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CASE REPORT
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 237-239

Cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphism in phenytoin induced gingival enlargement: A case report


1 Department of Periodontics, Mahatma Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Indira Nagar, Gorimedu, Pondicherry, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Indira Nagar, Gorimedu, Pondicherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Agila Samidorai
Department of Periodontics, Mahatma Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Indira Nagar, Gorimedu, Pondicherry
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.116828

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Gingival enlargement comprises any clinical condition in which an increase in the size of the gingiva is observed. Among the drugs that induce gingival enlargement, the antiepileptic agent phenytoin has been widely related to this condition. The Cytochrome P450(CYP) superfamily is the most commonly involved enzymes in metabolism of drugs. Common coding region CYP variants that affects drug elimination and response has been studied in great detail. Pharmacogenetic influences on drug metabolism have been widely reviewed and gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C9 appeared to be responsible for much of the interindividual variability on drug elimination. Genetic variation in the CYP2C9 gene can affect metabolism, leading to altered phenotypes. Individuals with poor metaboliser alleles of CYP2C9 gene were shown to have a reduced metabolism of phenytoin compared with wild-type alleles. Thus identification of patients genotype prior to anti-epileptic drug administration could potentially prevent higher serum drug concentrations leading to adverse side effects such as gingival enlargement. This case report addresses the influence of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism on Phenytoin drug metabolism thereby causing gingival enlargement.


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