Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2018
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-53

Online since Tuesday, March 20, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Evaluation of bloodletting cupping therapy in the management of hypertension p. 1
Moawia M Al-Tabakha, Farah Tariq Sameer, Mai Hafiz Saeed, Rahaf Montaser Batran, Nada Tarek Abouhegazy, Alaa A Farajallah
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_242_17  PMID:
Background: Bloodletting cupping therapy (Hijama) is a traditional alternative medicine practiced in different cultures. Claims about the therapeutic efficacy of Hijama in hypertension are contradictory. The aim of this project was to determine if Hijama therapy is beneficial in the treatment of patients with hypertension. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 60 files for patients treated for hypertension, aged 40–60 years and whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) is at least 140mm Hg, were used. The data from 30 patient files were obtained from three licensed Hijama centers (study group), whereas data from the rest of 30 patient files were collected from a hospital (control group). The data from Hijama centers included age, date of Hijama therapy, and blood pressure measured before each Hijama session. Both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and SBP data were obtained over 3-month period. Results: The results showed a significant reduction in SBP (P value < 0.01) over three sessions of wet cupping (from 149.2 to 130.8mm Hg), but this was not significant for DBP over three sessions (P = 0.074). The study also found that the mean SBP in the study group was 9.6mm Hg less than that in the control group (130.8 vs. 140.4mm Hg, P = 0.019), whereas there was no significant difference in DBP between the study group and the control group (87.0 vs. 86.0mm Hg, P = 0.75). Conclusions: Our study shows clear relationship between Hijama and the reduction and control of SBP in patients with hypertension. Therefore, Hijama can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy, which may allow downtitration of given doses of antihypertensive drugs. The possible association of SBP reduction by Hijama and pain reduction needs an investigation.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients attending outpatient clinic in Kuantan, Malaysia p. 7
Nursyafiza B Mohammad, Nor Azlina A Rahman, Mainul Haque
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_227_17  PMID:
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death around the world including Malaysia. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the single largest cause of death in the developed countries and is one of the main contributors to the disease burden in developing countries. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding the risk of CVD in patients attending an outpatient clinic in Kuantan, Malaysia. A total of 100 patients comprising 52 male and 48 female subjects were selected through convenient sampling method. Results: Of the total subjects, 86% were Malays. The mean scores (standard deviation) for KAP were 60.75±4.823, 54.36±8.711, and 33.43±4.046, respectively, whereas the maximum scores obtained by the subjects for KAP were 71, 65, and 43, respectively. Regarding questions related to knowledge, 88% subjects knew irregular eating pattern can cause disease and the benefits of vegetable intake. Most subjects recognized that smoking and obesity were CVD risk factors. Regarding questions related to attitude, 96% agreed that exercise can prevent CVD. More than half of the subjects followed healthy lifestyle. There were statistically significant differences observed in knowledge level between sexes (P = 0.046) and races (P = 0.001). Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference observed in KAP across different education levels of the subjects regarding the risk of CVD (P-value = 0.332, 0.185, and 0.160, respectively). Conclusion: This study revealed that patients had good knowledge and attitude regarding CVD risk factors. Yet, the number of smokers is still quite high. Development of better public information system is essential for the well-being of the society.
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Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the ethanol and chloroform crude leaf extracts of Spathiphyllum cannifolium (Dryand. ex Sims) Schott p. 15
Arunachalam Dhayalan, Daniel E Gracilla, Renato A Dela Peña Jr, Marilyn T Malison, Christian R Pangilinan
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_95_17  PMID:
Context: The study investigated the medicinal properties of Spathiphyllum cannifolium (Dryand. ex Sims) Schott as a possible source of antimicrobial compounds. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical constituents were screened using qualitative methods and the antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined using agar well diffusion method. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance and Fisher’s least significant difference test were used. Results: The phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, and tannins in both ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts, but triterpenes were detected only in the ethanol leaf extract. The antimicrobial assay revealed that the chloroform leaf extract inhibited Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas the ethanol leaf extract inhibited E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis only. The ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts exhibited the highest zone of inhibition against B. subtilis. The antifungal assay showed that both the leaf extracts have no bioactivity against Aspergillus niger and C. albicans. Conclusions: Results suggest that chloroform is the better solvent for the extraction of antimicrobial compounds against the test organisms used in this study. Findings of this research will add new knowledge in advancing drug discovery and development in the Philippines.
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Safety evaluation of various vector repellents in combination with deltamethrin in Wistar rats p. 21
Anitha Magesh, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan, Royapuram Veeraragavan Geetha, Anitha Roy
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_219_17  PMID:
Background: Vector repellents are used globally to avoid insect bites and control transmission of diseases. It is important to ensure safety levels of these compounds, although they are noxious to insects. Vector repellents when used in combination are known to bring additional benefits in getting rid of the harmful insects. Unfortunately, the safety levels of various vector repellents such as Deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), Depa (N,N-diethyl phenylacetamide), and Deb (N,N-diethylbenzamide) are not studied in combination with the widely used pyrethroid deltamethrin (Del). Materials and Methods: In this study, safety evaluation of various vector repellents by oral route in combination with Del was studied by assessing body weight and organ weight changes, hematological parameters, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats. Results: The results revealed significant changes in liver marker enzymes in Del, Deb, Del + Depa, and Del + Deet groups. Urea levels were significantly altered after treatment with various repellents and in combination with Del, except Deb-alone group. Hematological and rest of the biochemical parameters were found to be unaltered in all the treatment groups. Significant changes in the liver weight were found in Deb, Depa, Deet, Del + Deb, and Del + Deet groups. Conclusions: Taken together, the overall results of this study indicate that single, high oral dose of various insect repellents did not show any additive toxicity.
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Knowledge and attitude of health-care professionals toward adverse drug reactions reporting at King Saud Medical City p. 29
Khaja Moinuddin, Sheraz Ali, Amal Qadri Al-Aqqad, Sara Osama Salem, Maram Abdullah Al-Dossari, Abdullah Mohammad Ananzeh, Jaffer Bin Baqar
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_234_17  PMID:
Background: Health-care professionals across the globe are obligated to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The knowledge of ADRs and attitude of health-care professionals toward ADRs reporting is vital for patient safety. This study intends to investigate the knowledge of ADRs and attitude of health-care professionals toward ADRs reporting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted over a period of 3 months (September 2016 to November 2016) at King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study included 399 questionnaires submitted by health-care professionals. Results: A total of 399 questionnaires were submitted by health-care professionals, of which only 14.8% knew the term “ADR” and 55.1% of the respondents reported ADRs during their practice. A total of 93.8% of the respondents agreed that ADR reporting should be made mandatory for health-care professionals, and 94.5% agreed that it improves the patient safety. Conclusion: The findings generally indicate that health-care professionals in a tertiary care setting have low awareness regarding the term “ADR.” Lack of pharmacovigilance training, amount of workload, and legal liabilities are the main causes of underreporting. More than half of the respondents agreed that ADR reporting eventually improves patient safety.
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In vivo evaluation of the anticancer activity of the gemcitabine and doxorubicin combined in a nanoemulsion p. 35
Mayson H Alkhatib, Wafa S Alshehri, Faiza B Abdu
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_225_17  PMID:
Context: Doxorubicin (DOX) and gemcitabine (GEM) are anticancer drugs that were combined in a nanoemulsion (NE) to reduce their adverse side effects. Aim: To detect the antitumor activity of the combination formulas of GEM and DOX, loaded either in water (GEM+DOX-Sol) or in NEs (GEM–DOX combination/loaded NE [GEM+DOX/LNE]), in female Swiss albino mice inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Settings and Design: The anticancer assessment of the NE formulas was implemented in 200 mice, which were divided into 10 groups. Materials and Methods: It includes the detection of the change in body weight, analysis of the hematological and serum biochemical profiles, and study of the histopathologic alterations of the heart tissues. Statistical Analysis: One-factor analysis of variance was used. Results: Mice treated with GEM + DOX/LNE, which have an z-average of 155.38±2.33nm and zeta potential of −38.5±1.3 mV, recorded a considerable improvement in the mean survival time (MST), which was 60 days, as compared to the EAC control group, which has an MST of 28 days. It also restored the hematological and serum biochemical parameters toward normal values. Conclusions: The combination of GEM and DOX in NE has significantly diminished the cardiotoxicity of DOX and hematotoxicity of GEM while improving their antitumor properties.
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Initial response of human bone marrow–derived stem cells after contact with ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) material: An in vitro study on cell viability and interleukin-6 expression p. 43
Iwan B Anwar, Asep Santoso, Eko Saputra, Rifky Ismail, J Jamari, Emile van der Heide
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_70_17  PMID:
Introduction: Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a thermoplastic polymer useful in biomaterial applications, especially in orthopedic field. Yet, little is known concerning its initial effect on human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) after implantation. Materials and Methods: A cytotoxicity analysis was performed with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay after 24, 48, and 72h of incubation of hBMSC culture. Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability was measured with Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) formula. Results: All treatment groups showed a cell viability of >50% ranging from 78% to >100%. Lower expression of IL-6 of hBMSC compared to control group was found in 48h of incubation period. Conclusion: hBMSC showed high cell viability after initial contact with UHMWPE material. Modulation of IL-6 expression was present at the initial stage as a response to foreign material.
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Hypnotic effect of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea) on pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice p. 48
Azar Hosseini, Mohammad-Ali Sobhanifar, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Azita Aghaee, Hassan Rakhshandeh
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_215_17  PMID:
Objective: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of red cabbage and its fractions on sleeping behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The extract and its fractions were injected to mice and sleep duration as well as sleep latency were recorded. Furthermore, toxicity of the extract was determined both in vivo and in vitro. Results: The extract increased sleep duration at doses of 50–200mg/kg (P < 0.001). This observed hypnotic effect was comparable to that of diazepam (3mg/kg) (P < 0.001 in comparison with control group). Ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions could increase sleep duration (P < 0.001). The sleep latency was decreased by the extract (P < 0.001) and only ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.001). LD50 value for red cabbage extract was 2.4g/kg. There was no toxic effect on viability of cultured neuronal cells (PC12). Rotarod test results showed that there were no significant differences between the extract groups and the control group. Conclusion: The results suggest that red cabbage potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without any toxic effect. The main component(s) responsible for this effect is most likely to be intermediate polar agent(s) such as flavonoids, which are found in ethyl acetate fraction of this plant.
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