Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences Login  | Users Online: 575  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
    Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission




 
 Table of Contents  
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 580-582  

Correlation of lip prints and lip competence in children


Department of Pedodontics and Preventive dental sciences College of Dentistry, Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission28-Apr-2015
Date of Decision28-Apr-2015
Date of Acceptance22-May-2015
Date of Web Publication1-Sep-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajashekhara Bhari Sharanesha
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive dental sciences College of Dentistry, Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj
Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.163554

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Introduction: Individual identification is a significant and difficult task in forensic search; it was based on logical values. A lip print is different in every living individual and does not change with time so it can be used as a tool in forensic investigations. The present work aimed to find out the correlation between lip prints and lip competence in the pediatric population of Davangere city. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 103 children that is, 49 males and 54 females of aged between 4 and 14 years. The lip impression was made on a strip of cellophane tape on adhesive portion; it was then placed to a white bond paper. This serves as permanent record. In this study, we are followed the classification of patterns of the lines on the lips proposed by Tsuchihashi. For recording lip competence, we considered Ballard criteria. Results: Chi-square test was used to find out the degree of association between variables and to check out whether statistically significant differences exist. Conclusion: Lip prints are unique for every person and show differences according to the race and the ethnic origins of a person. The present study confirmed the distinctiveness of cheiloscopy but disproves any statistical correlation of lip print with lip competency.

Keywords: Cheiloscopy, Chi-square test, correlation, lip competence, lip print


How to cite this article:
Sharanesha RB, Penumatsa NV. Correlation of lip prints and lip competence in children. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2015;7, Suppl S2:580-2

How to cite this URL:
Sharanesha RB, Penumatsa NV. Correlation of lip prints and lip competence in children. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Aug 22];7, Suppl S2:580-2. Available from: http://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2015/7/6/580/163554

The grooves present on the human lips are distinctive to each person and may be used to determine identity. The study grooves or furrows present on the red part or the vermilion border of the human lips is known as cheiloscopy. [1] Dr. Martinez Santos from Brazil who classified the furrows on the lips and showed that they can be used for identification. These are identifiable as early as the 6 th week of intrauterine life, and from that time on, their sample rarely changes, resisting many afflictions like herpetic lesions. [2],[3],[4]

Today, investigators can also rely on lip prints to make out possible suspects or to support evidence gained in specific investigations. As the available literature is scanty, hence the present work aimed to find out the correlation between lip prints and lip competence in pediatric population of Davangere city.


   Materials and Methods Top


The present study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Davangere.

Study sample

The study sample comprised of 103 children that is, 49 males and 54 females of aged between 4 and 14 years. Prior to the commencement of the study, approval was taken from the ethical committee to conduct the study. Consent of all the participants was obtained for the study.

Study materials

Materials required for the study are,

  • Brown and red colored lipstick
  • Cellophane tape
  • White chart paper
  • Magnifying lens.


Technique

A dark colored lipstick is applied with a single rub, uniformly on the vermilion border. The instruction was given to the entire subject to spread the lipstick evenly. After 2-3 min, a lip impression was made on a strip of cellophane tape on the adhesive surface; it was then placed on a white bond paper. This serves as permanent record. The impression is visualized with the use of a magnifying lens.

In the present study, we are following the classification of patterns of the lines on the lips proposed by Tsuchihashi. [5]

  • Type I: Clear cut vertical grooves that run across the entire lips
  • Type I' : Similar to Type I, but do not cover the entire lip
  • Type II: Branched grooves (branching Y-shaped pattern)
  • Type III: Zigzag pattern, reticular grooves
  • Type IV: Undetermined.


For classification, the central part of the lower lip (10-mm wide) is taken as study area as proposed by Sivapathasundharam et al. [6] Because this is almost always visible in any trace of the sample.

Lip competence was recorded as being competent or incompetent. [7] If the lips met as one at rest without contraction of orbicularis oris and mentalis muscles, then the lips were described as competent [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Competent lips

Click here to view


If the child had to contract the orbicularis and mentalis muscles forcefully in order to close the lips, then the lips were recorded as incompetent [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Incompetent lip

Click here to view


The results obtained and confirmed from the coded data collected at the beginning of the study.


   Results Top


All the data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using IBM SPSS package (version 17). All the data were presented as frequency and percentages. Chi-square test was used to find out the degree of association between variables and to check out whether statistically significant differences exist it means P < 0.05 [Table 1] and [Chart 1].
Table 1: Lip type versus lip competency

Click here to view





   Discussion Top


Cheiloscopy is a forthcoming tool for the identification of a person's lip print. It is one of the most interesting and budding methods of human recognition and begin from illegal and forensic practice. [8] Lip prints are distinctive and do not change during the life of a person. [9] The lip prints can be obtained at the crime scene from clothing, cups, cigarettes, windows, and doors [8] Bindal et al. [10] were the first to describe lipstick-cellophane tape method and used in lifting lip print. We have used the lipstick-cellophane method to record the prints. A variety of methods are available in the literature, such as photographing the lips, taking the prints directly onto paper (without using cellophane tape), and obtaining three-dimensional casts of the lips.

The last method utilizes dental impression materials and gives good quality casts in which the groves on the lips can be seen clearly. The time consumption, high level of technical skill required and cost considerations were however prohibitive for our study. From among the other methods, considering the time factor, ease of taking the prints and the clarity of the grooves; we preferred the lipstick-cellophane method. This serves as permanent record.

In our study, it was found that Type II: Branched grooves (branching Y-shaped pattern) [Figure 3] was the predominant pattern in both males and females. This was followed by Type I′: Similar to Type I, but do not cover the entire lip. Type IV (undetermined) [Figure 4] pattern was the least common of all patterns.
Figure 3: Type II lip prints

Click here to view
Figure 4: Type IV lip print

Click here to view


Various studies in India have shown population-wise dominance. The study done by Sivapathasundharam et al., and Saraswathi et al., found that Type III was the predominant lip pattern in the Indo-Dravidian inhabitants. [6],[11]

In our study, we found competent lips in all the types of lip types except in Type IV where the incompetent lip is twice than the competent lips. The competent lips were noted in 66% of the study population while incompetency of lips was seen only in 34%. The results were not in accordance with the Zamzam and Luther study. [12] India is a huge country with large cultural variation. More studies be supposed to be carry out in dissimilar centers with a larger pediatric sample size to form a cohesive cheiloscopy system which would be a useful tool in forensic odontology. A range of factors can change lip print recording. The patterns also depend on the position of the lip. The closed mouth position lips exhibit definite grooves and are easy to interpret which is not the case with the open position lips. There can be incorrect results in case of pathology and loss of front teeth. The lip print form may also be affected by the pressure, path and technique followed during recording the impression. [13],[14]


   Conclusion Top


Lip prints are typical for every person and show differences according to the race and the ethnic origins of a person. [15] The present study confirmed the distinctiveness of cheiloscopy but disproves any statistical correlation of lip print with lip competency. Though emerging as a potential tool; lip print recording is a monotonous task which is technique-sensitive. More collaborative work to be done in numerous centers and larger study groups to reach a consensus in order to have practical implications.

 
   References Top

1.
Nandy A. Principles of Forensic Medicine. 2 nd ed. Calcutta: Central; 2003. p. 100-1.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Alvarez M. Cosmetic Advances and Criminalistics, The Study of Lip Prints Generated by Permanent Lipstick, Doctoral Thesis University of Valencia Spain; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Molano MA, Gil JH, Jaramillo JA, Ruiz SM. Queilosco'pico study for students of the faculty of the University of odontologý'a Antý'oquia. Rev Fac Univ Odontol Antioq 2002;14:26-33.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Castelló A, Alvarez-Seguí M, Verdú F. Luminous lip-prints as criminal evidence. Forensic Sci Int 2005;155:185-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Tsuchihashi Y. Studies on personal identification by means of lip prints. Forensic Sci 1974;3:233-48.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Sivapathasundharam B, Prakash PA, Sivakumar G. Lip prints (cheiloscopy). Indian J Dent Res 2001;12:234-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.
Ballard CF. Variations of posture and behaviour of the lips and tongue which determine the position of the labial segments; the implications in orthodontics, prosthetics and speech. Europ J Orthod 1963;1:67-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Reddy LV. Lip prints: An overview in forensic dentistry. J Adv Dent Res 2011;11:16-20.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gondivkar MS, Indurkar A, Degwekar S, Bhowate R. Cheiloscopy for sex determination. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:56-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
  Medknow Journal  
10.
Bindal U, Jethani SL, Mehrotra N, Rohatgi RK, Arora M, Sinha P. Lip prints as a method of identification in human being. J Anat Soc India 2009;58:152-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Saraswathi TR, Misra G, Ranganathan K. Study of lip prints. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:28-31.  Back to cited text no. 11
  Medknow Journal  
12.
Zamzam N, Luther F. Comparison of lip incompetence by remote video surveillance and clinical observation in children with and without cerebral palsy. Eur J Orthod 2001;23:75-84.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kavitha B, Einstein A, Sivapathasundaram B, Saraswati TR. Limitations in forensic odontology. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:8-10.  Back to cited text no. 13
  Medknow Journal  
14.
Vahanwalla SP, Parekh BK. Study on lip prints as an aid to forensic methodology. J Forensic Med Toxicol 2000;17:12-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Verghese AJ, Somasekar M, Umesh BR. A study on lip print types among the people of Kerala. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2010;32:6-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed973    
    Printed17    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded48    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal