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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 83-216

Online since Wednesday, April 15, 2020

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Hits and misses of bangladesh national health policy 2011 p. 83
Munzur-E- Murshid , Mainul Haque
National Health Policy (NHP) is a guiding principle for a country to identify the priority of health-care needs, resource allocations according to prioritization, and to achieve specific health-care goals. In addition, NHP is usually wide-ranging, all-inclusive plan that pursues each and every population to move on the road to better health. NHP targets to achieve universal health coverage and delivering quality health-care services to all at inexpensive cost, through a preemptive, protective, and prophylactic health-care program in all national and international developmental policy and planning. There are quite a few constituents that are valuable in executing health policy. These elements include novelty, technical compendium, communiqué, conglomerates, administration, supervision, and political awareness and promise. Health policies can be implemented at all levels of the government system. It helps in strengthening the overall health-care system of the country by effective public–private coordination and collaboration. In the year 1990, the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) tried to promulgate an NHP. Unfortunately, the attempt failed. The health-care system of the country operated without a policy until 2011. In the year 2011, the country’s first health policy was published by the GoB. Though the country has have achieved excellent progress in providing health care, but yet Bangladesh has a few critical challenges that need immediate attention. In this article, we will try to address the pros and cons of the Bangladesh NHP 1990 and the positive aspects and challenges of NHP 2011.
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Current topical trends and novel therapeutic approaches and delivery systems for oral mucositis management p. 94
Anmar Al-Taie, Athmar D Al-Shohani, Zahraa Albasry, Ataa Altaee
Oral mucositis (OM) is an extremely serious and challenging complication of chemoradiotherapy, which may limit the efficacy of cancer treatment. Complications related to OM include potential nutrition impairment, high economic burden, and negative impacts on patients’ quality of life. Current therapeutic options with local traditional pharmaceutical formulations are largely focused on controlling symptoms, and only few agents are available for treatment. Several local supportive and palliative agents are used for the prevention of OM; however, a standard treatment for the disease has not been confirmed yet. The efficacy of treatment could be improved through the introduction of new medical agents with updated dosage forms that can enhance and optimize local drug delivery and create greater therapeutic effects with fewer side effects. The focus of this review was to provide clear and direct information about the currently available topical therapeutic agents in clinical practice used to cure and/or reduce the incidence of ulcerative symptoms of OM, excluding the associated pain and other coexisting complications such as bacterial and fungal infections. The review also provides recent evidences regarding agents that could be used as promising novel therapies in updated local delivering systems. This will support further encouraging options and approaches for the management of OM and will improve compliance that could be translated in better disease control and survival.
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A systematic review on clinical implication of continuous glucose monitoring in diabetes management Highly accessed article p. 102
Anam Azhar, Syed W Gillani, Ghasna Mohiuddin, Rukhsar A Majeed
Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the clinical implications of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) among patients with diabetes mellitus using variables that include glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), estimated A1c, glucose variability, and users’ perspectives. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed 17 articles that were identified and studied according to the research question criteria. PRISMA guidelines were used for identification and screening of the literature. The required data were searched using Medscape, PubMed, PROSPERO, Wiley Library, Scopus, Clinical Trial Registry, and Trip. Results: The articles reviewed were on the use of CGM in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which showed significant improvement in the levels of HbA1c as compared to non-CGM. The application of CGM on acute sudden onset type of adverse drug reactions (i.e., hypoglycemia) is better than fasting blood sugar or self-monitoring of blood glucose or capillary blood glucose (random blood glucose monitoring). CGM is beneficial for use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus including elderly patients as it gives information regarding glucose variability as well as HbA1c levels. The health-care providers require full spectrum of patients’ CGM data to design a better therapeutic plan. However, the patients experienced inconvenience on wearing the device on the body for longer periods. The findings also stated the fact that more education and training is required for the patients to interpret their own glycemic data using CGM and modify their lifestyle accordingly. Use of CGM along with HbA1c has also been used to achieve better glycemic results and it allows the health care professional to guide patients in terms of their glucose level; whether they are hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic, however its use has some controversies that minimize its application. Conclusion: The study concluded that CGM has significant potential in the management of not only patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus but also patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in spite of the few limitations that are being improvised in the upcoming years. However, limited literature of CGM among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and pregnant women reduces the practice scope.
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Clinical review of acute, recurrent, and chronic pancreatitis: Recent updates of 2013–2019 literature p. 112
Noor Sadiq, Syed Wasif Gillani, Dalia Al Saeedy, Joud Rahmoun, Durah Shaban, Kholoud Kotait, Shahin Javaheri
The increasing prevalence of pancreatic disorders worldwide has provided challenges in its clinical care and management. This review was aimed to evaluate recent literature on diagnosis, treatment, and management of acute pancreatitis (AP), recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP), as well as chronic pancreatitis (CP) documented during the past 5–6 years. An extensive literature review was carried out based on studies within the last 6 years (2013–2019). Articles were selected based on updates and therapeutic management. Critical appraisal of literature was performed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT), and a PRISMA flowchart was used to avoid bias. The study identified recent updates on the prophylactic treatment in preventing RAP. The risk factors and the therapeutic management options were evaluated and discussed. The findings show that although many lifesaving new protocols are available for implementation in clinical practice, current literature lacks detailed and comprehensive guidelines that cover special populations and comorbidities. The literature evaluated showed that eight genes were involved in pancreatitis, CASR, CFTR, CLDN2, CPA1, CTRC, PRSS1, SBDS, and SPINK1, but the most common gene implicated was found to be CFTR, at 11%. Therefore, it is recommended that a comprehensive guideline should be formulated to facilitate the diagnosis, management, treatment, and prophylactic measures of pancreatic disease. This could in turn reduce disease complications and hospitalization time, and improve clinical practice for management of pancreatitis.
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Perspective, perceptions, and promulgation of biosimilars: A questionnaire-based study to assess and understand the current challenges of biosimilars to the potential and intended users p. 124
Krishan Kumar Bhardwaj, K Bangarurajan, Tanveer Naved, Satyendra Kumar Rajput
Introduction: Biosimiliar, a copy of reference biological product, is making a buzz across the globe for its upper edge therapeutic usage. According to the market research report published by P&S Intelligence, biosimilars market is expected to generate $26.7 billion revenue by 2024, advancing at a CAGR of 29.6% during the forecast period. The first biosimilar to medicine Omnitrope, was approved in Europe by EMA (European Medicines Agency) in year 2006. Till date countries like US, China, Japan, India and many more have generated regulatory guidelines for biosimilars. Aim: Current study addresses the issues and challenges faced by Industry and regulators with their potential solutions and recommendations. Materials and methods: The questionnaire having 21 important questions/comments was given to participants after explaining the purpose of the study. The response in terms of responders V/s non-responders, agree V/s disagree, yes V/s no was recorded and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results and Discussion: The study shows the limitation regarding the qualified personnel involved in biosimilars, as approx. 91% people believe that there is lack of expertise in this field. The same can be achieved through government initiatives for bridge courses which is also strongly felt by the major (83.6%) stakeholders participated in the study.
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Assessment of incidence, causality, severity, and preventability of suspected adverse drug reactions to antidepressant medications in a psychiatry outpatient setting of a secondary care hospital p. 131
Moza Salem Rashed Al Zaabi, Sathvik B Sridhar, Talaat Matar Tadross
Background: Antidepressant medications are primarily used in the management of depression and various anxiety disorders. Antidepressant medications are known to cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Reporting ADRs can help in the rational use of medication and better patient drug management. Objective: The aim of this study was to monitor the incidence and nature of ADRs to antidepressant medications in a psychiatric outpatient setting of a secondary care hospital of the UAE. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in the psychiatric outpatient setting of a secondary care hospital. Patients attending psychiatry outpatient department and prescribed with antidepressant medications were included. All clinical side effects or ADRs noted by physician and reported by patients were documented and assessed according to causality, severity, and preventability scales. Results: A total of 131 patients were screened for the presence or occurrence of ADRs. During the study duration, an aggregate of 29 patients reported at least one ADR. Incidence of suspected ADR to antidepressant medications was found to be 22.1%. Most commonly documented suspected ADR was found to be weight gain in eight (18.1%) patients followed by somnolence in four (9.1%) patients. Escitalopram was the most common drug implicated with ADR in 13 (29.6%) patients followed by fluoxetine in 6 (13.6%) patients. According to World Health Organization-The Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality assessment, the predominance of the suspected ADRs was of “possible” type in 27 (61%) patients, and “mild” in severity in 40 (91%) patients, and “not preventable” in 37 (84%) patients. A statistically significant association (P = 0.019) was observed only between the presence of drug-interaction and the occurrence of ADR (relative risk: 0.429, confidence interval: 0.211–0.872). Conclusion: Most of the suspected ADRs related to antidepressants were “mild,” “predictable,” and “not preventable” in nature. Continuous monitoring may help in identifying, reducing, and preventing the risk of ADRs.
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Development of high-performance thin layer chromatography method for identification of phenolic compounds and quantification of rosmarinic acid content in some species of the Lamiaceae family p. 139
Mariia Shanaida, Izabela Jasicka-Misiak, Ewa Makowicz, Natalia Stanek, Volodymyr Shanaida, Piotr P Wieczorek
Aim: Representatives of Nepetoideae Burnett subfamily are promising species of the Lamiaceae Martinov family because of accumulating such valuable groups of secondary metabolites as terpenoids and polyphenols. A high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint method for the qualitative determination of phenolic compounds and for the quantification of rosmarinic acid (RA) content in methanol extracts of five species of this subfamily was developed for the first time. Materials and Methods: Dried aerial parts of Dracocephalum moldavica L., Ocimum americanum L., Lophanthus anisatus (Nutt.) Benth., Monarda fistulosa L., and Satureja hortensis L. collected in flowering period were macerated with methanol. The HPTLC analysis was conducted using the CAMAG analytical system (Muttenz, Switzerland). The comparative analysis of RA contents was performed by HPTLC densitometric detection at λ = 366nm. Results: Identification of polyphenols in the investigated herbs was performed by comparison of a color and Rf of the chromatographic zones with six reference standards: rutin, apigenin, luteolin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and RA. HPTLC method was also validated for the quantification of RA in the extracts of investigated herbs. RA contents decreased in such a sequence: D. moldavica (24.83 ± 0.78mg/g) > M. fistulosa (20.32 ± 0.64mg/g) > O. americanum (19.59 ± 0.61mg/g) > S. hortensis (18.77 ± 0.52mg/g) > L. anisatus (12.61 ± 0.43mg/g). Conclusion: Obtained data can facilitate the differentiation of investigated species using the chromatographic fingerprints of their phenolic compounds. Developed and validated HPTLC method provides an approach to estimate RA content as a common marker of investigated herbs.
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Sinapic acid attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonism in rats p. 146
Hardevinder Pal Singh, Thakur Gurjeet Singh, Randhir Singh
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in renal protection offered by sinapic acid in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced by single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) in rats. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, urea, uric acid, potassium, magnesium levels, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats. Superoxide anion generation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, myeloperoxidase activity, and reduced glutathione levels were measured to assess oxidative stress in renal tissues. Hematoxylin and eosin stain showed renal histological changes. Results: The significant changes in serum and urinary parameters, elevated oxidative stress, and renal histological changes established the induction of nephrotoxicity. Sinapic acid treatment (20 and 40 mg/kg, orally [p.o.]) provides dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) nephroprotection against cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity in rats. Nephroprotective effect of sinapic acid was abolished by PPAR-γ inhibitor, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that PPAR-γ agonism serves as one of the mechanisms in sinapic acid-mediated renoprotection.
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Adverse drug reaction profile in Amravati region of India: A pharmacovigilance study p. 155
Kishor A Bansod, Mohammed Shakeel Mohammed Bashir, Shilpa S Ingle
Background: This pharmacovigilance study was conducted in Amravati region of central India to identify the nature and prevalence of adverse drug reactions, which will be helpful for better drug prescription practice and management of diseases. Materials and Methods: Adverse drug reaction reporting forms from April 2016 to March 2019, were collected from the pharmacovigilance center, which include details of demographics, investigations, concomitant drug history, and details of present complaints including reaction details, onset, recovery, drug information, hospitalization, management, and assessment. Results: A total of 19 cases were reported. Approximately 47.4% male and 52.6% female experienced the reactions with age-group ranging from 15 to 75 years. The most common adverse drug reactions were caused by antimicrobial agents (47.6%) followed by other group of drugs (37%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (15.9%). Polypharmacy was the most common cause (31.6%) with the most common route being intravenous (42.1%). Skin reactions were the most common (84.2%). Antitubercular drugs were more commonly responsible for exfoliative lesions, whereas paracetamol and unknown drugs were responsible for multiple ulcerative lesions. Reactions to antitubercular drugs were considered as possible (15.8%), whereas with other drugs (63.2%), it was probable. Conclusion: It is a tip of the iceberg, which provides important demographic details in which adverse drug reactions were reported. Cutaneous reactions due to common drugs are responsible for hospitalization of the patients. There is an urgent need of training for health-care providers so that reporting can be improved and better picture can emerge.
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Diamond–Blackfan anemia with mutation in RPS19: A case report and an overview of published pieces of literature p. 163
Dilshad Jahan, Md Maruf Al Hasan, Mainul Haque
Introduction: Diamond–Blackfan anemia (DBA), one of a rare group of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, is characterized by red cell failure, the presence of congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. It can be caused by mutations in the RPS19 gene (25% of the cases). Methods: This case report describes a 10-month-old boy who presented with 2 months’ history of gradually increasing weakness and pallor. Results: The patient was diagnosed as a case of DBA based on peripheral blood finding, bone marrow aspiration with trephine biopsy reports, and genetic mutation analysis of the RPS19 gene. His father refused hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for financial constraints. Patient received prednisolone therapy with oral folic acid and iron supplements. Conclusion: Hemoglobin raised from 6.7 to 9.8g/dL after 1 month of therapeutic intervention.
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The formulation of lozenge using black mulberries (Morus nigra L.) leaf extract as an α-glucosidase inhibitor p. 171
Arif Budiman, Ferry F Sofian, Ni Made W S Santi, Diah L Aulifa
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease, which possibly leads to kidney, brain, heart failure, and other organ complications, subsequently harming human health. These symptoms have been prevented using the leaf of black mulberry (BM), as a traditional medicine, because the phenolic compounds contained are able to decrease blood glucose concentration. Meanwhile, previous reports have shown that BM contains 1-deoxynojirimycin, with strong activity as an α-glucosidase inhibitor. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate and evaluate BM leaf extract in lozenge dosage form as an α-glucosidase inhibitor. Materials and Methods: The leaves of BM were extracted using the maceration method, where ethanol (70%) served as a solvent, and the inhibitory activity of the sourced α-glucosidase enzyme was determined through in vitro study. Subsequently, the extract was formulated into lozenge dosage form and evaluated for physical stability and also the effect of α-glucosidase enzyme. Results: The result showed an inhibitory activity of BM leaf extract against the enzyme α-glucosidase, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 357.6 μg/mL, whereas the lozenge formulation containing 43% of extract as well as 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone showed the best physical stability as compared to other formulas. However, the lozenge inhibits α-glucosidase enzyme with an IC50 value of 549.7 μg/mL. Conclusion: It was established that the lozenge of BM leaf extract possesses activity as an α-glucosidase inhibitor.
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The impact of community–pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process: Pharmacist–patient-centered medication reconciliation p. 177
Mohammad M AlAhmad, Iqbal Majed, Nour Sikh, Khozama AlAhmad
Background and Purpose: Patients and their healthcare providers’ are in need to access a correct and complete list of all patients’ active bills for safe and effective clinical care. Currently, Healthcare Information Systems are not providing a proper access to the patients’ medications lists. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of community pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process in community pharmacies in the UAE through applying a pharmacist–patient-centered medication reconciliation (PPCMR). Materials and Methods: This was an interventional study of medication reconciliation process in 25 pharmacies in the UAE during July 1, 2019 till September 1, 2019. The participant pharmacists were surveyed and interviewed to gather more information about the barriers and enablers of the process before and after the implementation of PPCMR. Results: After the implementation of PPCMR, medication reconciliation service was available in 84% of the pharmacies compared to 40% before the PPCMR (Z = –2.84, P = 0.005). The main workforce barriers to implement this service were reduced to 27% compared to 47% before the PPCMR. The operational barriers for the service were decreased from 56% to 28%. The facilitators in delivering the service in community pharmacies were improved from 29% to 63%. The active collaboration between the pharmacists and physicians was enhanced from 28% to 72% (Z = –3.2, P = 0.001) in the participated pharmacies. There is a statistically significant difference toward the impact of the PPCMR on the whole medication reconciliation service χ2(df = 3) = 200, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Community pharmacists are not always accessible or well placed to provide a medication reconciliation service. The implementation of PPCMR in each community pharmacy will raise the expectations regarding the appropriateness of medication management and use.
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Does Tribulus terrestris improve toxic effect of Malathion on male reproductive parameters? p. 183
Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Amir Abdolmaleki, Azita Faramarzi, Cyrus Jalili, Roshankhah Shiva
Background: Tribulus terrestris has antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging properties. Malathion is the most common organophosphate, which is capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance on some of male reproductive parameters. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of T. terrestris extract against damage induced by Malathion to the reproductive parameter of male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to eight groups: first group, sham group (normal saline); second group, Malathion (250 mg/kg) group; third to fifth groups, T. terrestris groups (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively); and sixth to eight groups, Malathion + T. terrestris groups (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg). Tribulus terrestris extract (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively) administrated orally, and daily for 8 weeks. The sperm parameters, testis malondialdehyde (MDA), serum total antioxidant capacity, serum testosterone level, and the height of germinal layer were evaluated and analyzed statistically. Results: All the values of male reproductive parameters reduced significantly in the Malathion group as compared to the sham group (P < 0.01) except MDA level, which increased significantly. The T. terrestris and T. terrestris + Malathion treatments in all doses increased the whole parameters significantly as compared to the Malathion group (P < 0.01) except MDA level, which decreased significantly. No significant changes were observed in all T. terrestris groups as compared to the sham group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Tribulus terrestris extract administration attenuates the toxic effects of Malathion on some of the male reproductive parameters.
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Phytochemical screening and enzymatic and antioxidant activities of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb) bark p. 192
Zubair Ahmed, Sohail Aziz, Muhammad Hanif, Syed Ghouse Mohiuddin, Sayed Hurmat Ali Khan, Rizwan Ahmed, Siti Maisharah Sheikh Ghadzi, Ahmad Naoras Bitar
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemicals screening of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb) bark and to analyze the enzymatic activities of its various organic fractions. Materials and Methods: Crude methanolic fraction of E. suberosa (Roxb) bark and its respective fractions were screened for the presence of different phytochemicals with different reagents. On the basis of increasing order of polarity, different organic solvents were used to obtain different fractions. Enzymatic studies were performed on crude methanolic extract of the plant. All the assays were performed under standard in vitro conditions. Results: The phytochemical analysis shows the presence of alkaloids, phenols, triterpenoids, phytosterols, and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are the major constituents of the plant. In anticholinesterase assay, the percent inhibition of standard drug (eserine) was 91.27 ± 1.17 and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.04 ± 0.0001. For α-glucosidase inhibition, the IC50 value for Dichloromethane fraction was 8.45 ± 0.13, for Methanol fraction it was 64.24 ± 0.15, and for aqueous fraction it was 42.62 ± 0.17 as compared with standard IC50 that is 37.42 (acarbose). Furthermore, results show that all fractions have potential against anti-urease enzyme, but DCM fraction of crude aqueous extract has significant IC50 value (45.26 ± 0.13) than other fractions. Conclusion: Keeping in view all the results, it is evident that the plant can be used in future for formulating effective drugs against many ailments. Secondary metabolites and their derivatives possess different biological activities, for example, .g. flavonoids in cancer, asthma, and Alzheimer. Furthermore, the extracts of this plant can be used in their crude form, which is an addition to the complementary and alternative treatment strategies.
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Effectiveness of color and picture labeling in improving the knowledge on topical medications among patients with psoriasis: A randomized controlled trial p. 201
Norazlima Mohd Ali, Lee Chin Chan, Nurul Shafaril Niza Mohd Akhir, Ahmad Syafiq Ahmad Izani, Chin Tho Leong, Jaya Muneswarao, Ashutosh Kumar Verma
Aim and Objective: The success of topical treatment in patients with psoriasis is still below par in Malaysia. The contributing factors include patients’ understanding and knowledge about prescribed topical medications. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of color and picture labeling (C and P labeling) in improving the knowledge about topical medications among patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: An unblinded randomized controlled trial was undertaken at the dermatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Consent from the patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were obtained, and they were included in this study. They were randomized into two groups, namely Gp-1 (C and P labeling) and Gp-2 (conventional labeling). Both groups were assessed at week 0, 6, and 12 (visit 1, 2, and 3) using knowledge assessment list and psoriasis severity assessment score. For visit 2 (week 6), reinforcement of their understanding of topical treatment was performed. Results: A total of 101 patients were recruited. Only 91 of them completed the study. The mean ages were 44.52 (±16.61) and 45.49 (±15.84) years, with 70.3% males and approximately half Malay ethnics. The changes of knowledge and comparison of Topical Application Assessment Score between the groups showed an incremental raise of significance with every visit (P = 0.006 [week 1], 0.004 [week 6], and 0.002 [week 12]). Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 75 could not draw any conclusion as patients who achieved >75% improvement were inadequate. Conclusion: C and P labeling was effective in improving the understanding and knowledge of patients with psoriasis. Both groups showed improvement in body surface area and Dermatology Life Quality Index for every visit; however, it was statistically insignificant.
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In vitro cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb) bark p. 210
Zubair Ahmed, Sohail Aziz, Syed Alauddin, Syed Ghouse Mohiuddin, Adil Javed, Rizwan Ahmed, Ahmad Naoras Bitar, Siti Maisharah Sheikh Ghadzi
Background: The study was focused on evaluating cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of Erythrina suberosa (Roxb.) bark through in vitro pharmacological screening. Materials and Methods: The bark was extracted using different solvents, for example, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous for obtaining the organic fractions. These organic fractions were then evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity compared with the standard. Cefixime was used as the standard for antibacterial assay, whereas clotrimazole was used as the standard for antifungal activities. Bacterial strains used were Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), whereas for antifungal activities Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei strains were used. Results: The organic fractions obtained were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. In cytotoxic assay (Brine shrimp lethality assay), dichloromethane fraction was the most potent with LD50 of 47.63, whereas aqueous, methanol, and ethyl acetate fractions showed LD50 of 121.74, 422.2, and 201.96, respectively. Similarly, for antibacterial assay, dichloromethane fraction showed 32.2mm zone of inhibition against MRSA in comparison with standard cefixime (zone of inhibition, 30.5mm). A minimal zone of inhibition with crude saponins (13.1 and 12.2mm) was observed against C. albicans in comparison to standard (cefixime) with a zone of inhibition of 28.5mm. No prominent results were observed against C. parapsilosis and C. krusei strains. Conclusion: The study was based on the plant from Indo-Pak origin, and it has shown some prominent cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Although the results of this study have provided a basic idea about the efficacy of plant extract, still more explanatory and high-scale studies can be beneficial for elaborating the cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of this plant.
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