Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April-June 2018
Volume 10 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 55-108

Online since Monday, June 4, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Polycystic ovarian syndrome–related depression in adolescent girls: A Review p. 55
Saleha Sadeeqa, Tehreem Mustafa, Sumaira Latif
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_1_18  
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrinal disorder of reproductive age characterized by heterogeneous complications, is nowadays prevailing among females at adolescent stage. Infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods, excess hair growth, acne, and obesity can occur in women with PCOS. In adolescents, infrequent or absence of menstruation may raise chances for this condition. The increased prevalence of PCOS among general population throughout the world is found to be 5%–10% in the women of reproductive age, and about 40% women with PCOS experience depression, particularly young girls. The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications. Depression and anxiety are common in women with PCOS but are often overlooked and therefore left untreated. Along with the physical disturbances, many mental problems are also associated with PCOS. Therefore, PCOS not only has problems associated with reproduction but also has associated crucial metabolic and psychological health risks with increasing age of the patients. Because of the increased number of cases with PCOS around the world in present times, with prominent symptom of, specifically, depression at the adolescent stage, it is important to highlight the disease.
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Electrochemical oxidability of antioxidants: Synergism and antagonism in mixes p. 60
Natalia Sazhina, Evgenii Plotnikov, Elena Korotkova, Elena Dorozhko, Olesya Voronova
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_203_17  
Aims: To investigate electrochemical oxidability of antioxidants to reveal synergistic and antagonistic effects in mixes. Materials and Methods: Electrochemical oxidability of some widely used antioxidants, including uric acid, glutathione, trolox, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, Mexidol, and potassium fenozan, was investigated by the amperometric approach. Results: All obtained electrochemical oxidability values correlate well with antioxidant activity parameters of the same compounds measured by other methods. The measurements of the electrochemical oxidability for binary mixes of substances were tested to reveal any synergistic actions. The experimental results and calculated values overlap for various combinations of tested mixes. It testifies to the absence of interaction between them (both synergism and antagonism) in the oxidation process. Conclusions: The constants of oxidation were defined for different antioxidants and mixes by amperometric approach. Most mixes of probed compounds revealed absence of interaction between them in oxidation process. In some cases (mainly with glutathione and ascorbic acid), antagonism takes place, deteriorating effects of their joint application. Apparently, a partial reduction of glutathione by ascorbic acid leads to excess of the measured value over calculated value.
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Protective effect of Rheum turkestanicum against cisplatin by reducing oxidative stress in kidney tissue p. 66
Azar Hosseini, Sahar Fanoudi, Hamid Mollazadeh, Azita Aghaei, Mohammad Taher Boroushaki
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_9_18  
Background: Cisplatin is used as chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of some solid tumors. It causes different side effects such as nephrotoxicity because of increasing oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species production. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Rheum turkestanicum on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into four groups (six each). Group I received normal saline (1mL/day, intraperitoneally [i.p.]). Group II received a single dose of cisplatin (8mg/kg, i.p.). Groups III and IV received extract at doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, i.p., respectively, for 3 consecutive days, 1h before a single dose of cisplatin only at the first day. Blood samples were taken for measuring the level of urea and creatinine. Furthermore, 24-h urinary factors such as glucose and protein were measured. Histopathological observation was carried out on kidney sections. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey–Kramer post hoc test for multiple comparisons. Results: Cisplatin increased the lipid peroxidation, serum creatinine, serum urea, urinary glucose, and urinary protein, whereas decreased the content of thiol in kidney. The extract reduced serum creatinine, serum urea, urinary glucose, urinary protein, lipid peroxidation, and increased thiol following cisplatin administration. Histological studies revealed lower lesions in kidney in the extract-treated groups compared to cisplatin-treated one. Conclusion: This research showed the extract has protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This observation may be related to antioxidant properties of the extract.
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Pharmacoepidemiological observational study of antimicrobial use in outpatients of ophthalmology department in North Indian population p. 72
Hina Kauser, Deepti Chopra, Shoma Mukherjee, Pooja Mohan
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_255_17  
Background: Recognition of drug usage patterns provides the basis for improving safety and plummeting risks associated with their use. Thus, this study was undertaken to explore the drug usage pattern in ophthalmology with an emphasis on antimicrobial use at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India for 9 months. Newly registered patients visiting the Outpatient Department for curative complaints were included. All drugs prescribed were recorded, including dose, route, dosage form, frequency of administration, indications for prescription, and duration of therapy, and the data was audited using the indicators prescribed by the World Health Organization. Result: A total of 600 prescriptions were analyzed. The number of drugs prescribed was 1097 with an average drug per prescription being 1.8. The most common disorders diagnosed were infective conjunctivitis (21.5%) followed by stye (5.5%). Drugs were prescribed in different dosage forms with eye drops (72.6%) being the most common. Drugs were predominantly prescribed by brand name (100%). Antimicrobials (44.7%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs followed by lubricants (17.5%). Moxifloxacin (53.5%) was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent. Of the antimicrobials prescribed, 89.6% were prescribed topically. Average total cost per prescription was 113 INR. Conclusion: The study concludes with an overall impression of rational prescription in terms of prescribing in consensus with the recommended treatment protocol of ocular diseases. Nevertheless, health-care professionals should be encouraged to prescribe by generic name. Creating awareness regarding selection of drugs from essential drug list to reduce the drug cost is the need of the hour. Last but not least, updating knowledge regarding appropriate antimicrobial use and the development of discreet strategies for their use should be implemented to steer clear of antimicrobial resistance.
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Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental and medical interns toward toothbrush maintenance and replacement in Bhubaneswar city, Odisha, India p. 77
Gunjan Kumar, Alok Kumar Sethi, Ranjan Mani Tripathi, Pratik , Diplina Barman
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_22_18  
Background: Toothbrushes are an important medium for maintaining good oral hygiene, and hence there arises a need to maintain and replace toothbrushes at a regular interval. Assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of the medical and dental interns would help the society in promoting oral hygiene in a broader aspect. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 759 medical and dental interns residing in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The data on oral health KAP were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was evaluated using SPSS software package, version 19. Results: Of 759 participants, 445 were dental interns and 314 were medical interns. Knowledge about toothbrush maintenance was seen to be more in the dental interns. The attitude toward maintenance was seen to be better among the dental interns compared with the medical interns. The practice of toothbrush maintenance was seen in both the groups but more dominantly in the dental interns. Conclusion: Education regarding the effective use and maintenance of the toothbrush would help improve the KAP toward toothbrush maintenance and replacement. The lack of knowledge holds back the attitude of properly maintaining the toothbrush in a regular basis.
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In vitro antilithiatic potential of Kalanchoe pinnata, Emblica officinalis, Bambusa nutans, and Cynodon dactylon p. 83
Atul K Sohgaura, Papiya Bigoniya, B Shrivastava
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_18_18  
Objective: The study aims at the exploration of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal growth inhibition potential of Cynodon dactylon, Emblica officinalis, Kalanchoe pinnata, and Bambusa nutans ethyl acetate fraction rich in polyphenol and flavonoid. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction was separated from the hydromethanolic extract of C. dactylon, E. officinalis, K. pinnata, and B. nutans followed by quantitative analysis for total polyphenol and flavonoid content. Ethyl acetate fraction of all the plants were subjected to in vitro screening for the inhibition of CaOx crystals growth induced by sodium oxalate. Results: The results signify rich presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in K. pinnata and E. officinalis ethyl acetate fractions followed by C. dactylon and B. nutans. Ethyl acetate fractions of B. nutans shoot, E. officinalis fruit, and K. pinnata leaf have excellent in vitro CaOx crystal growth inhibition potential based on both the comparative concentration and the time level to achieve IC50. Conclusion: The study outcome substantiates potential in vitro CaOx crystal dissolution and crystal growth inhibition properties of E. officinalis, B. nutans, C. dactylon, and K. pinnata. Rich presence of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and luteolin in ethyl acetate fraction of B. nutans leaf, and chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin of E. officinalis may have produced prominent crystal aggregation inhibition response.
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Adverse drug reactions attributed to fondaparinux and unfractionated heparin in cardiovascular care unit: An observational prospective pilot study in a tertiary care hospital p. 90
Sahithi Sharma, Shubhatara Swamy, Anupam Bhambhani, Pratibha Nadig
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_17_18  
Introduction: This study was carried out to collect and analyze the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported with use of anticoagulants, heparin and fondaparinux. These drugs are vital in the treatment of unstable coronary artery diseases and emergencies. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with active reporting of ADRs from cardiology and medicine department was conducted. The type of reaction was assessed by Rawlins and Thomson criteria, causality by Naranjo probability scale, severity by modified Hartwig criteria, and preventability by Schumock and Thornton criteria. Result: Of the 67 patients observed, 16 showed ADRs. Fifteen reactions were attributable to unfractionated heparin and one to fondaparinux following assessment by the Naranjo causality scale. Severity of the ADRs assessed by modified Hartwig criteria showed that although 12 of 16 (75%) were mild, 4 (25%) were moderate in severity. Modified Schumock and Thornton criteria showed that 9 of 16 (56.25%) reactions could not have been prevented whereas 5 (31.25%) were probably preventable and 2 (12.5%) were definitely preventable. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs with fondaparinux was lower than with heparin, hence emphasizing its better safety profile. The study also highlights the need for nurses and other caretakers in the coronary care unit to enquire for and report ADRs, particularly with high-potency medicines that are associated with an equally high potential to induce ADRs.
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Emerging biocide resistance among multidrug-resistant bacteria: Myth or reality? A pilot study p. 96
Priyanka Gupta, Mohit Bhatia, Pratima Gupta, Balram J Omar
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_24_18  
Context: Possible linkage between biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a major area of concern. Aim: To evaluate the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria to four commonly used biocides. Settings and Design: A pilot study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from April to November 2017. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four MDR bacterial isolates, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, were obtained from various clinical samples of inpatients. These isolates were subjected to tube dilution method for determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four commonly used biocides in our hospital, namely 5% w/v povidone iodine, absolute ethanol (99.9%), sodium hypochlorite (4% available chlorine), and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) (3.39%). Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of these biocides was determined as per standard guidelines. Similar tests were also performed on corresponding American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains. Statistical Analysis: The Fisher exact test. Results: Twenty-two MDR bacterial isolates had higher MIC values for QACs than their corresponding ATCC strains. Statistically significant difference in proportion of test isolates exhibiting higher MIC values for QACs and absolute ethanol was observed (P-value = 0.02). Twenty-four MDR bacterial isolates exhibited higher MBC values for sodium hypochlorite than their corresponding ATCC strains. The difference in proportion of test isolates exhibiting higher MBC values for sodium hypochlorite and absolute ethanol, respectively, was statistically significant (P-value <0.0001). The difference in proportion of test isolates exhibiting higher MBC values for absolute ethanol versus QACs and povidone iodine, respectively, was statistically significant (P-values = 0.0003 and 0.0076). Statistically significant differences in susceptibility to biocides among test isolates were also observed. Conclusion: Emergence of biocide resistance among MDR bacteria poses a serious threat to our efforts in containing outbreaks of nosocomial infections.
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Eosinophilia in advanced HIV infection with hyperinfection syndrome: A case report p. 102
Pratima Gupta, Ruchi Dua, Mohit Bhatia, Puneet K Gupta, Neelam Kaistha
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_217_17  
Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth that occurs almost worldwide, yet estimates about its prevalence are not well documented. The spectrum of clinical manifestations of strongyloidiasis is wide, ranging from asymptomatic disease to hyperinfection or dissemination of larvae involving multiple organ systems. Immunosuppression can increase the risk of hyperinfection syndrome in patients with strongyloidiasis. Strongyloidiasis continues to remain a neglected tropical disease, the diagnosis of which is often overlooked by clinicians and diagnosticians alike. The paucity of published literature from India further accentuates this problem. We hereby present a case report with the aim of elucidating this relatively underreported infection.
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Lab on a Chip: Conquer disease at the earliest p. 106
Gibson S T Daniel, Manigandan Thiruppathy, Nalini Aswath, Sankar R Narayanan
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_210_17  
Oral cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the world, accounting for numerous deaths annually. The 5-year survival rate remains approximately 50% for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the past several decades. Early detection plays a vital role in the survival rate of the patients. There is no accurate, cost-effective, and reliable method for the screening of patients with OSCC. Hence, many patients are diagnosed at advanced stages. Early detection would, therefore, help to identify patients and modify treatment with close monitoring. Lab on a Chip or micro-total-analysis systems are one of the microfluidics technologies that are defined as adaptation, miniaturization, integration, and automation of analytical laboratory procedures into a single device or “chip.” This technology assures the replacement of complicated techniques with miniaturized, integrated, programmed, and economical diagnostic devices. Hence, this system provides a means for rapid, automated, molecular analysis of cancer cells.
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