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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2014
Volume 6 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 221-302

Online since Thursday, October 16, 2014

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COMMENTARY  

Bisphosphonates and direct fracture healing: Area to be explored Highly accessed article p. 221
Tarun Goyal, Lata Goyal
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Mini review on tricyclic compounds as an inhibitor of trypanothione reductase p. 222
Suresh Kumar, Md Rahmat Ali, Sandhya Bawa
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142943  
Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are two most ruinous parasitic infectious diseases caused by Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. The disease affects millions of people all over the world and associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The review discuss briefly on current treatment of these parasitic diseases and trypanothione reductase (TryR) as potential targets for rational drug design. The enzyme trypanothione reductase (TryR) has been identified as unique among these parasites and has been proposed to be an effective target against for developing new drugs. The researchers have selected this enzyme as target is due to its substrate specificity in contrast to human analogous glutathione reductase and its absence from the host cell which makes this enzyme an ideal target for drug discovery. In this review we have tried to present an overview of the different tricyclic compounds which are potent inhibitors of TryR with their inhibitory activities against the parasites are briefly discussed.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Detection of AdeABC efflux pump genes in tetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from burn and ventilator-associated pneumonia patients p. 229
Maryam Beheshti, Malihe Talebi, Abdollah Ardebili, Abbas Bahador, Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142949  
Purpose: Acinetobacter baumannii is the most prevalent nosocomial pathogen which have been emerged in the past three decades worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of the AdeABC efflux pump genes, associated with tetracycline resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected from burn infection and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP). Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight A. baumannii isolates were collected from two different hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Tetracycline susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods according to the CLSI guidelines. The presence of adeSR, adeB, drug efflux system genes in resistant isolates was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was used as a chemical inhibitor agent to assess the contribution of AdeABC efflux pump in tetracycline resistance isolates. Results: Approximately 48% (47 out of 98) of isolates showed resistance to tetracycline which 14 (14.2%) isolates were corresponded to burn infection and the remaining 33 (33.8%) strains were isolated from VAP. All tetracycline resistant isolates have AdeABC in PCR assay. The reduction of tetracycline MICs by using 50 μg/ml CCCP were as follows: in 18 isolates 2-4 fold reduction in MICs, 26 isolates showed 8 fold reduction,1 isolate showed 16 fold, 1 isolate showed 32 fold and the remaining 1 isolate showed 128 fold reduction in MICs. Conclusion: The results showed significant correlation between tetracycline resistance and AdeABC efflux pump genes in resistant A. baumannii isolates.
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Pharmacological evidence for connection of nitric oxide-mediated pathways in neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning in mice p. 233
Puja Gulati, Nirmal Singh
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142951  
Introduction: Postconditioning (PoCo) is an adaptive phenomenon whereby brief repetitive cycles of ischemia with intermittent reperfusion instituted immediately after prolonged ischemia at the onset of prolonged reperfusion elicit tissue protection. PoCo is noted to exert a protective effect in various organs like heart, liver, kidney and brain. Various triggers, mediators and end effectors are suggested to contribute to the protective effect of PoCo. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of PoCo is poorly understood. Objectives: The present study has been designed to investigate the role of nitric oxide pathway in the neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning (iPoCo) employing a mouse model of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion-induced injury. Materials and Methods: Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) of 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was employed to produce ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced cerebral injury in mice. Cerebral injury was assessed in the terms of cerebral infarct, memory impairment and motor in-coordination. Brain nitrite/nitrate; acetylcholinesterase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and glutathione level were also estimated. Results: BCAO followed by reperfusion produced a significant rise in cerebral infarct size, memory impairment and motor incoordination. Further a rise in acetylcholinesterase activity and TBARS level along with fall in brain nitrite/nitrate and glutathione levels was also noted. iPoCo consisting of three episodes of 10 s carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion (instituted immediately after BCAO) significantly attenuated infarct size, memory impairment, motor incoordination as well as altered biochemicals. iPoCo-induced neuroprotective effects were significantly abolished by pretreatment of L-NAME, a nonselective NOS inhibitor. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the nitric oxide pathway probably plays a vital role in the neuroprotective mechanism of iPoCo.
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Coconut water assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles p. 241
Erusan Kuppan Elumalai, Karuppsamy Kayalvizhi, Simon Silvan
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142953  
Aim of the Study: The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials are an important aspect in nanotechnology. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using the coconut water (C. nucifera) as the reducing agent. The formation of Ag-NPs was characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), EDX, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Results: The synthesized Ag-NPs were predominately polydispersed. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticle in the face centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparicles was capped with bimolecular compounds which are responsible for the reduction of silver ions. Conclusion: The approach of green synthesis appears to be cost efficient, ecofriendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticle synthesis.
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RP-LC gradient elution method for simultaneous determination of thiocolchicoside, aceclofenac and related impurities in tablet formulation p. 246
Pradnya A Karbhari, Sneha J Joshi, Suvarna I Bhoir
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142955  
Objective: The aim of the present study is to develop a simple and precise HPLC method for simultaneous determination of thiocolchicoside, aceclofenac and related impurities in a tablet formulation and validate as per ICH guidelines. The aim of study extends to perform forced degradation study to trace the degradation pathways of potential degradant impurities. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved on a 4.6 mm × 100 mm, 3 μm C 18 column at 40°C with the mobile phase containing 0.1 M ammonium acetate buffer and methanol in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 . The UV detection was carried out at 257 nm. Results: Acelofenac, thiocolchicoside and their related compounds were well separated from each other with good resolution and symmetry factor without interference of excipients. The method for assay was linear in the range of 10-200 μg mL−1 for aceclofenac and 0.4 to 8 μg mL−1 for thiocolchicoside. Conclusion: The method was validated according to ICH guidelines and the acceptance criteria for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity, robustness, ruggedness and system suitability were met in all cases. The method was highly specific, as two related compounds of thiocolchicoside and nine related compounds of aceclofenac were well separated from each other. Stress study ensured the specificity of the method as the unknown degradation products formed during stress studies did not interfere with the determination of thiocolchicoside and aceclofenac, thus proving the stability indicating capacity of the method.
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Antimicrobial screening and one-pot synthesis of 4-(substituted-anilinomethyl)-3-(2-naphthyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives p. 253
Neelima Goel, Sushma Drabu, Obaid Afzal, Sandhya Bawa
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142956  
Aim: Synthesis of series of 4-(substituted-anilinomethyl-3-(2-naphthyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives (4a-4k) and their in vitro antifungal and antibacterial screening. Materials and Methods: A series of compounds (4a-4k) was synthesized through direct reductive amination of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde with various substituted aromatic amines using NaBH 4 in the presence of I 2 as reducing agent. The reaction was carried out in anhydrous methanol under neutral conditions at room temperature. The structures of synthesized compounds (4a-4k) were established on the basis of IR, 1 H and 13 C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Results: All 4-(substituted-anilinomethyl-3-(2-naphthyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives (4a-4k) were tested in vitro for antifungal and antibacterial activities against different fungal and bacterial strains. Most of the compounds exhibited considerable antifungal activity, but poor antibacterial activity against the test strains. Conclusion: In the series compound 4e, 4g, 4j, and 4k, showed excellent antifungal activity against the fungal strain Aspergillus niger (MTCC) 281 and Aspergillus flavus MTCC 277 (% inhibition in the range of 47.7-58.9).
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3D-QSAR study of benzotriazol-1-yl carboxamide scaffold as monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors p. 260
Obaid Afzal, Suresh Kumar, Rajiv Kumar, Manu Jaggi, Sandhya Bawa
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142957  
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to build up the 3D pharmacophore of Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor and to provide the basis to design the novel and potent MAGL inhibitors. Material and Method: A 3D-QSAR study on benztriazol-1-yl carboxamide derivatives as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors was successfully performed by means of pharmacophore mapping using PHASE 3.5 module of Schrφdinger-9.4. Result: The 3D-QSAR obtained from APRRR-105 hypothesis was found to be statistically good with r 2 = 0.9228 and q 2 = 0.871, taking PLS factor 4. The statistical significance of the model was also confirmed by a high value of Fisher's ratio of 82.8 and a very low value of root-mean-square error (RMSE) 0.2564. Another parameter which signifies the model predictivity is Pearson R. Its value of 0.9512 showed that the correlation between predicted and observed activities for the test set compounds is excellent. Conclusion: The study suggested that one H-bond acceptor, one positive center, and proper positioning of hydrophobic groups near the distal aromatic ring C are the crucial determinants for MAGL inhibition. Thus, it can be assumed that the present QSAR analysis is enough to demonstrate MAGL inhibition with the help of APRRR-105 hypothesis and will be helpful in designing novel and potent MAGL inhibitors.
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Gellan gum-based mucoadhesive microspheres of almotriptan for nasal administration: Formulation optimization using factorial design, characterization, and in vitro evaluation p. 267
Zaheer Abbas, Sachin Marihal
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142959  
Background: Almotriptan malate (ALM), indicated for the treatment of migraine in adults is not a drug candidate feasible to be administered through the oral route during the attack due to its associated symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. This obviates an alternative dosage form and nasal drug delivery is a good substitute to oral and parenteral administration. Materials and Methods: Gellan gum (GG) microspheres of ALM, for intranasal administration were prepared by water-in-oil emulsification cross-linking technique employing a 2 3 factorial design. Drug to polymer ratio, calcium chloride concentration and cross-linking time were selected as independent variables, while particle size and in vitro mucoadhesion of the microspheres were investigated as dependent variables. Regression analysis was performed to identify the best formulation conditions. The microspheres were evaluated for characteristics such as practical percentage yield, particle size, percentage incorporation efficiency, swellability, zeta potential, in vitro mucoadhesion, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction study, and in vitro drug diffusion studies. Results: The shape and surface characteristics of the microspheres were determined by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed spherical nature and nearly smooth surface with drug incorporation efficiency in the range of 71.65 ± 1.09% - 91.65 ± 1.13%. In vitro mucoadhesion was observed the range of 79.45 ± 1.69% - 95.48 ± 1.27%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results indicated a molecular level dispersion of drug in the microspheres. In vitro drug diffusion was Higuchi matrix controlled and the release mechanism was found to be non-Fickian. Stability studies indicated that there were no significant deviations in the drug content, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug diffusion characteristics. Conclusion: The investigation revealed promising potential of GG microspheres for delivering ALM intranasally for the treatment of migraine.
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Design and synthesis of quinazoline carboxylates against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, fungal pathogenic strains, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis p. 278
Theivendren Panneer Selvam, Arumugam Sivakumar, Padmavathi P Prabhu
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142960  
Aim: A novel series of ethyl 5-(4-substituted phenyl)-3-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-thiazolo[2,3-b] quinazoline-2-carboxylate 3a-3j, were synthesized, characterized by spectral, elemental analyses and screened for their in vitro antibacterial and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) activities. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined by agar well-diffusion and cup-plate agar diffusion methods and the anti-tuberculosis (TB) screening for test compounds were evaluated against MTB H37Rv strain by Resazurin assay. Results: Among the derivatives tested, most of the compounds were found to have potent activity against microbial strains. The structure-activity relationship point of view, introduced group that enhance the lipophilicity as well ester, substituted aromatic ring at thiazole quinazoline nucleus showed increasing antimicrobial and anti TB activity. The high level of activity shown by the compounds with electron withdrawing groups in the para position on the benzene ring (3 g) suggests that these compounds could serve as leads for development of novel synthetic compounds with enhanced antibacterial and anti TB activities. Conclusion: These results provide a further insight into the structural requirements for targeting thiazolo quinazoline carboxylate to develop potential new agents to combat TB treatment.
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In-silico docking based design and synthesis of [1H,3H] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridines as lumazine synthase inhibitors for their effective antimicrobial activity p. 285
Sunil L Harer, Manish S Bhatia
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142962  
Purpose: The imidazopyridine moiety is important pharmacophore that has proven to be useful for a number of biologically relevant targets, also reported to display antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral properties. Riboflavin biosynthesis involving catalytic step of Lumazine synthase is absent in animals and human, but present in microorganism, one of marked advantage of this study. Still, this path is not exploited as antiinfective target. Here, we proposed different interactions between [1H,3H] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine test ligands and target protein Lumazine synthase (protein Data Bank 2C92), one-step synthesis of title compounds and further evaluation of them for in vitro antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods: Active pocket of the target protein involved in the interaction with the test ligands molecules was found using Biopredicta tools in VLifeMDS 4.3 Suite. In-silico docking suggests H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction, charge interaction, aromatic interaction, and Vanderwaal forces responsible for stabilizing enzyme-inhibitor complex. Disc diffusion assay method was used for in vitro antimicrobial screening. Results and Discussion: Investigation of possible interaction between test ligands and target lumazine synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggested 1i and 2f as best fit candidates showing hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, aromatic and Vanderwaal's forces. Among all derivatives 1g, 1j, 1k, 1l, 2a, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2h, and 2j exhibited potent activities against bacteria and fungi compared to the standard Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole, respectively. The superiority of 1H imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine compounds having R' = Cl >No 2 > NH 2 at the phenyl/aliphatic moiety resident on the imidazopyridine, whereas leading 3H imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine compounds containing R/Ar = Cl > No 2 > NH 2> OCH 3 substituents on the 2 nd position of imidazole.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Effect of methotrexate conjugated PAMAM dendrimers on the viability of MES-SA uterine cancer cells p. 297
Samreen Khatri, Nandita G Das, Sudip K Das
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.142963  
The aim of this work was to synthesize methotrexate (MTX)-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendritic nanoconjugates and to study their effect on cell viability in uterine sarcoma cells. The amide-bonded PAMAM dendrimer-MTX conjugates were prepared by conjugation between the amine-terminated G5 dendrimer and the carboxylic groups of the MTX using a dicyclohexylcarbodiimide coupling reaction. The formation of conjugates was evaluated by ultraviolet (UV) and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy studies. The cell survival of MES-SA cells, a uterine sarcoma cell line, was evaluated in the presence of the dendrimer-MTX nanoconjugate, using appropriate controls. The UV and 1 H NMR study confirmed the formation of covalent bonds between the drug and the dendrimer. The cell viability study indicated that the nanoconjugates had significantly improved cell killing compared to the free MTX.
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