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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-41

Water pipe smoking affects young females and males differently with some effects on immune system cells, but none for C-reactive protein, thyroid hormones, and vitamin D


Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sawsan H Mahassni
Dr. Sawsan H. Mahassni, Department of Biochemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21551.
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_271_18

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Introduction: Water pipe smoking (WPS) is a major health threat leading to higher mortality, morbidity, and incidence of many diseases, such as inflammatory, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases; and cancers. This study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of WPS on the immune system, inflammatory markers, lipids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormones in female and male WP smokers, and compared to nonsmokers of both sexes. No other studies showed the differences between female and male WP smokers for the parameters investigated here, with the exception of the lipid profile. Methodology: The study was carried on 76 randomly chosen subjects (17 female and 17 male WP smokers, 21 female and 21 male nonsmokers) living in Saudi Arabia with an age range of 20–35 years. Blood samples were collected to determine the differential complete blood counts; lipid profiles; and C-reactive protein, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and vitamin D concentrations. Results: Results showed no significant differences between female smokers and nonsmokers for all parameters. Male smokers had a significantly lower mean monocytes count and a significantly higher mean red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration compared to male nonsmokers. Comparing females and males among smokers and nonsmokers separately, the only significant difference in the parameters that was not found in both comparisons was a significantly lower mean basophil count in female nonsmokers compared to male nonsmokers. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the effects of WPS were limited to males with immune cells and hematology minimally affected, and that females and males were affected differently by WPS.


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