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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 180-183  

Oral health status of sports university students in Chennai


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Oral Health Centre, School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
3 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sri Venkateshwaraa Dental College, Ariyur, Puducherry, India
4 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Mental Health First Aid India, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication28-May-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nagappan Nagappan
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute, Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_287_18

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   Abstract 

Background: The field of sports in India has its renowned importance. Oral health is mirror to general health. Thus, oral assessment to sports players by a dentist is important. The commonly faced oral health problems among sports players are oral and facial trauma, leading to fracture of facial bones and teeth. Hence, it compromises the function of chewing, loss of muscle balance, and temporomandibular joint problems. The mean of facial trauma experienced by sports players in Mysuru and Chennai was 21% and 17%, respectively. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the oral health status among sports university students in India. Clinical examination was conducted using the World Health Organization’s oral health pro forma in 2013. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among sports university students, Melakottaiyur, Chennai. Results: A total of 94 athletes comprising 64 (68%) males and 30 (32%) females in the age group of 18–30 years, with a mean age of 24±5.04 years, were included. The mean decayed, missing, filled (Teeth) value was 2.23±3.01 and 1.87±2.62 for male and female, respectively. Around 64% of sports persons are affected with gingival inflammation, 36% with periodontal condition, and 15% with dental fluorosis. Conclusion: This study concludes that sports persons have poor gingival, dental caries, and periodontal status.

Keywords: Dental caries, dental status, oral health, sports


How to cite this article:
Nagappan N, Tirupati N, Gopinath NM, Selvam DP, Subramani GP, Subbiah GK. Oral health status of sports university students in Chennai. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2019;11, Suppl S2:180-3

How to cite this URL:
Nagappan N, Tirupati N, Gopinath NM, Selvam DP, Subramani GP, Subbiah GK. Oral health status of sports university students in Chennai. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 21];11, Suppl S2:180-3. Available from: http://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2019/11/6/180/258830




   Introduction Top


The field of sports in India has its renowned importance. Indian children are trained in sports from their childhood depending on their capability, field of interest, and family support.

Health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. “Oral health is defined by World Health Organization as being free of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral sores, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, periodontal (gum) disease, tooth decay and tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that affect the mouth and oral cavity.”[1]

Oral health is a mirror of general health. Thus, maintaining oral health is as equally important as general health.[2] To prevent any compromise in the performance level of the players, assessment of the oral health by a dentist is important. Depending on the sports they practice, milliseconds can make the podium, and the health has its vital importance, which also includes the oral health.

The commonly faced oral health problems among the sports persons include oral and facial trauma causing fracture of teeth and facial bones, dental erosion due to excessive consumption of aerated beverages, dental caries, and poor periodontal health. If the player presents alterations in the occlusion, it can significantly compromise the performance as it interferes with the efficacy of chewing and subsequent digestion of food, thus impairing nutrient absorption, loss of muscle balance, headache, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems, discomfort, and stress.[3]

In the study by Needleman et al.,[4] the prevalence of dental caries was observed to be 55.1%, gingivitis 76%, and periodontitis 8.3%.

There is no sufficient data about oral health status of sports persons among Indian population. Hence, this study aimed to assess the oral health status among the sports university students in Chennai, India.

Aim

This study was aimed to assess the oral health status among the sports university students in Chennai, India.


   Materialsand Methods Top


This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among the sports university students, Melakkotaiyur, Chennai. Only those students who were present on the day of examination and were ready to give informed consent were considered for examination. Approvals from college authorities were obtained.

The total number of students studying in the university was 124 and the sample size was 94. The data collection was scheduled for 10 days (June 10 to June 20, 2016). On average, four to six students were examined per day. Clinical examination was conducted by dentists who had been trained through a series of clinical training sessions at the Department of Public Health Dentistry, Chettinad Dental College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Instruments used were sterilized using standard protocol and only completely filled forms were considered for analysis.

Information about demographic data such as age, gender, type of sports, and level of education, and WHO Oral Health Assessment Form for Adults, 2013,[5] were obtained. In world health organisation oral health form, details about decayed, missing, filled (DMF), fluorosis, malocclusion, gingivitis, periodontitis, trauma, and oral mucosal lesions were recorded.

The data collected were analyzed using statistical software package (SPSS, version 21, for Windows). Frequency tables were computed.


   Results Top


[Table 1] depicts the demographic details of the study subjects. Ninety-four sports persons were surveyed, among which 52.1% belonged to the age group of 18–22 years and 47.8% to that of 22–30 years. The sports persons surveyed comprised 68% males and 31.9% females. The socioeconomic status reveals that 7.44% were from the upper class, 70.2% were from the middle class, and 2.3% were from the lower class. Among them, 20.21% were athletes, 19.1% were involved in playing more than one sports, 15.9% played kabaddi, 10.6% played hockey, 7.44% played volleyball and football, 6.38% played cricket, and 2.12% played table tennis, basketball, badminton, and judo.
Table 1: Demographic details of study subjects

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[Table 2] depicts the mean DMFT between genders. The mean DMFT for male and female was found to be 2.23±3.01 and 1.87±2.62, respectively. Independent t test showed that the comparison of mean DMFT between genders was found to be statistically significant in filled teeth component and others were not significant.
Table 2: Comparison of mean DMF between genders

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[Table 3] shows the gingival and periodontal status between genders. The presence of gingivitis in male and female was 48.9% and 15%, respectively. The presence of periodontitis in male and female was 26.6% and 9.6%, respectively. Pearson’s chi-square test showed that the comparison of gingival status between genders was found to be statistically significant and periodontal status between genders was found to be not statistically significant.
Table 3: Comparison of gingival and periodontal health status between genders

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[Table 4] shows the presence of dental trauma between genders. The presence of dental trauma in male and female was 12.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Pearson’s chi-square test showed that the comparison of dental trauma between genders was found to be not statistically significant.
Table 4: Comparison of dental trauma between genders

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   Discussion Top


Oral health status among the sports persons had been surveyed in different parts of the world. Oral health is largely reflected on general, physical, and emotional well-being of an athlete. Due to lack of studies about oral health status of sports persons in India, this study aimed at the prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, and dental fluorosis among the Indian sports persons.

The age group selected was from 18 to 30 years, out of which 52.1% and 47.9% belonged to the age group of 18–22 and 22–30 years, respectively. Among the 94 study subjects, 64 (68%) were males and 30 (31.9%) were females, respectively.

In this study, regarding the socioeconomic status, 7.4% students belonged to the upper class, 70.2% to the middle class, and 2.3% to the lower class. On the other hand, in the study by Biazevicet et al.,[6] 4.14% students were from the upper class, 75.72% from the middle class, and 20.15% from the lower class. This reveals that the socioeconomic status had a positive effect on the performance level of the sports persons.

In this study, 20.21% of students were athletes, 15.9% were involved in playing kabaddi, 10.63% were playing hockey, and 19% were involved in playing multisports. On the other hand, in the study by Abdullah et al.[7], 25.8% were involved in martial arts, 13.8% were involved in playing soccer, 11.6% were involved in playing hockey, 10.7% were playing rugby, 8.4% were athletes, and 4.4% were involved in playing badminton and basketball.[7]

In this study, the mean DMF value for males was 2.23±3.01 and for females was 1.87±2.62. On the other hand, in the study among the professional soccer players in the football club Barcelona,[8] the mean DMFT was 5.7. This is because dehydration and local drying of mouth during sporting and consumption of carbonated drinks reduce the salivary flow and increase the caries risk.

In this study, the prevalence of gingivitis in males was 48.9% and that in females was 15%. However, in the study by Needleman et al.,[4] the prevalence of gingivitis was found to be 76%.

In this study, the prevalence of periodontitis in males was 26.6% and in females 9.6%, whereas in the study by Needleman et al.[4] it was 8.3%. As the competitive sports persons spend more time in exercise and training, it increases the psychological and physical stress that shows ultimate impact on periodontal health and overall performance of sports persons.[9]

The prevalence of dental trauma in the study conducted among the Indian sports persons in males was 12.8% and in females was 2.1%. The number of students having dental fluorosis was found to be negligible (1%), whereas in a study conducted among the general population in Tamil Nadu, the prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 31.4%[10]. In this study, neither TMJ cases nor oral mucosal lesions were observed among the study population.


   Conclusion Top


The role of a dentist in sports persons is of paramount importance. But current research reveals that oral health status of sports persons was found to be fair, especially dental caries and periodontal status. There is an urgent need for oral health promotion and disease prevention strategies for sports persons. In future, the research could be conducted in larger population in different sports.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Håkansson S, Sturesson A. Oral hygiene experience, knowledge of oral health and oral diseases and attitudes about oral health care. Zambia:School of Health and Society; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Singh K, Kochhar S, Mittal V, Agrawal A, Chaudhary H, Anandani C. Oral health: Knowledge, attitude and behaviour among Indian population. Edu Res J 2012;3:066-071.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Souza LA, Elmadjian TR, Brito e Dias R, Coto NP. Prevalence of malocclusions in the 13-20-year-old categories of football athletes. Braz Oral Res 2011;25:19-22.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Needleman I, Ashley P, Petrie A, Fortune F, Turner W, Jones J, et al. Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic games: A cross-sectional study. Br J Sports Med 2013;47:1054-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
WHO. Oral health surveys: Basic methods. 5th ed. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Biazevic MGH, Michel-Crosato E, Detoni A, Klotz R, de Souza ÉR, de Paula Queluz D. Orofacial injuries in sports and use of mouthguards among university students. Braz J Oral Sci 2010;9:380-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Abdullah D, Wee CLF, Noorina WABW, Robin R, Tiong SP, Khoo S. Knowledge and use of mouthguards among university athletes in Malaysia. Movement, Health & Exercise 2013;2:31-40.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Gay-Escoda C, Vieira-Duarte-Pereira DM, Ardèvol J, Pruna R, Fernandez J, Valmaseda-Castellón E. Study of the effect of oral health on physical of professional soccer players of the football club. Barcelona. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16:436-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Pasupuleti MK. Importance of periodontal health in competitive sports. Saud J Sports Med 2014;14:5-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Arlappa N. Vitamin A deficiency control measures: Importance of vitamin A supplementation as a public health policy in the Indian context. J Public Health Policy 2013;34:538-48.  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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