Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2016
Volume 8 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-81

Online since Wednesday, January 13, 2016

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EDITORIAL  

Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences p. 1
Shazia Qasim Jamshed
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.173860  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities p. 2
Mohd Javed Naim, Ozair Alam, Farah Nawaz, Md. Jahangir Alam, Perwaiz Alam
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171694  
Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy.
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Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting p. 18
Raka Jain, Arpita Verma
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.164293  
The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care.
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Statins and its hepatic effects: Newer data, implications, and changing recommendations p. 23
Jimmy Jose
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171699  
Hepatic adverse effects are one of the most commonly known adverse effects reported with statins. Frequently, fear of serious hepatic effects contributes to underutilization of statins as well as unnecessary discontinuation of its use among those indicated. There are changing data on the occurrence of these negative hepatic effects, recommendations on their actual risk, monitoring required, and safety of use in those with preexisting hepatic disorders. Based on reviewed literature, statins appear to be associated with a very low risk of true and serious liver injury. Unprecedented fears regarding hepatic adverse effects of statins among prescribers and patients can deny patients of the significant benefits of these agents. Routine periodic monitoring of liver function does not appear to detect or prevent serious liver injury and hence may not be indicated. But the potential of statins to cause significant and serious hepatic effects should not be overlooked in daily clinical practice. Statin use need not be avoided in patients with preexisting liver dysfunction such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, compensated cirrhosis, and compensated chronic liver disease if its use is clearly indicated. Physician's judgment based on the risk and benefit for an individual patient does matter when a strategy is chosen regarding the use of statins and monitoring patients while on statins.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of common urinary bacteria from asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria p. 29
Adebola Onanuga, Tamaradobra Laurretta Selekere
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171684  
Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria frequently occurs among all ages with the possibility of developing into urinary tract infections, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the etiologic organisms are essential for appropriate therapy. Thus, we investigated the virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common urinary bacteria in asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria in a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Clean catch mid-stream early morning urine samples collected from 200 asymptomatic University students of aged ranges 15–30 years were cultured, screened and common bacteria were identified using standard microbiological procedures. The isolates were screened for hemolysin production and their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined using standard disc assay method. Results: A total prevalence rate of 52.0% significant bacteriuria was detected and it was significantly higher among the female with a weak association (χ2 = 6.01, phi = 0.173, P = 0.014). The Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were most frequently encountered among the isolated bacteria and 18 (12.7%) of all the bacterial isolates produced hemolysins. All the bacterial isolates exhibited 50–100% resistance to the tested beta-lactam antibiotics, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole. The isolated bacteria were 85-100% multi-drug resistant. However, most of the isolates were generally susceptible to gentamicin and ofloxacin. The phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases was 9 (9.6%) among the tested Gram-negative bacterial isolates. Conclusions: The observed high proportions of multidrug resistant urinary bacteria among asymptomatic University students call for the need of greater control of antibiotic use in this study area.
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Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicines among pharmacy students of a Malaysian Public University p. 34
Shazia Qasim Jamshed, Muhammad Umair Khan, Akram Ahmad, Ramadan M Elkalmi
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171686  
Background:The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%). Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive.
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Evaluation of anti-malarial drugs' use in Fitche Hospital, North Shoa, Oromia Region, Ethiopia p. 39
Rosa Getachew, Wote Amelo, Eshetu Mulisa Bobasa
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.164294  
Objective: Retrospective evaluation of anti-malarial drugs' use in Fitche Hospital, North Shoa, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted using selected patients cards of 1-year (January 2012–January 2013 G.C) with anti-malarial agents from January 18 to 30, 2013. The sample size was calculated by using Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health care Organization criteria and sampling was done by using a systematic random sampling technique. Results: One hundred and twenty-five patient cards with anti-malarial drugs were reviewed of which 32.8%, 21.6%, 15.2% belongs to age range of 20–29, 10–19, and 30–39, respectively. Chloroquine prescription accounts for 50.4% from total anti-malarial drugs. 71.2% and 78.4% of patients received antibiotics and analgesics, respectively, with anti-malarial drugs. 77.6% of drugs were prescribed by generic name while the brand name was 22.39%. Conclusions: The study done in Fitche Hospital revealed that the use of anti-malarial agent was not in complete agreement with the current guideline of Ethiopia despite good practice.
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New fatty acid and acyl glycoside from the aerial parts of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster p. 43
Abuzer Ali, Mohammad Jameel, Mohammed Ali
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.164292  
Background: Phyllanthus fraternus Webster (Euphorbiaceae) is used to treat dyspepsia, indigestion, jaundice, dysentery, diabetes, influenza, kidney stones, urinary tract diseases, vaginitis, and skin eruptions in traditional systems of medicine. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of aerial parts of P. fraternus was obtained by soxhlation method. Isolation of compounds was done by silica gel column chromatography. Analytical thin layer chromatography was used to check the homogeneity of eluted fractions. The structures of isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectral studies and chemical reactions. Results: Phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of the aerial parts yielded a new fatty acid characterized as cis-n-octacos-17-enoic acid (5) and a new acyl tetraglycoside formulated as n-dodecanoyl-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2″→1‴)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2″→1‴)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2‴→1″″)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7) along with known compounds 1-pentacosanol (1), β-sitosteryl oleate (2), β-sitosteryl linoleate (3), stigmasterol (4) and palmityl glucuronoside (6).
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A study on the interactions of doctors with medical representatives of pharmaceutical companies in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of South India p. 47
Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Roopa P Nayak, R Sivaranjani
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171695  
Background: The promotional activities by medical representatives (MRs) of the pharmaceutical companies can impact the prescribing pattern of doctors. Hence, the interaction between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry is coming under increasing scrutiny. Objective: The primary objective was to assess the attitude of the doctors toward the interaction with the MRs of the pharmaceutical company. The secondary objective was to assess the awareness of the doctors about regulations governing their interaction with the pharmaceutical company. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. This study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire containing 10 questions between June and September 2014. The doctors working in the Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period was included. Results: A total of 100 pretested questionnaires were distributed, and 81 doctors responded (response rate 81%). 37% doctors responded that they interacted with MR once a week whereas 25.9% told that they interact with MRs twice a month. About 69.1% doctors think that MR exaggerate the benefits of medicines and downplays the risks and contraindications of medicine(P = 0.000). 61.7% doctors think that MR has an impact on their prescribing (P = 0.000). 63% doctors stated that they had received promotional tools such as stationery items, drug sample, textbooks or journal reprints from MR in last 12 months (P = 0.0012). Unfortunately, 70.4% doctors have not read the guidelines about interacting with the pharmaceutical industry or its representative (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Rather than forbidding any connection between doctors and industry, it is better to establish ethical guidelines. The Medical Council of India code is a step in the right direction, but the majority of doctors in this study have not read the guidelines about interacting with the pharmaceutical industry or its representative.
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Usage of complementary and alternative medicine among patients with chronic kidney disease on maintenance hemodialysis Highly accessed article p. 52
Aravapalli S. M. Arjuna Rao, D Phaneendra, Ch. Divya Pavani, P Soundararajan, N Vanitha Rani, P Thennarasu, G Kannan
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171692  
Aim: To determine the prevalence and the type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 200 CKD patients who were on MHD. The patients were subjected to a validated interviewer-administered questionnaire adopted from the National Health Interview Survey Adult CAM. The knowledge on CAM and its usage by the patients were assessed based on the responses given by the patients. Results: Of the 200 patients, 52 (26%) patients were identified to be using CAM therapy. The most commonly used CAM modality by these patients was Ayurveda both alone (30.4%) and in combination with other CAM modalities (23.2%), followed by acupuncture in 17.3% patients. CAM usage was high in the age range of 50–64 years (67%). Of the CAM users, 21% of patients were from a rural area; 16.5% of patients were from upper middle class, and 24% were on dialysis for 1–4 years. There was a statistically significant association between CAM usage and age, gender, place of living, socioeconomic status, and duration of dialysis (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The present survey provides the data on the usage of CAM among dialysis patients and adds to the increasing evidence about CAM use. Because many products are at risk to either accumulate or cause interactions with medication, a better education on the risks and benefits of the CAM therapy by the health care providers to the end stage renal disease patients is needed.
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Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of acid glycoside from Spondias mangifera fruit against physically and chemically challenged albino mice p. 58
Muhammad Arif, Sheeba Fareed, Md. Azizur Rahman
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171685  
Aim: Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of fruit Spondias mangifera (EEFSM) and its isolated compound (Sm-01) were evaluated. The structure of Sm-01 was also elucidated. Materials and Methods: EEFSM at two different doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (bw)/day and Sm-01 at dose of 10 mg/kg (bw)/day were screened for in vivo stress relaxant activity using anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression model and in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) model. The levels of Hb, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) along with organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide were estimated. The structure of Sm-01 was elucidated by spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry) and chemical analyses. Results: Sm-01 was structurally elucidated as propan-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6'→1")-β-D-glucofuranoside. It was found that EEFSM and Sm-01 significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and duration of stay on rotarod and normalized the levels of Hb, RBC, and WBC along with altered organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide. EEFSM and Sm-01 also exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL with obtained IC50of 0.32 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that extract and Sm-01 both possess significant stress relaxant and antioxidant activities favoring its use as adaptogens. The activities of the extract may be due to the Sm-01.
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A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients in Pakistan p. 64
Saeed ur Rashid Nazir, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Fahad Saleem, Sajid Bashir, Furqan Hashmi, Hisham Aljadhey
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171734  
Objective: This study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population attending outpatient clinics in Sargodha City, Pakistan. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey. T2DM patients attending a tertiary care institute in Sargodha, Pakistan were targeted for the study. The EuroQol EQ-5D was used for the assessment of HRQoL and was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Descriptive statistics were used for the elaboration of sociodemographic characteristics. The Chi-square test was used to depict the possible association between study variables and HRQoL. Where significant associations were noted, Phi/Cramer's V was used for data interpretation accordingly. SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Three hundred and ninety-two patients were approached for the study. The cohort was dominated by males (n = 222, 56.60%) with 5.58 ± 4.09 years of history of T2DM. The study highlighted poor HRQoL among the study participants (0.471 ± 0.336). Gender, marital status, education, monthly income, occupation, location and duration of the disease were reported to be significantly associated with HRQoL (P < 0.001). Conclusion: T2DM imposes a negative effect on HRQoL of the patients. Attention is needed to highlight determinants of HRQoL and to implement policies for better management of T2DM, particularly in early treatment phases where improving HRQoL is still possible.
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Identification and prevalence of tetracycline resistance in enterococci isolated from poultry in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria p. 69
Funmilola A Ayeni, Bamidele Tolulope Odumosu, Adekola E Oluseyi, Werner Ruppitsch
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171729  
Background: Tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in Nigeria both for human and animal infections because of its cheapness and ready availability. The use of tetracycline in animal husbandry could lead to horizontal transfer of tet genes from poultry to human through the gut microbiota, especially enterococci. Therefore, this study is designed to identify different enterococcal species from poultry feces in selected farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria, determine the prevalence of tetracycline resistance/genes and presence of IS256 in enterococcal strains. MaterialsandMethods: Enterococci strains were isolated from 100 fresh chicken fecal samples collected from seven local poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria. The strains were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, amoxycillin/claulanate, and of loxacin were performed by disc diffusion method. Detection of tet, erm, and van genes and IS256 insertion element were done by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results: Sixty enterococci spp. were identified comprising of Enterococcus faecalis 33 (55%), Enterococcus casseliflavus 21 (35%), and Enterococcus gallinarium 6 (10%). All the isolates were resistant to erythromycin (100%), followed by tetracycline (81.67%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (73.33%), ofloxacin (68.33%), vancomycin (65%), and gentamicin (20%). None of the enterococcal spp. harbored the van and erm genes while tet(M) was detected among 23% isolates and is distributed mostly among E. casseliflavus. IS256 elements were detected only in 33% of E. casseliflavus that were also positive for tet(M) gene. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that tetracycline resistance gene is present in the studied poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria and underscores the need for strict regulation on tetracycline usage in poultry farming in the studied location and consequently Nigeria.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Effectiveness of posthemodialysis administration of pregabalin (75 mg) in treatment resistance uremia pruritus p. 74
Tahir Mehmood Khan, Abdul Aziz, Amal K Suleiman
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171736  
Uremic pruritus (UP) is one of the complications faced by majority of the patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complex pathophysiology of UP, most of the anti-inflammatory and tropical lubricants often not provide a long lasting control over pruritus. Recently the uses of certain anti-epileptics are found to demonstrate promising relief to UP. To test the effect of 75 mg pregabalin in patients with treatment resistance pruritus. Data was prospectively collected from a patient with ESRD and suffering from treatment resistance pruritus. Intensity of pruritus was recorded using 5D-itching scale (5D-IS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Pre and post assessment was done for this patient, on initial assess the parathyroid hormone level of the patient was 70.5 pg/ml with a serum phosphate level of 2.61 mmol/L. Upon initial assess the VAS score was 8 and 5D-IS score was twenty. After the duration of four weeks of pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis, 5D-IS score reduced to 8 and VAS score move down to 3. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis was found to reduce the intensity of UP. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis can be another option to treat UP.
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LETTERS Top

Personalized medicine: A paradigm shift towards promising health care p. 77
Kalaivani Annadurai, Raja Danasekaran, Geetha Mani
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171732  
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Biostatistics teaching to the undergraduate medical students through research-oriented medical education posting program in a Teaching Medical Institute in Coastal Area of Pondicherry: An experience of a biostatistician p. 78
Senthilvel Vasudevan
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171693  
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Nanotechnology in medicine: Leads from Ayurveda Highly accessed article p. 80
Rohit Sharma, PK Prajapati
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.171730  
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