|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 331-334
Evaluation of gynecologists’ awareness about oral health condition during pregnancy in Chennai city
Silambarasan Paneer1, Narasimman Muthusamy1, Rathinavel Pandian Manickavel1, Cakku Jalliah Venkatakrishnan1, Pradeep Rathnavelu1, Muthuvignesh Jayaram2
1 Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, KSR Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Web Publication||28-May-2019|
Dr. Muthuvignesh Jayaram
Department of Prosthodontics, KSR Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background/Objectives: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and practiced behaviors of gynecologists regarding oral health during pregnancy and association of periodontal disease with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 200 gynecologists. A self-structured, close-ended questionnaire containing 22 questions was prepared. The principal investigator approached the gynecologists personally and distributed the questionnaire after obtaining their informed consent. Results: Of the 200 gynecologists approached, 200 filled the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 100%. The majority (87%) acknowledged a connection between oral health and pregnancy and 63% agreed that periodontal disease can affect the outcome of pregnancy. However, only 60% gynecologists advise major/minor surgery during pregnancy, and many of them (74%) said that second trimester is the safe period for dental treatment. Almost three-quarters of the participants (79%) regarded dental radiograph and more than half (74%) considered administration of local anesthesia to be unsafe during pregnancy. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that gynecologists have a relatively certain level of knowledge regarding oral health status during pregnancy and the relationship of periodontal disease to pregnancy outcomes. However, there clearly exist misconceptions regarding the provision of dental treatment during pregnancy. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and medical community, mainly to the gynecologists who are primary health-care providers for pregnant women, and misconception regarding the types of dental treatments during pregnancy should be clarified.
Keywords: Gynecologist, knowledge, misconceptions, oral health status, periodontal disease, pregnancy outcomes
|How to cite this article:|
Paneer S, Muthusamy N, Manickavel RP, Venkatakrishnan CJ, Rathnavelu P, Jayaram M. Evaluation of gynecologists’ awareness about oral health condition during pregnancy in Chennai city. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2019;11, Suppl S2:331-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Paneer S, Muthusamy N, Manickavel RP, Venkatakrishnan CJ, Rathnavelu P, Jayaram M. Evaluation of gynecologists’ awareness about oral health condition during pregnancy in Chennai city. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Jun 18];11, Suppl S2:331-4. Available from: http://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2019/11/6/331/258820
| Introduction|| |
Pregnancy involves complex physical and hormonal changes that have a significant effect on almost every organ system, including the oral cavity. Oral problems associated with pregnancy primarily include gingivitis and periodontal infection. Oral health during pregnancy has long been a focus of interest. It involves multiple substantial and hormonal changes that have a momentous impact at the time of pregnancy. Pregnant women with periodontitis may be at a higher risk of preterm birth/low birth weight (PLBW). Studies showed 18.2% of all PLBW cases may be attributable to the periodontal disease. Although the mechanisms by which periodontal diseases may cause preterm birth and/or low birth weight have not been elucidated, one proposed mechanism relates to the seeding of urinary tract infections with bacteria from periodontal disease in the mother.,,
Gynecologists are the primary health-care providers who are in constant contact with the pregnant women and are often involved in the assessment and treatment of women all over their lives., Understanding the level of their knowledge on the association of periodontal disease with the pregnancy outcomes can improve pregnancy outcomes and prevent preterm deliveries. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and practiced behaviors of gynecologists regarding oral health care during pregnancy and association of periodontal disease with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Chennai city.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected gynecologists in Chennai city. In this study, 200 gynecologists participated and returned completely filled questionnaires. All the data were collected from gynecologists who are practicing in both the government and private hospitals/clinics in Chennai. A self-structured, closed-ended questionnaire containing 22 questions was prepared. The principal investigator approached the gynecologists personally and distributed the questionnaire after obtaining their informed consent. Their confidentiality was assured. The questions were answered immediately in 5 minutes and handed over to the investigator. Questions are summarized in [Table 1].
All returned questionnaires were coded and analyzed. Results were expressed as the number and percentage of respondents for each question and this descriptive statistics was analyzed using SPSS statistical package.
| Results|| |
Of the 200 eligible gynecologists, all agreed to participate in this study and returned completely filled questionnaires, yielding a response rate of 100%; the results obtained are summarized in [Table 2].
[Table 2] and [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3] display response of the gynecologists to the questions. More than 64% of the participants agreed that pregnancy increases the likelihood of gingival inflammation. Similarly, a high percentage (87%) of the gynecologists acknowledged a positive association between oral health and pregnancy. In addition, 67% believed that gingival/periodontal inflammation can affect the outcome of pregnancy and 63% agreed that periodontal disease can lead to preterm labor and low birth weight.
|Figure 1: Gynecologists’ awareness about relationship between periodontal disease and pregnancy|
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|Figure 2: Gynecologists’ attitude and opinion regarding dental treatments during pregnancy|
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This study also shows that 74% of the gynecologists considered second trimester to be the safest time for dental procedures, 67% of them advised their patients to visit dentist during pregnancy, 21% considered intra and extra oral radiographs to be safe, and 74% considered administration of local anesthesia containing vasoconstrictor to be unsafe during pregnancy.
| Discussion|| |
To our knowledge, this is the first published study conducted in Chennai to assess the level of knowledge of the gynecologists in relation to the association of periodontal disease with pregnancy outcomes. Although the overall knowledge level of the gynecologists was satisfactory in this study, there still exist minor misconceptions among gynecologists regarding provision of dental treatments during pregnancy. In response to the question whether it is safe to take intra/extraoral radiographs for a pregnant patient, most of the gynecologists (79%) answered “No.” Dental radiographs play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of many dental conditions., Many studies have reported that it is safe to take necessary intra/extraoral dental radiographs of pregnant women, and that they do not pose any risk to developing fetus.
Another frequent misconception in relation to dental treatment of pregnant women is avoiding the use of local anesthetic agents containing vasoconstrictors. The majority (74%) did not believe that local anesthesia containing vasoconstrictor is safe for pregnant women., Research has shown that the use of regular dental anesthetics containing vasoconstrictors during pregnancy is safe. Certain limitations exist in this study. However, this study might provide baseline information for continuing education programs in future that are provided to gynecologists working in Chennai.
| Conclusion|| |
Maternal health-care professionals play a vital role in promoting good oral health by connecting pregnant women to the source of dental care. Gynecologists in this study displayed certain level of knowledge, but some misconceptions exist among them regarding the types of dental treatment performed during pregnancy. So to provide better oral health care, more awareness and knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and medical community, mainly to the gynecologists who are primary health-care providers for pregnant women and misconception regarding the types of dental treatments during pregnancy should be clarified and can thereby reduce the incidence of maternal and neonatal complications.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2]