Formulation and characterization of α-mangostin in chitosan nanoparticles coated by sodium alginate, sodium silicate, and polyethylene glycol
Nasrul Wathoni1, Agus Rusdin2, Erma Febriani1, Destiana Purnama1, Wahnidar Daulay1, Sundoro Y Azhary3, Camellia Panatarani3, I Made Joni3, Ronny Lesmana4, Keiichi Motoyama5, Muchtaridi Muchtaridi6
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, Indonesia
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, Indonesia; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sports and Health, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia
3 Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, Indonesia
4 Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biology Cell, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, Indonesia
5 Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
6 Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, Indonesia
Dr. Nasrul Wathoni
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang 45363.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Context: α-mangostin, one of the xanthone derivative compounds isolated from Garcinia mangostana L. peel extract, has an excellent anticancer efficacy. However, α-mangostin has a lack of site specificity, poor cells selectivity, and low aqueous solubility. Polymeric nanoparticles formulation can be used to solve these problems. Aim: Therefore, the main aim of this study was to develop polymeric nanoparticles of α-mangostin-based chitosan (αM-Ch) coated by sodium alginate (αM-Ch/Al), sodium silicate (αM-Ch/Si), and polyethylene glycol 6000 (αM-Ch/PEG). Materials and Methods: Polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method with the spray pyrolysis technique. Optimized formula was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, particle size, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: αM-Ch/Al, αM-Ch/Si, and αM-Ch/PEG Nanoparticles were successfully prepared with the range of particle size approximately 200–400nm. The XRD patterns and DSC thermograms of αM-Ch/Al showed an amorphous state, whereas αM-Ch/Si and αM-Ch/PEG indicated low crystalline forms. In addition, αM-Ch/Al had the highest entrapment efficiency (98.33% ± 0.06%) compared to αM-Ch/Si (70.46% ± 8.93%), and αM-Ch/PEG (92.24% ± 10.98%). Conclusion: These results suggest that αM-Ch/Al has the potential to enhance the physicochemical properties of α-mangostin for further formulation as an anticancer agent.