Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2018
Volume 10 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 173-245

Online since Friday, November 23, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.): As an antidepressant p. 173
Mohammad J Siddiqui, Mohammed S M Saleh, Siti N B Binti Basharuddin, Siti H Binti Zamri, Mohd H bin Mohd Najib, Muhammad Z Che Ibrahim, Nur A binti Mohd Noor, Hanin N Binti Mazha, Norazian Mohd Hassan, Alfi Khatib
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_83_18  
Saffron, Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), is a perennial herb, which earned its popularity as both medicine and spice. It is an inhabitant of different mountainous regions of Asia Minor to Greece, Western Asia, Egypt, and India. The benefits of saffron as an antidepressant are well-documented. Almost 150 volatile and nonvolatile compounds are obtained from the chemical analysis of this plant. Fewer than 50 constituents elucidated and identified so far showed phytochemical characteristics. The major bioactive compounds identified are safranal, crocin, and picrocrocin, which are responsible for its aroma as well as its bitter taste. This review is an attempt to encompass the methods of analysis and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of saffron followed by its efficacious and safe potential.
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A review of the phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics of Moringa oleifera Highly accessed article p. 181
Ayon Bhattacharya, Prashant Tiwari, Pratap K Sahu, Sanjay Kumar
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_126_18  
Moringa oleifera is a valued medicinal plant in traditional folk medicine. Many pharmacological studies have shown the ability of this plant to exhibit analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticancer, antioxidant, nootropic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, anti-ulcer, cardiovascular, anti-obesity, antiepileptic, antiasthmatic, antidiabetic, anti-urolithiatic, diuretic, local anesthetic, anti-allergic, anthelmintic, wound healing, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and antidiarrheal properties. This review is a comprehensive summary of the phytochemical and pharmacological activities as well as the traditional and therapeutic uses of this plant. M. oleifera has wide traditional and pharmacological uses in various pathophysiological conditions. We will review the various properties of M. oleifera (drumstick tree) and focus on its various medicinal properties. We think that it is an attractive subject for further experimental and clinical investigations.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Impact of religiosity on subjective life satisfaction and perceived academic stress in undergraduate pharmacy students p. 192
Muhammad Tariq Aftab, Atta Abbas Naqvi, Aseel Fuad Al-karasneh, Syed Azizullah Ghori
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_65_18  
Objective: To evaluate the impact of religiosity on subjective life satisfaction and perceived academic stress in undergraduate pharmacy students. Materials and Methods: This 1-month descriptive study focused on pharmacy students of a public-sector university and used three survey questionnaires. The questionnaires included: the Duke University Religion Index to assess religiosity, Subjective Happiness Scale for documenting subjective happiness of life, and Perceived Stress Scale for evaluation of perceived stress due to academic load. The data were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Services software, version 22. Chi-square test, Pearson’s correlation, and logistic regression were used. Study was exempted from ethical review. Result: Subjective happiness was positively (+) correlated with non-organized religious activity and intrinsic religiosity (P < 0.01). Perceived stress score reported negative (–) correlation with organized religious activity (P < 0.05). Female students appeared more stressed (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Religiosity may enhance life satisfaction and may relieve academic stress in pharmacy students.
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Facial candling for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in young adults: A qualitative study p. 199
Nor Faizatul F Ismail, Chin Fen Neoh, Qi Ying Lean, Amir H Abdullah, Siong Meng Lim, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Rahul P Patel, Long Chiau Ming, Yee Chang Soh
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_33_18  
Aims: Facial candling is one of the traditional treatments that is claimed to be able to help in curing or reducing various allergy and inflammation conditions such as allergic rhinitis. We aimed to explore the perceptions of participants with allergic rhinitis toward their disease conditions and facial candling treatment. Materials and Methods: The study used a qualitative exploratory design, comprising 12 in-depth interviews. A semi-structured topic guide was used to explore all relevant aspects of the topic, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim. All the interviews were conducted in a few beauty salons in purposively selected city areas in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. Results: Of the 12 patients, seven (58%) reported a positive experience of facial candling treatment, with improvement in the condition of their allergic rhinitis. Specific themes about the experience of facial candling treatment that were identified within the transcript data included knowledge about facial candling, options for disease treatment, effectiveness of facial candling, sources of information, comparison, application of treatment, treatment budget, and safety. The major strength lies in the fact that reasons for using facial candling were uncovered from the perspectives of people with allergic rhinitis through the in-depth interviews. Conclusions: The motives of these participants for using facial candling are mainly due to cultural influence and its low cost of treatment. There were mixed responses from the participants about the usefulness of facial candling. Most of the respondents had not assessed the safety of prolonged use of facial candling and regarded it as a safe procedure as this has been practiced for generations.
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Formulation and evaluation of licorice shampoo in comparison with commercial shampoo p. 208
Mohammad Azadbakht, Taha Monadi, Zahra Esmaeili, Aroona Chabra, Naser Tavakoli
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_243_17  
Aim: Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra) or licorice with isoflavonoid, flavonoids, and triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) components are highly regarded in the cosmetic industry. This study has been planned as the first project for formulating a new herbal shampoo by utilizing the aqueous extracts of G. glabra. Materials and Methods: The dried powdered root of G. glabra was extracted with boiled water through percolation method, and the pH was set by ammonia; then it was used with other constituents to formulate the herbal shampoo. The desirability of licorice shampoo was evaluated by physicochemical tests including visual inspection, detergency evaluation, pH assessment, percentage of solid contents, viscosity, foaming volume, and wetting time and compared with a commercial shampoo. Also, the product was checked for microbial control and consumers were asked about the quality of the licorice shampoo. Results: The licorice shampoo has excellent cleansing ability, acceptable clarity, and viscosity. The volume of created foam and the wetting time were similar to the commercial shampoo. No microbial contamination was observed during the microbial control assessment tests. The licorice shampoo scored well on consumer’s poll and was free from complication and also able to obviate hair and scalp problems. Discussion and Conclusion: The results indicated that the consumers were satisfied with using the formulated licorice shampoo. Licorice shampoo seems to be helpful in obviation of hair problems, but specific investigations are required to prove this claim. The shampoo was safe from microbial contamination and showed acceptable results in physicochemical evaluations. Licorice shampoo could be useful in the treatment of many hair diseases, so further research is needed for discovering the potential of licorice shampoo.
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Use of oral cleaning devices and their perceived benefits among Malaysians in Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru: An exploratory structured approach p. 216
Shahid Mitha, Mohamed Hassan ElNaem, Jaganmohan Chandran, Nishakaran Pushpa Rajah, Tay Yi Fam, Muneer Gohar Babar, Mohammad Jamshed Siddiqui, Shazia Jamshed
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_296_16  
Background and Objectives: Various devices have been used to maintain oral hygiene. These include toothbrush and toothpaste, mouthwash, dental floss, miswak, and toothpick. This study attempts to investigate the use of various oral cleaning devices and their perceived benefits among Malaysians. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study conducted in two different cities of Malaysia. A convenience sampling approach was adopted. A total of 787 participants agreed to participate in the current research. A validated questionnaire translated into national language was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Results: About 302 respondents were in the age range of 18 – 25 years old (38.4%). There were marginally more females (55.7%) than males (44.3%). Although 99.9% of the participants used a toothbrush, a significant majority (n = 590, 75%) used more than a single device to maintain their oral hygiene. Only 311 respondents knew that toothpicks were inappropriate to use to remove food between teeth and gums, while a majority (n = 592, 75.2%) did not realize that some mouthwashes can stain the teeth. Less than half (42.1%) knew that improper use of miswak might harm the teeth. Conclusions: Although their oral hygiene behaviors are relatively at a higher level, their perceived oral health benefits did not compare well.
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Study on the perception of staff and students of a university on community pharmacy practice in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia p. 226
Allan Mathews, Abul Kalam Azad, Syed A Abbas, Farid Z Bin Che Rose, A B M Helal Uddin
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_80_18  
Background: In Malaysia, community pharmacies play an important and vital role in both urban and rural areas with approximately 30% of 12,000 registered pharmacists with annual retention certificate practicing in community pharmacies. The main objective of this study was to find the perception of respondents on the value and necessity of pharmacists. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was divided into two sections: the first section assessed the visits to community pharmacies, purpose, interaction with pharmacy staffs, professional fee, and improvements to pharmacy practices; the second section evaluated the characteristics of respondents including an e-consent form. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 11.5).Results: The highest number of respondents (66.1%) consulted with the pharmacists for cough and cold, 33.1% for gastric and stomach ailments, and 28.9% for diarrhea and constipation. Only 34% of cases were handled by the pharmacists, whereas 52.1% by the sales assistant. Approximately 88.5% showed satisfaction with the counseling provided. A total of 46.3% did not know whom they dealt with, whereas 51.2% wanted personal attention of the pharmacists instead of the sales assistants. However, 66.9% of respondents preferred to a private consultation room. Records of only 32.2% of respondents were secured by the pharmacies, whereas 42.1% showed interest to pay a professional fee. Moreover, 83.3% agreed the fee of RM5 only, whereas 20.8% agreed to RM10. Among the respondents, majority agreed to pay a fee willingly, but approximately 30% stayed neutral. Conclusion: There is a need for the community pharmacists to play vital roles firsthand at the front desk to serve the patients professionally instead of handing over the responsibilities to the sales assistant.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward food poisoning among food handlers and dietetic students in a public university in Malaysia p. 232
Aimi M Mohd Yusof, Nor A A Rahman, Mainul Haque
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_141_18  
Background: Food poisoning (FP) commonly occurs because of consuming contaminated food, which can be fatal. Many people are not aware of the dangers of FP. Thus, the purpose of this study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of FP among dietetic students (DS) and food handlers (FH) in a public university in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed, and a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 106 respondents. The survey comprised four sections including sociodemographic, knowledge, attitude, and practice. Results: Total percentage scores for KAP for FH were 86.06%, 32.40%, and 19.91%, respectively, whereas the KAP scores for DS were 89.36%, 34.26%, and 19.94%, respectively. This study revealed that the respondents had good knowledge but poor attitude and practice toward FP. Total mean percentage of KAP scores for DS was higher than FH. Besides, no significant difference was observed in KAP toward FP across different genders, age, education, and income levels among FH. However, for DS, significant difference (p = 0.008) was observed in knowledge toward FP between genders. Significant association (p = 0.048) was also reported in practice toward FP with age among DS. This study also found a significant association between knowledge and attitude (p = 0.032) and knowledge and practice (p = 0.017) toward FP among FH. Conclusion: Nevertheless, among DS, no significant association was observed between knowledge, attitude and practice toward FP. The findings may help them to plan effective methods to promote better understanding about FP and improving their knowledge and awareness.
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Lithium salts of Krebs cycle substrates as potential normothymic antioxidant agents p. 240
Evgenii Plotnikov, Elena Korotkova, Olesya Voronova
DOI:10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_140_18  
Objective: Aim of the present work was to study the antioxidant properties of lithium salts of Krebs cycle substrates and their influence on immune cells. Lithium is a well-known and widely used mood stabilizer. These lithium-based substances have a lot of potential properties because of the anionic component of the Krebs cycle substrates, which take part in basic intracellular biochemical process. Materials and Methods: Lithium salts of fumarate, pyruvate, malate, succinate, and citrate (as reference drug) were investigated in this study as antioxidants and immunomodulators. The antioxidant properties were studied by the voltammetry method, which evaluates oxygen radical scavenging capacity of lithium substances. Influence of the lithium compounds on the immune cells of human blood was indicated by the reaction of blast transformation of lymphocytes. Results: All tested substances and their mixes possessed antioxidant properties, more expressed in maximal therapeutic concentration. Lithium compounds showed no toxic influence on human blood immune cells and caused no significant changes in both spontaneous and stimulated proliferation. Conclusion: The results allow considering lithium salts of Krebs cycle substrates as potential normothymic agents (mood stabilizer) with antioxidant properties and low toxicity.
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