Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2009  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43--46

Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn


Naveen Goyal1, Sumitra Singh2, Surendra K Sharma2,  
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rajendra Institute of Technology and Sciences, Sirsa - 125 055, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar - 125 001, India

Correspondence Address:
Surendra K Sharma
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar - 125 001
India

Abstract

Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn.) sweet (Malvaceae) commonly called «SQ»Country Mallow«SQ» is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g) was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C), methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g), while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals«SQ» models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.



How to cite this article:
Goyal N, Singh S, Sharma SK. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn.J Pharm Bioall Sci 2009;1:43-46


How to cite this URL:
Goyal N, Singh S, Sharma SK. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Aug 24 ];1:43-46
Available from: http://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2009/1/1/43/62686


Full Text

Plants are an essential and integral component in the world of prescription medicine and have the ability to make various constituents like flavonoids, proteins, alkaloids, and steroids, which are in turn used to alleviate many diseases. A review has revealed that several plants possess analgesic activities, namely, Emblica officinalis Linn. (Fam. Euphorbiaceae), [1] Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Fam. Rutaceae), [2] Martynia annua Linn. (Myrtaceae), [3] Chenopodium album Linn. (Fam. Chenopodiaceae), [4] and many more. Abutilon indicum Linn. (Malvaceae) commonly called 'Country Mallow' is a perennial plant, up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract, in the hotter parts of India, and adjoining countries like Malaya, Philippine Islands, and Indo-China. The plant is used in traditional medicine in India, Pakistan, China, and the Philippines for treatment of several diseases such as, bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, and diarrhea. [5],[6],[7],[8]

Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, [9] hypoglycemic, [10] antimicrobial, [11] male contraceptive, [12] and antidiarrheal [13] activities. A large number of phytoconstituents have been isolated from different parts of Abutilon indicum Linn., namely, carbohydrates, essential oil, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids, amino acids, and sterols. [14],[15],[16] To determine the medicinal properties of the Abutilon indicum Linn. root, we investigated the analgesic activities of various extracts using standard animal models.

 Materials and Methods



Plant material

The fresh root of Abutilon indicum Linn. was collected from CCS HAU Campus, Hisar, India, in May 2004. Dr. M.P. Sharma, Taxonomist, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India, and Dr. H. B. Singh, Head, Raw materials, Herbarium and Museum Division, NISCAIR, New Delhi, India, conducted the botanical authentication. The root was air dried under shade and powdered in a grinding mill.

Preparation of extracts

The dried powdered root (900 g) of the plant was subjected to successive solvent extractions with solvents in an increasing order of polarity (Petroleum ether (60 - 80°C), methanol and ethanol) by using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted with water by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The extracts were distilled off and dried in a dessicator to obtain petroleum ether extract (3.1%), methanol extract (4.3%), ethanol extract (4.9%), and water extract (2.1%).

Phytochemical testing

The extracts were then subjected to preliminary qualitative tests to identify the phytoconstituents present in the root. It was observed that petroleum ether extract contained steroids and fatty acids, whereas, alcoholic and aqueous extracts contained steroidal saponins, flavonoids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Animals

Adult swiss albino mice of either sex, weighing between 20 - 30 g (supplied by Germ Free Animal House, CCS HAU, Hisar, India), were used in the study. All the animals were housed in a animal house of the institution and were handled in conformation with the ethical guidelines. Prior permission from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar, was obtained as per the prescribed guidelines. The animals were fasted for 18 hours prior to commencement of the experiment, but water was provided ad libitum.

Preparation of doses

All dried extractives were suspended in gum acacia solution (2%) and then they were dissolved in distilled water, to dispense the doses of the extract and standard drug. Aspirin (100 mg/kg) [17] and pentazocine (10 mg/kg i.p.) [18] (Vardhman Health Care, Mullana, India) were taken as the standard drugs for analgesic activity. Gum acacia solution dissolved in distilled water was taken as the control group.

Analgesic activity

The peripheral and central analgesic activity was assessed by the writhing method, [19] tail flick method, [20] and tail immersion method, [21] separately. Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g) were selected, weighed, and divided into 10 groups of six animals each. All these animals were fasted for 18 hours prior to commencement of the experiment, but water was provided ad libitum. Animals of group I received 2% gum acacia aqueous solution as the solvent. Animals of group II to IX received petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, ethanol extract, and water extract, respectively, at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, in a similar manner, and animals of group X received aspirin (100 mg/kg), for the writhing method, through the oral route, while for the tail immersion and tail flick method pentazocine (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered as a standard for evaluation of the central analgesic activity.

Animal models

Writhing test

Mice were made to writhe by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% v/v aqueous acetic acid (10 ml/kg). Test substances (petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, ethanol extract, and water extract; 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetyl salicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered 90 minutes before injection of acetic acid. The animals were kept under observation immediately after acetic acid injection and the number of writhes were counted for 20 minutes.

Tail flick method

Analgesia was assessed with a tail flick apparatus (Analgesiometer). Baseline latency (reaction time) was observed prior to drug (extract) treatment and half-hour, one hour, two hours, and three hours after drug (extract) administration.

Tail immersion test

Prior to the analgesic experiments, the animals were screened for a sensitivity test by immersing the tip of the tail gently in hot water (55°C - 55.5°C). The animals, which lifted the tail from hot water within 3 seconds, were selected for the study. The test samples were administered orally and the reaction time was measured at zero, half, one, two, and three hours.

Statistical analysis

Results are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Student's t-test was used to analyze the significance of the results.

 Results and Discussions



The petroleum ether extract, ethanol extract, and water extract of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. caused a significant (P Abutilon indicum Linn. are both centrally and peripherally mediated. The mechanism by which the inflammatory effect occurs is not fully understood. The inhibition of prostaglandin may not be the main factor, but may be one of the several possibilities. The ability of various extracts, in this study, to reduce the number of writhes and increase the reaction time to thermal stimuli confirms the analgesic properties, which may count for the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

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