|DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLE
|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 580-582
Correlation of lip prints and lip competence in children
Rajashekhara Bhari Sharanesha, Narendra Varma Penumatsa
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive dental sciences College of Dentistry, Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia
|Date of Submission||28-Apr-2015|
|Date of Decision||28-Apr-2015|
|Date of Acceptance||22-May-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||1-Sep-2015|
Dr. Rajashekhara Bhari Sharanesha
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive dental sciences College of Dentistry, Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Introduction: Individual identification is a significant and difficult task in forensic search; it was based on logical values. A lip print is different in every living individual and does not change with time so it can be used as a tool in forensic investigations. The present work aimed to find out the correlation between lip prints and lip competence in the pediatric population of Davangere city. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 103 children that is, 49 males and 54 females of aged between 4 and 14 years. The lip impression was made on a strip of cellophane tape on adhesive portion; it was then placed to a white bond paper. This serves as permanent record. In this study, we are followed the classification of patterns of the lines on the lips proposed by Tsuchihashi. For recording lip competence, we considered Ballard criteria. Results: Chi-square test was used to find out the degree of association between variables and to check out whether statistically significant differences exist. Conclusion: Lip prints are unique for every person and show differences according to the race and the ethnic origins of a person. The present study confirmed the distinctiveness of cheiloscopy but disproves any statistical correlation of lip print with lip competency.
Keywords: Cheiloscopy, Chi-square test, correlation, lip competence, lip print
|How to cite this article:|
Sharanesha RB, Penumatsa NV. Correlation of lip prints and lip competence in children. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2015;7, Suppl S2:580-2
The grooves present on the human lips are distinctive to each person and may be used to determine identity. The study grooves or furrows present on the red part or the vermilion border of the human lips is known as cheiloscopy.  Dr. Martinez Santos from Brazil who classified the furrows on the lips and showed that they can be used for identification. These are identifiable as early as the 6 th week of intrauterine life, and from that time on, their sample rarely changes, resisting many afflictions like herpetic lesions. ,,
Today, investigators can also rely on lip prints to make out possible suspects or to support evidence gained in specific investigations. As the available literature is scanty, hence the present work aimed to find out the correlation between lip prints and lip competence in pediatric population of Davangere city.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Davangere.
The study sample comprised of 103 children that is, 49 males and 54 females of aged between 4 and 14 years. Prior to the commencement of the study, approval was taken from the ethical committee to conduct the study. Consent of all the participants was obtained for the study.
Materials required for the study are,
- Brown and red colored lipstick
- Cellophane tape
- White chart paper
- Magnifying lens.
A dark colored lipstick is applied with a single rub, uniformly on the vermilion border. The instruction was given to the entire subject to spread the lipstick evenly. After 2-3 min, a lip impression was made on a strip of cellophane tape on the adhesive surface; it was then placed on a white bond paper. This serves as permanent record. The impression is visualized with the use of a magnifying lens.
In the present study, we are following the classification of patterns of the lines on the lips proposed by Tsuchihashi. 
- Type I: Clear cut vertical grooves that run across the entire lips
- Type I' : Similar to Type I, but do not cover the entire lip
- Type II: Branched grooves (branching Y-shaped pattern)
- Type III: Zigzag pattern, reticular grooves
- Type IV: Undetermined.
For classification, the central part of the lower lip (10-mm wide) is taken as study area as proposed by Sivapathasundharam et al.  Because this is almost always visible in any trace of the sample.
Lip competence was recorded as being competent or incompetent.  If the lips met as one at rest without contraction of orbicularis oris and mentalis muscles, then the lips were described as competent [Figure 1].
If the child had to contract the orbicularis and mentalis muscles forcefully in order to close the lips, then the lips were recorded as incompetent [Figure 2].
The results obtained and confirmed from the coded data collected at the beginning of the study.
| Results|| |
All the data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using IBM SPSS package (version 17). All the data were presented as frequency and percentages. Chi-square test was used to find out the degree of association between variables and to check out whether statistically significant differences exist it means P < 0.05 [Table 1] and [Chart 1].
| Discussion|| |
Cheiloscopy is a forthcoming tool for the identification of a person's lip print. It is one of the most interesting and budding methods of human recognition and begin from illegal and forensic practice.  Lip prints are distinctive and do not change during the life of a person.  The lip prints can be obtained at the crime scene from clothing, cups, cigarettes, windows, and doors  Bindal et al.  were the first to describe lipstick-cellophane tape method and used in lifting lip print. We have used the lipstick-cellophane method to record the prints. A variety of methods are available in the literature, such as photographing the lips, taking the prints directly onto paper (without using cellophane tape), and obtaining three-dimensional casts of the lips.
The last method utilizes dental impression materials and gives good quality casts in which the groves on the lips can be seen clearly. The time consumption, high level of technical skill required and cost considerations were however prohibitive for our study. From among the other methods, considering the time factor, ease of taking the prints and the clarity of the grooves; we preferred the lipstick-cellophane method. This serves as permanent record.
In our study, it was found that Type II: Branched grooves (branching Y-shaped pattern) [Figure 3] was the predominant pattern in both males and females. This was followed by Type I′: Similar to Type I, but do not cover the entire lip. Type IV (undetermined) [Figure 4] pattern was the least common of all patterns.
Various studies in India have shown population-wise dominance. The study done by Sivapathasundharam et al., and Saraswathi et al., found that Type III was the predominant lip pattern in the Indo-Dravidian inhabitants. ,
In our study, we found competent lips in all the types of lip types except in Type IV where the incompetent lip is twice than the competent lips. The competent lips were noted in 66% of the study population while incompetency of lips was seen only in 34%. The results were not in accordance with the Zamzam and Luther study.  India is a huge country with large cultural variation. More studies be supposed to be carry out in dissimilar centers with a larger pediatric sample size to form a cohesive cheiloscopy system which would be a useful tool in forensic odontology. A range of factors can change lip print recording. The patterns also depend on the position of the lip. The closed mouth position lips exhibit definite grooves and are easy to interpret which is not the case with the open position lips. There can be incorrect results in case of pathology and loss of front teeth. The lip print form may also be affected by the pressure, path and technique followed during recording the impression. ,
| Conclusion|| |
Lip prints are typical for every person and show differences according to the race and the ethnic origins of a person.  The present study confirmed the distinctiveness of cheiloscopy but disproves any statistical correlation of lip print with lip competency. Though emerging as a potential tool; lip print recording is a monotonous task which is technique-sensitive. More collaborative work to be done in numerous centers and larger study groups to reach a consensus in order to have practical implications.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]