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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-77

Online since Monday, May 15, 2017

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Estimation of guggulsterone E and Z in the Guggul-based commercial formulations using high-performance thin-layer chromatography p. 1
Pramod Kumar Sairkar, Anjana Sharma, NP Shukla
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.206225  
Background: Guggulsterone(GS) is a plant steroid and bioactive compound present in gum Guggul of Commiphora wightii. An Indian herbal medicine system “Ayurveda” has a long history of use of gum Guggul and plant extract of C. wightii as medicine for the treatment of various illnesses. Complex nature, low availability, and inconsistency of phytoconstituents make its analysis of difficult tasks. Aims: In this work, six different Guggul-based herbal formulations were examined for estimation of GS and their isomers(E and Z) through high-performance thin-layer chromatography technique. Materials and Methods: For that various concentrations of standard E-GS and Z-GS(50 ng–250ng/spot) with samples (20 μg/spot) were applied on silica gel coated aluminum plate and developed with the mobile phase of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid: methanol(6:2:1:0.5). The scanning was performed at 254nm wavelength and the absorbance(scan) spectrum of E-GS and Z-GS peak was generated at 200 nm–400nm wavelength range. Results and Conclusions: Rf value and scan spectrum pattern of the samples reveal that they contain either one form of GS(E-GS, Z-GS) or both. The quantity of E-GS and Z-GS within the samples was ranged from 0.230±0.0040–0.926±0.0168% to 0.537±0.0026–0.723±0.0177%, respectively.
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Modulatory effects of Decalepis hamiltonii extract and its compounds on the antioxidant status of the aging rat brain p. 8
Ramachandregowda Sowbhagya, Siddhaghatta Kariyappa Anupama, Dundaiah Bhagyalakshmi, Santosh Anand, Tekupalli Ravikiran
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.206219  
Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Decalepis hamiltonii(Dh) aqueous root extract and its compounds against age-related oxidative stress(OS) in the discrete regions of the rat brain. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats of 4-and 22-month-old were divided into control and six supplemented groups. The supplemented groups were orally administered with ellagic acid(EA), 4-hydroxyisophthalic acid(4-HIA), and Dh extract for 30days. Results: Age-related decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities was noticed. The hippocampus was found to be more vulnerable to OS as seen by the elevation in the OS markers. Supplementation of the Dh extract, EA, and 4-HIA was found to be effective in up-regulating the antioxidant status. However, the extent of up-regulation was more evident in Dh supplemented animals. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Dh extract and its compounds exhibit neuroprotective effects against age-related OS and can be used as a dietary therapeutic intervention for the treatment of neurological disorders.
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Moisture sorption–desorption characteristics and the corresponding thermodynamic properties of carvedilol phosphate p. 16
Ravikiran Allada, Arthanareeswari Maruthapillai, Kamaraj Palanisamy, Praveen Chappa
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.206216  
Aims: Carvedilol phosphate(CDP) is a nonselective beta-blocker used for the treatment of heart failures and hypertension. In this work, moisture sorption–desorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of CDP have been investigated. Materials and Methods: The isotherms were determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer at different humidity conditions(0%–90% relative humidity) and three pharmaceutically relevant temperatures(20°C, 30°C, and 40°C). The experimental sorption data determined were fitted to various models, namely, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller; Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer(GAB); Peleg; and modified GAB. Isosteric heats of sorption were evaluated through the direct use of sorption isotherms by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Statistical Analysis Used: The sorption model parameters were determined from the experimental sorption data using nonlinear regression analysis, and mean relative percentage deviation(P), correlation(Correl), root mean square error, and model efficiency were considered as the criteria to select the best fit model. Results: The sorption–desorption isotherms have sigmoidal shape–confirming to TypeII isotherms. Based on the statistical data analysis, modified GAB model was found to be more adequate to explain sorption characteristics of CDP. It is noted that the rate of adsorption and desorption is specific to the temperature at which it was being studied. It is observed that isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Conclusions: The calculation of the thermodynamic properties was further used to draw an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behavior. The sorption–desorption data and the set of equations are useful in the simulation of processing, handling, and storage of CDP and further behavior during manufacture and storage of CDP formulations.
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Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility p. 22
Erizal Zaini, Deni Wahyu, Maria Dona Octavia, Lili Fitriani
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.206218  
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), spectroscopy infrared(IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water(80:20) as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased(P<0.05) after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12±2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180min were 75.53±1.59, 82.34±1.23, and 104.75±0.96μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.
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Chromatographic isolation and spectroscopic identification of phytoconstituents of jujuba seeds(Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) p. 26
Md Manowwar Alam, Abuzer Ali, Mohammad Ali, Showkat R Mir
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.206217  
Background: The seeds of Zizyphus jujuba Mill.(Rhamnaceae) are astringent, aphrodisiac, tonic; used to cure cough, asthma, vomiting, burning sensation, biliousness, leucorrhoea, and eye infections in traditional systems of medicine. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of seeds of Z.jujuba was partitioned into petroleum ether and water soluble fractions. Isolation of compounds was performed by silica gel column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectral studies and chemical reactions. Results: Chromatographic separation of methanolic extract of seeds yielded three new phyto-constituents characterized as 3, 5, 7-trimethoxy-8, 3, 4, 5-tetrahydroxy flavone-6-oxy hexahydrobisabolene ether(4), 1, 9-dihydroxy tetrahydrogeranyl-8-oxy-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside(5) and terahydrogeranyl-8-oxy-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(2a→1b)-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl (2b→1c)-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl (2c→1d)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2d→1e)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(2c→f)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2f-benzoate(6) along with five known compounds, palmitoyl palmitoleoyl arachidoyl glyceride(1), tetratriacontenoic acid(2), palmitoyl oleoyl linolenoyl glyceride(3), hexanyl tetraglucoside(7) and pentasaccharide(8). Conclusion: This is the first report of saturated monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives from jujuba seeds.
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Evaluation of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage p. 33
R Sunil Kumar, Ramesh Balenahalli Narasingappa, Chandrashekar G Joshi, Talakatta K Girish, Ummiti JS Prasada Rao, Ananda Danagoudar
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.206215  
Objective: The present study aims to evaluate antioxidants and protective role of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage. Materials and Methods: The total and profiles of flavonoids were identified and quantified through reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using standard antioxidant assays. The protective role of C. tora extracts against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage was examined by electrophoretic and scanning electron microscopic studies, respectively. Results: The total flavonoid content of CtEA was 106.8±2.8mg/g d.w.QE, CtME was 72.4±1.12mg/g d.w.QE, and CtWE was 30.4±0.8mg/g d.w.QE. The concentration of flavonoids present in CtEA in decreasing order: quercetin>kaempferol>epicatechin; in CtME: quercetin>rutin>kaempferol; whereas, in CtWE: quercetin>rutin>kaempferol. The CtEA inhibited free radical-induced red blood cell hemolysis and cell membrane morphology better than CtME as confirmed by a scanning electron micrograph. CtEA also showed better protection than CtME and CtWE against free radical-induced DNA damage as confirmed by electrophoresis. Conclusion: C. tora contains flavonoids and inhibits oxidative stress and can be used for many health benefits and pharmacotherapy.
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Prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India p. 44
PS Rakesh, Jishnu Satheesh Lalu, K Leelamoni
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.206220  
Introduction: The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. Materials and Methods: Astructured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios(ORs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs). Results: Atotal of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke(adjusted OR 4.51[95% CI 1.66–12.22]). More than half of the study participants(56.3%) reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30days. Conclusion: Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.
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Assessment of perception, experience, and information-seeking behavior of the public of Ras Al-Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, toward usage and safety of complementary and alternative medicine p. 48
Sathvik Belagodu Sridhar, Atiqulla Shariff, Nour Al Halabi, Rand Sarmini, Lubab Arkan Harb
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_337_16  
Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the different types of complementary and alternative medicine(CAM) used, reasons for the use of CAM, and the perceptions, experience, and information seeking-behavior toward usage and safety of CAM by the general public of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Avalidated, self-administered, or interviewer-assisted survey questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data from 403 respondents satisfying inclusion criteria were collected and were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version24.0. Results: Amajority of the respondents(218[54.1%]) were females. The most commonly(210[52.1%]) used CAM among the study respondents was herbal medicine. Atotal of 91(22.6%) of the survey respondents mentioned that they receive conventional medications along with their CAM. Majority(213[52.9%]) of the survey respondents opted for CAM to prevent illness. Good number(208[51.6%]) of the survey respondents mentioned that CAM usage was beneficial in improving their health condition, and they(216[53.6%]) do believe it as safe and effective. However, a small group(26[6%]) of respondents reported side effects or complications with the use of CAM. Conclusion: Widespread use of CAM for different medical problems was evident in our study. Although majority of the CAM users believe it as safe and effective, CAM usage should be discussed with the health-care providers to understand the safety issues involved in the use of majority of CAM.
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Efficacy and tolerability of antihypertensive drugs in diabetic and nondiabetic patients p. 56
Maria Aslam, Mobasher Ahmad, Fizza Mobasher
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_308_16  
Objectives of the Study: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different classes of antihypertensive drugs in diabetic and nondiabetic patients(NDPs) with essential hypertension. Material and Methods: The study was conducted inMayo Hospital, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, and National Defence Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan,on 200 hypertensive patients with diabetes and 230 hypertensive patients without (Three hospitals) diabetes. Both male and female patients of age between 30 and 80years with systolic blood pressure(SBP) above 130mmHg and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) above 80mmHg were enrolled in the study. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors(ACEI), beta-blocker(βB), calcium-channel blocker(CCB), diuretics(D), angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB) as well as α-blocker classes of antihypertensive drugs were used. These drugs were used as monotherapy as well as combination therapy. The study was conducted for 4months(July–October). After 4months, patients were assessed for efficacy by monitoring blood pressure(BP) and tolerability by assessing safety profile on renal function, liver function as well as lipid profile. Results: Significant control in mean BP by all drug groups was observed in “both groups that is patients with diabetes and without diabetes.” The efficacy and tolerability data revealed that in diabetic patients with hypertension, the highest decrease in SBP and DBP was observed using monotherapy with ACEI, two-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus diuretic, ARBs plus diuretic, ACEI plus CCBs, three-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs plus diuretic, and four drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs plus diuretic plus βBs, ARB's plus CCBs plus diuretic plus βBs while in NDPs, monotherapy with diuretic, two-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs, ACEI plus βBs, three-drug combination therapy with βBs plus ACEI plus D was found more effective in controlling SBP as well as DBP. Adverse effects observed were dry cough, pedal edema, dizziness, muscular cramps, constipation, palpitations, sweating, vertigo, tinnitus, paresthesia, and sexual dysfunction. Conclusion: All classes of antihypertensives were found to control blood pressure significantly in both groups of patients that is diabetic patients with hypertesion and non-diabetic patients with hypertension.
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Prevalence, pattern, and correlates of alcohol misuse among male patients attending rural primary care in India p. 66
Sanghamitra Pati, Subhashisa Swain, Sandeep Mahapatra, Mohammad Akhtar Hussain, Sandipana Pati
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_325_16  
Background: There are limited data available on how the problem of alcohol use is detected in primary care setting in India. Particularly in Odisha, it has not been investigated yet. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of drinking, drinking patterns, and quitting behavior among the male patients visiting a primary health-care facility in a district of Odisha. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending community health center(CHC), Buguda in the state of Odisha, India, from December 1, 2014, to February 31, 2015. Patients above 18years of age, conscious, and willing to participate in the study were included in the study, while those with cognitive impairment and critically ill were excluded from the study. All eligible consecutive patients attending outpatient department of CHC were invited to participate while they came out after physician's consultation. Apilot study was conducted prior to the study. Informed verbal consent from each patient was obtained before the interview. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Indian Institute of Public Health, Bhubaneswar. Results: A total of 431patients were interviewed. Our study showed 38%(95% confidence interval[CI]: 33.5%–42.7%) of respondents were alcoholic and of those 60%(95% CI: 51.4%–66.5%) were hazardous drinkers. One in five patients had a history of alcoholics in their family, and a similar proportion of participants were heavy workers. Smokers were eight times(adjusted odds ratio[AOR] =7.56; 4.03–14.52) more likely to be alcoholics as compared to nonsmokers(P<0.001), whereas the prevalence of alcohol drinking was four times(AOR=3.94; 2.25–6.92) higher in smokeless tobacco users compared to nonusers. Conclusion: Focusing only on counseling and treatment services will not reduce the piling burden of alcohol use. It is important to target the environment that leads to such habits.
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CASE REPORT Top

Marfan syndrome p. 73
T Sivasankari, Philips Mathew, Ravi David Austin, Sakthi Devi
DOI:10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_326_16  
Marfan syndrome(MFS) is the autosomal dominant-inherited multisystem connective-tissue disorder, with a reported incidence of 1 in 10,000 individuals and equal distribution in both genders. The main clinical manifestation of this disorder consists of an exaggerated length of the upper and lower limbs, hyperlaxity, scoliosis, alterations in the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, and atypical bone overgrowth. Orofacial manifestations such as high-arched palate, hypodontia, long narrow teeth, bifid uvula, mandibular prognathism, and temporomandibular disorders are also common. Early diagnosis of MFS is essential to prevent the cardiovascular complications and treatment of orofacial manifestations, thus to increase the quality of life of the patient.
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