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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 173-175  

Evaluation of silver nanoparticles incorporated acrylic light cure resin trays


College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission28-Jan-2020
Date of Decision01-Feb-2020
Date of Acceptance02-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication28-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Ali S Alhawiatan
General Dentist, QHMJ+39, Al Malqa, Riyadh.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_52_20

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   Abstract 

The conventional denture base resins had many drawbacks. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of incorporation of silver nanoparticles on mechanical properties of light-cured resin material. Materials and Methods: Specimens of acrylic resin (control group) and acrylic resin reinforced with 2% silver nanoparticles (test group) were evaluated for mechanical properties such as impact strength, transverse strength, modulus of elasticity, and deflection. Unpaired t test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mechanical properties of light cure reinforced with silver nanoparticles were significantly higher than conventional light-cured resin (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The incorporation of silver nanoparticles into light-cured resin increases the mechanical properties making it more stronger material.

Keywords: Light cure resin, resin trays, silver nanoparticles, transverse strength


How to cite this article:
Alhawiatan AS, Alqutaym OS, Aldawsari SN, Zuhair FA, Alqahtani RO, Alshehri TH. Evaluation of silver nanoparticles incorporated acrylic light cure resin trays. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2020;12, Suppl S1:173-5

How to cite this URL:
Alhawiatan AS, Alqutaym OS, Aldawsari SN, Zuhair FA, Alqahtani RO, Alshehri TH. Evaluation of silver nanoparticles incorporated acrylic light cure resin trays. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 19];12, Suppl S1:173-5. Available from: http://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2020/12/5/173/292876




   Introduction Top


Denture base uses polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as the most common material because of its characteristics such as accurate fit, stability, esthetics, simplicity in repair, and inexpensive.[1],[2],[3] But fracture resistance needs to be improved in PMMA.[4],[5] Low rigidity and poor strength are the main drawbacks of this material, leading to early fracture.[6],[7],[8]

Many different techniques were tried to improve various properties of PMMA such as strength and stiffness, stability, abrasion resistance, radiopacity by either self-reinforcement, chemical modification or reinforcement by carbon fibers, glass fibers, and the ultra-high modulus polyethylene.[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15]

To meet the present and future technological demand, polymer composite materials reinforced with nanoparticles provide mechanical properties of polymers, and electrical and magnetic properties of nanoparticles.[16],[17],[18],[19] To increase capacitance density of a material, thinner dielectric films are needed and this is achieved by incorporating nanosized metals.[20],[21]

This study was conducted to compare the mechanical properties of 2% silver nanoparticles incorporated light cure resin with acrylic resin.


   Materials and Methods Top


According to American Dental Association (1975)[22] description and British Standard Institute Specifications,[23] the specimens of light cure resin (control group) and light cure resin reinforced with 2% silver nanoparticles (test group) were prepared. These specimens were processed according to the manufacturer’s instructions for each group.

Impact strength test

Specimens of 10 mm width and thickness, and 75 mm length were prepared with a standard groove of 2 mm depth at mid by using split brass mold.

The specimen was tested by Charpy’s impact testing machine and the value for impact strength by joules was directly recorded.

Transverse strength, modulus of elasticity, and deflection tests are given as follows:

Specimens of 2.5 mm thickness, 10 mm width, and 65 mm length were prepared for testing the transverse strength, deflection, and modulus of elasticity by Instron testing machine.

Transverse strength was calculated by the following formula: S = 3FL/2BD2 KGF/mm2 (where F is maximum load, L is space between support [50 mm], B is width of the specimen [10 mm], and D is thickness of the specimen).

The specimens were stored in distilled water for 2–3 days at room temperature before testing to check modulus of elasticity and deflection.


   Results Top


[Table 1] shows the mean values of light-cured acrylic resin and light-cured acrylic resin reinforced with nano-silver for impact strength, transverse strength, modulus of elasticity, and deflection.
Table 1: Comparison of mean mechanical properties between acrylic resin and light-cured acrylic resin reinforced with nano-silver

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All the mechanical properties of light cure reinforced with nano-silver were significantly more than conventional light-cured acrylic resin.


   Discussion Top


In prosthodontics, heat-cured acrylic resin is widely used. The most common drawback is traumatic breakage, which is directly proportional to the impact strength.[8],[14],[24]

Transverse strength test is a collection of tensile, compressive, and shear stresses. When the load is applied, the specimen bends and results in strain. The shear stress does not play a significant role in the process.[17],[23],[24],[25]

To bear the continuous stress or strain during occlusion, modulus of elasticity is an important property. The modulus is the ratio of the stress to strain for a given stress; the greater the value of the modulus the material will be stiffer.[13],[26]

To overcome the drawbacks of conventional material, many methods were tried such as developing new materials, altering curing methods, and modifying the existing acrylic resin or reinforcement of the acrylic resin with gamma radiation, fibers, and polyethylene powder.[14],[17],[18]

But, each method had its own drawbacks. The use of carbon and aramid fibers was not possible in specific areas as the lateral spreading of fibers during pressing caused complications in fabrication of the dentures. However, in this study nano-silver used in very small cuts minimized these difficulties. The esthetic concern was also better in nanoparticles compared to fibers.[16],[17],[20]

This study showed that nano-silver particles reinforced with light-cured acrylic resin have more impact and transverse strengths by approximately 43.1%; this may be due to the flexibility of nano-silver reinforcement material to loads of fracture. This was similar to the study conducted by Ali et al.[18] and Serna et al.,[24] who concluded that both impact and transverse strengths were increased by the addition of fibers to the material or gamma irradiation.

This study showed that nano-silver particles reinforced with light-cured acrylic resin increased the deflection and modulus of elasticity. This was similar to the results of studies conducted by Smith et al.[27] and Ladizesky et al.[26] as the fibers play an important role as a cross-linking agent.


   Conclusion Top


The impact and transverse strength, and deflection and modulus of elasticity of acrylic denture base were improved by adding silver nanoparticles to the light-cured acrylic material.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Anusavice KJ Phillip’s science of dental materials. 11th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2003. p. 163-66.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Power JM, Sakaguchi RL Craig’s restorative dental material. 12th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2006. p. 514.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Callister WD Materials science and engineering: an introduction. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley; 1991. p. 117-32.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Winkler S Essentials of complete denture. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Year Back; 1998. p. 85-110.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Debby MS Effect of processing method on the dimensional accuracy and water sorption of acrylic resin dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1999;16:32-41.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Meng TR Jr, Latta MA Physical properties of four acrylic denture base resins. J Contemp Dent Pract2005;6:93-100.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Jagger DC, Allen SM, Harrison A An investigation into the transverse and impact strength of “high strength” denture base acrylic resin. J Oral Rehab 2002;29:263-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Memon MS, Yunus N, Razak AA Some mechanical properties of a highly cross-linked, microwave-polymerized, injection-molded denture base polymer. Int J Prosthodont 2001;14:214-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Strong AB Plastic materials and processing. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Prentice Hall; 1996. p. 143.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Jagger DC, Harrison A, Jandt KD The reinforcement of dentures. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26:185-94.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Rawis HR, Star J, Kasten FH, Murray M, Smid J, Cabbas I Radiopaque acrylic resins containing miscible heavy metal compounds. Den Mat J 1990;6:250-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Jon J, Gang Adhar SA, Shab I Flexural strength of heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate denture resin reinforced with glass, aramid or nylon fibers. J Prosthet Dent 2001;80:424-27.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Craig RG Restorative dental materials. 11th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2002. p. 99-101.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Fletcher M, Rubenstien J, Raigrodski A, Mancl L Shear bond strength of denture teeth to heat and light polymerized denture base resin. J Prosthodont 2011;20:52-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Lowe LG Flexible denture flanges for patients exhibiting undercut tuberosities and reduced width of the buccal vestibule: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2004;92:128-31.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Nicolais L Metal polymer monocomposites. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Machado C, Sanchez E, Azer SS, Uribe JM Comparative study of the transverse strength of three denture base materials. J Dent 2007;35:930-3.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Ali IL, Yunus N, Abu-Hassan MI Hardness, flexural strength, and flexural modulus comparisons of three differently cured denture base systems. J Prosthodont 2008;17:545-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Jorge JH, Giampaolo ET, Vergani CE, Machado AL, Pavarina AC, Carlos IZ Cytotoxicity of denture base resins: effect of water bath and microwave postpolymerization heat treatments. Int J Prosthodont 2004;17:340-4.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Lin YH Behavior of Nao5 Bio5 Tio3-based composites incorporating silver particles. J Amer Ceram Soci 2004;87:P742-45.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Lu J Synthesis and dielectric properties of novel high-K polymer composites containing in-situ formed silver nan-particles for embedded capacitors application. J Mat Chem 2006;10:1029-45.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
American Dental Association Specification no 12 for denture base polymer. J ADA 1975;90:451-58.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
British Standard Institute Specification no 771 for acrylic denture base materials. London, UK: BSI; 1984.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Senna MH, Abdel-Aziz AM, Osama AB Characterization of gamma irradiation acrylic denture resins. Egy Dent J 2003;73;126-31.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Stavros Y, Alcibiades S, Gregory P, Andreas A Acrylic resin fiber composite part II: the effect of polymerization shrinkage of polymethyl methacrylate applied to fiber roving on transverse strength. J Prosthet Dent 2002;71:613-19.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Ladizesky NH, Chow TW, Cheng YY Denture base reinforcement using woven polyethylene fiber. Int J Prosthodont 1994;7:307-14.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Smith LT, Powers JM, Ladd D Mechanical properties of new denture resins polymerized by visible light, heat, and microwave energy. Int J Prosthodont 1992;5:315-20.  Back to cited text no. 27
    



 
 
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    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
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    References
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