Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2014
Volume 6 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 63-136

Online since Thursday, March 20, 2014

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Molecular characterization of neuroprotective activities of plant based products could revive their utilization and lead discovery of new drug candidates for brain diseases p. 63
Muralidhar L Hegde
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Anti-helminthic drugs in recurrent apthous stomatitis: A short review p. 65
Shilpa Sharma, Fareedi Mukram Ali, Kedar Saraf, Anupama Mudhol
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common mucosal condition producing painful ulcerations in the oral cavity and considerable clinical morbidity. The etiology remains obscure, though local trauma, psychologic stress, hematinic deficiencies and immune dysregulation have been implicated. Though the primary goals of therapy are symptomatic relief of pain, the clinicians are aiming toward reducing the frequency, duration, number of ulcerations and increasing ulcer free periods with systemic drug therapy if topical medications appear ineffective. Levamisole, an antihelminthic drug has been tried with promising results in patients with severe RAS providing long-term benefits.
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A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones Highly accessed article p. 69
Garima Verma, Akranth Marella, Mohammad Shaquiquzzaman, Mymoona Akhtar, Mohammad Rahmat Ali, Mohammad Mumtaz Alam
The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones.
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Pros and cons of phospholipid asymmetry in erythrocytes p. 81
Aiswarya Sathi, Vidya Viswanad, TP Aneesh, B Anil Kumar
Phospholipids of erythrocyte are found as bilayer with choline containing phospholipid like phosphatidyl choline and sphingomylein in the outer layer and amine containing phospholipid like phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine in the inner layer. This arrangement is known as phospholipid asymmetry. Lipid asymmetry is maintained throughout the entire life span of red blood cell and is disturbed when cells enter into the stage of apoptosis. We here discuss some of the conditions in which phospholipid asymmetry of erythrocyte is maintained and disturbed and the various detection methods to check the distortion phospholipid asymmetry of it.
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Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts Highly accessed article p. 86
BN Ramesh, TK Girish, RH Raghavendra, K Akhilender Naidu, U. J. S. Prasada Rao, KS Rao
Background: Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. Objective: The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Results: Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Conclusions: Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease.
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Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties p. 92
Dibya Sundar Panda
Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation.
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The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats p. 97
Ali Neamati, Fariba Chaman, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. These results support the traditional belief on the about beneficial effects of V. officinalis in the nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand this protective effect.
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Barriers to and determinants of medication adherence among hypertensive patients attended National Health Service Hospital, Sunderland p. 104
Muhammad Umair Khan, Shahjahan Shah, Tahir Hameed
Background: Hypertension is a silent killer, a time bomb in both the developed and developing nations of the world. It is one of the most significant risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality resulting from target-organ damage to blood vessels in the heart, brain, kidney and eyes. Adherence to long-term therapy for chronic illnesses like hypertension is an important tool to enhance the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy. Objective: The two objectives of this study were to evaluate the extent and reasons of non-adherence in patients attended National Health Service (NHS) Hospital, Sunderland. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 4 months in the out-patient department of NHS Hospital. A total of 200 patients were selected randomly for this study. Morisky's Medication Adherence Scale was used to assess the adherence rate and the reason of non-adherence. Data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: The overall adherence rate was found to be 79% (n = 158). Adherence rate in females were low was compared with their male counterparts (74.7% vs. 85.7%). The higher rate of adherence was found in age group of 30-40 years (82%, n = 64). The major intentional and non-intentional reason of non-adherence was side-effects and forgetfulness respectively. Conclusion: Overall, more than three-fourth of the hypertensive participants were found to be adherent to their treatment. On the basis of factors associated with non-adherence, it is analyzed that suitable therapy must be designed for patients individually to increase medication adherence and its effectiveness.
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Valeriana officinalis L. for conscious sedation of patients submitted to impacted lower third molar surgery: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled split-mouth study p. 109
Marcos Luciano Pimenta Pinheiro, Carlos Eduardo Pinto Alcāntara, Márcio de Moraes, Eduardo Dias de Andrade
Introduction: Anxiety is one of the components of patient stress in the dental office and is recognized as one of the main factors that negatively affect treatment. The control of anxiety can be performed through conscious sedation, for which benzodiazepine is the drug of choice in dental practice, however present side-effects. Objective: The objective of the following study is to evaluate the efficacy of Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) for control of anxiety during the third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: A single oral dose of either Valerian (100 mg) or placebo was randomly administered 1 h before each surgical procedure to 20 volunteers between 17 and 31 years of age. Anxiety level was assessed by physiological parameters (blood pressure and heart rate [HR]) and the observation of signs. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square test, Friedman test, Wilcoxon test and effect size test were performed (P < 0.05). Results: According to the researcher's (80%) and surgeon's (75%) evaluations, the patients treated with Valerian were calmer and more relaxed during surgery. Valerian had a greater effect on the maintenance of systolic blood pressure and HR after surgery. Conclusion: Valerian was more effective at controlling anxiety than a placebo when used for the conscious sedation of adult patients submitted to impacted lower third molar surgery.
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A polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay based approach for diagnosis and differentiation between vaccinated and infected cattle with Mycobacterium bovis p. 115
Mohamed Sabry, Ahmed Elkerdasy
Background: In most African and Arabic countries tuberculosis (TB) causes great economic losses in bovine species and constitutes serious zoonotic problem. As the traditional diagnostic method delay the research because of low sensitivity and specificity, a rapid method of diagnosis is of outmost importance. Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the two rapid diagnostic methods of TB in cattle, further to differentiate between infected and bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated animals. Materials and Methods: Intradermal tuberculin test was applied to 300 cattle. Of these cattle, 15 cattle were vaccinated from cattle negative to tuberculin test with BCG. Blood samples were taken for lymphocyte separation to apply polymerase chain reaction (PCR) upon and for serum preparation for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) application, this blood collected from 65 cattle classified into three groups, viz. positive tuberculin test (35 animals), negative tuberculin test (15 animals), and vaccinated cow with BCG (15 animals). From blood samples lymphocytes were separated and the isolated lymphocytes were subjected to PCR and serum for ELISA application. Blood samples, specimens from lymph nodes and specific tissues were taken for PCR and for cultivation and isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Results and Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that PCR can be used as rapid efficient and accurate diagnostic test in detection of ruminant TB. Moreover, cattle's ELISA reading showed higher sensitivity in positive tuberculin animals. However, the differentiations between vaccinated and infected animals not clear by using a single antigen only.
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Desquamative gingivitis - A clinical sign in mucous membrane pemphigoid: Report of a case and review of literature p. 122
Shamimul Hasan
Gingival desquamation is a clinical sign in which the gingiva appears reddish, glazed and friable with destruction of the epithelium. Gingival desquamation may be the result of various disease processes in gingiva. Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), oral lichen planus and pemphigus vulgaris accounts for the major causes of gingival desquamation. MMP is a rare, chronic autoimmune blistering disorder characterized by subepithelial bullae. The condition frequently involves mucous membranes, with rare skin involvement. Oral cavity is mostly affected and desquamative gingivitis is the most common manifestation. Hereby, we present an interesting case of MMP manifesting as desquamative gingivitis, along with a brief review of the literature.
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Platelet rich fibrin and alloplast in the treatment of intrabony defect p. 127
Saurav Panda, Surendar Ramamoorthi, ND Jayakumar, M Sankari, Sheeja S Varghese
Periodontal regeneration is defined as the reproduction or reconstitution of a lost or injured part to restore the architecture and function of the periodontium. The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate the lost periodontal tissues caused by periodontitis. The most positive outcome of periodontal regenerative procedures in intra bony defect has been achieved with bone grafts. For complete regeneration, delivery of growth factors in a local environment holds a great deal in adjunct to bone grafts. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is considered as second generation platelet concentrate, consisting of viable platelets, releasing various growth factors. Hence, this case report aims to investigate the clinical and radiological (bone fill) effectiveness of autologous PRF along with the use of alloplastic bone mineral in the treatment of intra bony defects.
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Canagliflozin - Beginning of the journey p. 132
Sunil Kumar Pandey, Deepanjana Dass
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Platelet rich concentrates: A quick healer p. 133
BS Deepak, DB Nandini
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Negative animal studies published in Indian Medical Journal: Are they methodologically strong enough to conclude what they are concluding? p. 134
Jaykaran Charan, Deepak Saxena
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