Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 155-220

Online since Thursday, September 14, 2017

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Novel pathogens in periodontal microbiology p. 155
K Vidya Hiranmayi, K Sirisha, MV Ramoji Rao, P Sudhakar
Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease caused by complex interactions between distinct pathogens in a biofilm resulting in the destruction of periodontal tissues. It seems evident that unknown microorganisms might be involved in onset or progression of periodontitis. For many decades, research in the field of oral microbiology failed to identify certain subgingival microbiota due to technical limitations but, over a period of 12 years using molecular approaches and sequencing techniques, it became feasible to reveal the existence of new periodontal pathogens. Therefore, it is evident that in addition to conventional periodontal pathogens, other microbes might be involved in onset and progression of periodontitis. The novel pathogens enlisted under periodontal phylogeny include Cryptobacterium curtum, Dialister pneumosintes, Filifactor alocis, Mitsuokella dentalis, Slackia exigua, Selenomonas sputigena, Solobacterium moorei, Treponema lecithinolyticum, and Synergistes. The polymicrobial etiology of periodontitis has been elucidated by comprehensive techniques, and studies throwing light on the possible virulence mechanisms possessed by these novel periodontal pathogens are enlisted.
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α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of selected Malaysian plants p. 164
Dzatil Awanis Mohd Bukhari, Mohammad Jamshed Siddiqui, Siti Hadijah Binti Shamsudin, Md. Mukhlesur Rahman, Siti Zaiton Mat So'ad
Diabetes is a common metabolic disease indicated by unusually high plasma glucose level that can lead to major complications such as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. One of the effective therapeutic managements of the disease is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia through inhibition of α-glucosidase, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme to retard overall glucose absorption. In recent years, a plenty of research works have been conducted looking for novel and effective α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) from natural sources as alternatives for the synthetic AGI due to their unpleasant side effects. Plants and herbs are rich with secondary metabolites that have massive pharmaceutical potential. Besides, studies showed that phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, glycosides, and phenolic compounds possess significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme. Malaysia is a tropical country that is rich with medicinal herbs. In this review, we focus on eight Malaysian plants with the potential as AGI to develop a potential functional food or lead compounds against diabetes.
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Risk versus benefit: Who assesses this in the management of patients on ototoxic drugs? p. 171
Katijah Khoza-Shangase
The current paper is an attempt at highlighting important strategic indicators, as well as important variables, that the audiology community needs to consider in order to play a more central role in pharmaco-vigilance as part of pharmaco-audiology. Pharmaco-vigilance is an important aspect of pharmacological treatment of disease. In developing countries, where burden of disease is high with resource constraints dictating healthcare priorities; it is important to deliberate on risk/benefit of medications prescribed to treat disease. In the form of a literature review, the author presents current arguments with regards to audiology practice. In audiology, pharmaco-vigilance in the form of ototoxicity monitoring is gaining momentum within the South African research and clinical communities. This ototoxicity monitoring is however non-systematic, non-comprehensive, and does not seem to have a strategic plan behind it. This is fundamentally due to lack of involvement of audiologists in the risk/benefit evaluation of medications during the drug development and monitoring process. The current paper agues for an expanded role of the Audiologist which will ensure collaborative engagement with all relevant stakeholders in order to ensure that both quantity and quality of life are considered during the drug development and monitoring process.
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Increased risk of osteoporosis in depressive patients with erectile dysfunction: A cross-sectional study from Malaysia p. 178
Abdul Rahman Fata Nahas, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
Background: Depression imposes numerous changes on depressive men, promoting for low bone mineral density (BMD) and erectile dysfunction (ED), yet no published data on exploring the possible association between these two disorders among depressive men. We therefore investigated whether low BMD is associated with ED among depressive men and highlighted the possible mutual underlying factors that might give rise to these two disorders in this specific group of patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 119 depressive men were recruited and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained. Erectile function was evaluated using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. All patients received a calcaneal BMD scanning. Chi-square test was conducted to determine if a significant association exists between ED and low BMD. Results: Of the study participants, ninety patients reported ED, while 29 patients reported no ED. Within the ED group, there was a significantly higher proportion of patients with low BMD compared to the non-ED group (85.6% vs. 62.1%, P = 0.006). In addition, among younger participants (i.e., aged <50 years old), the difference in T-score between ED patients (Md = −2.2, n = 41) and non-ED patients (Md = −1.3, n = 20) was significant (P = 0.001); but held no significance among older participants. Conclusions: While our findings are considered prefatory, we reported that low BMD was significantly associated with ED in depressive men and that only among young depressive patients, BMD was significantly lower in ED patients compared to non-ED patients. More research investigating these findings and the possible underlying mechanisms for such association are warranted.
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Glycosides based standardized fenugreek seed extract ameliorates bleomycin-induced liver fibrosis in rats via modulation of endogenous enzymes p. 185
Amit D Kandhare, Subhash Laxmanrao Bodhankar, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad A Thakurdesai
Background: Liver fibrosis a complex process of excess collagen deposition resulted in disturbance of hepatic cellar function. Glycosides based standardized fenugreek seed extract (SFSE-G) has potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fibrotic properties. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of SFSE-G against bleomycin (BLM)-induced liver fibrosis in laboratory animals. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats (180–220 g) were assigned to various groups, namely, normal, sham, BLM control, SFSE-G (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, p.o.), methylprednisolone (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and sildenafil (25 mg/kg, p.o.). Liver fibrosis was induced in various groups (except normal and sham) by single intratracheal BLM (6 IU/kg) injection. Various biochemical, molecular (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and histological parameters were evaluated. Results: Intratracheal BLM administration caused significant induction (P < 0.001) of hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis reflected by elevated levels of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total as well as direct bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Administration of SFSE-G (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced (P < 0.001) levels of AST, ALT, and GGT and significantly increased (P < 0.001) the level of serum albumin. BLM-induced elevated liver oxidative stress and decreased total antioxidant capacity was significantly restored (P < 0.001) by SFSE-G (20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment. It also significantly inhibited BLM-induced alteration in liver Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) mRNA expression. SFSE-G treatment reduced histopathological alteration induced by BLM in liver. Conclusion: SFSE-G exerts its hepatoprotective potential via inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress and modulation of FXR mRNA expression thus ameliorates BLM-induced liver fibrosis.
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Oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers of Raichur City, Karnataka p. 195
B Vengal Rao, AM Suresh Babu, SK Kamalsha, M Sirisha Rao, K Karthik
Background: Oral health is a vital part of general health and is a valuable asset of every individual. The working population in India usually belong to the lower socioeconomic group. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 550 laborers of Gunj marketing yard of Raichur city. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO assessment form 1997. Simplified oral hygiene index (1964) was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 35.1 (± 8.02) years and the mean decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth, and decayed, missing, filled teeth was 2.06 (± 1.49), 0.76 (± 2.53), 0.13 (± 0.39), and 2.95 (± 3.02), respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was 85.7% and 93.5%, respectively. The oral hygiene status was poor in 45.9% of the study participants. Conclusion: This study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases and dental caries as well as a large proportion of unmet dental needs among these laborers.
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Effect of the inclusion nanocomplex formed of titanium tetrafluoride and β-Cyclodextrin on enamel remineralization p. 201
Thiago Isidro Vieira, Camila Nassur, Adílis Kalina Alexandria, Luciana Pomarico, Valeria Pereira Sousa, Lúcio Mendes Cabral, Ana Maria G Valença, Lucianne Cople Maia
Objective: Titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) is a topical agent used in the control of dental caries; however, it is highly acidic. To minimize this effect, cyclodextrins (CDs) are used. This study evaluated the in vitro potential of TiF4and β-CD on remineralization. Methods: Forty bovine enamel blocks were selected by microhardness and randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group): control (distilled and deionized water), 1% β-CD solution, 1% TiF4solution, and TiF4: β-CD solution. The blocks were subjected to a pH cycling regimen for 8 days. After that, samples were evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Data were assessed for normality and analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Results: Regarding CSMH, TiF4: β-CD was statistically superior to the control (P = 0.033), β-CD (P = 0.022), and TiF4(P = 0.006). SEM photomicrography revealed the titanium dioxide coating on slabs treated with TiF4and TiF4: β-CD. EDS assessment demonstrated the presence of titanium on the surface of slabs treated with TiF4and TiF4: β-CD. Conclusion: The solution containing the inclusion nanocomplex formed of TiF4and β-CD was able to reharden the enamel subsurface.
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Development and optimization of dispersible tablet of Bacopa monnieri with improved functionality for memory enhancement p. 208
Vaishali Tejas Thakkar, Amol Deshmukh, Lal Hingorani, Payal Juneja, Lalji Baldaniya, Asha Patel, Tosha Pandya, Mukesh Gohel
Introduction: The Bacopa monnieri is traditional Ayurvedic medicine, and reported for memory-enhancing effects. The Bacoside is poorly soluble, bitter in taste and responsible for the memory enhancement action. Memory enhancer is commonly prescribed for children or elder people. Objective: Poor solubility, patient compliance and bitterness were a major driving force to develop taste masked β-cyclodextrin complex and dispersible tablets. Materials and Methods: The inclusion complex of Bacopa monnieri and β-cyclodextrin was prepared in different molar ratios of Bacopa monnieri by Co-precipitation method. Phase solubility study was conducted to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrin on aqueous solubility of Bacoside A. The characterization was determined by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction study (XRD).Crospovidone and croscarmallose sodium were used as super disintigrant.The 32 full factorial design was adopted to investigate the influence of two superdisintegrants on the wetting time and disntegration time of the tablets. Conclusion: The result revels that molar ratio (1:4) of inclusion complex enhance 3-fold solubility. Full factorial design was successfully employed for the optimization of dispersible tablet of B. monnieri . The short-term accelerated stability study confirmed that high stability of B. monnieri in inclusion complex.
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Developing an integrated treatment pathway for a post-coronary artery bypass grating (CABG) geriatric patient with comorbid hypertension and type 1 diabetes mellitus for treating acute hypoglycemia and electrolyte imbalance p. 216
Atta Abbas Naqvi, Amna Shah, Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad
Introduction: The ailments afflicting the elderly population is a well-defined specialty of medicine. It calls for an immaculately designed health-care plan to treat diseases in geriatrics. For chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary heart disease, and hypertension (HTN), they require proper management throughout the rest of patient's life. An integrated treatment pathway helps in treatment decision-making and improving standards of health care for the patient. Case Presentation: This case describes an exclusive clinical pharmacist-driven designing of an integrated treatment pathway for a post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) geriatric male patient with DM type I and HTN for the treatment of hypoglycemia and electrolyte imbalance. Intervention: The treatment begins addressing the chief complaints which were vomiting and unconsciousness. Biochemical screening is essential to establish a diagnosis of electrolyte imbalance along with blood glucose level after which the integrated pathway defines the treatment course. Conclusion: This individualized treatment pathway provides an outline of the course of treatment of acute hypoglycemia, electrolyte imbalance as well as some unconfirmed diagnosis, namely, acute coronary syndrome and respiratory tract infection for a post-CABG geriatric patient with HTN and type 1 DM. The eligibility criterion for patients to be treated according to treatment pathway is to fall in the defined category.
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