: Synthesis, biological activity and c-imaging studies of quaternary ammonium salts of tropinol esters of some NSAIDs or their active metabolites. Bioorg Med Chem 2008;16:9443-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    



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