Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   2009| October-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 23, 2010

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
High speed counter current chromatography: A support-free LC technique
Neha Sethi, Ankit Anand, Aarti Sharma, Kaushal K Chandrul, Garima Jain, Kona S Srinivasa
October-December 2009, 1(1):8-15
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.62680  
As separation of components is the major requirement of an analytical chemist, there is always a need for a convenient high throughput technique with minimum sample loss, high efficiency, high resolution, and ease of sample recovery, without contamination. This leads to the development of High Speed Counter Current Chromatography (HSCCC), in which the stationary phase is liquid instead of solid, and that provides a lot of advantages over other chromatographic techniques. In addition, advanced centrifugal partition technology is used to hold the liquid stationary phase in the column, while the liquid mobile phase is pushed through it, which provides high yield and purity. This review highlights the major applications of HSCCC that include extraction of medicinal drugs from plants and purification and isolation of active material, plant analysis, separation of rare earth elements, preparative-scale separations of chiral compounds, analysis of inorganic compounds and elements, drug discovery, and drug development. Separation of dipeptides and proteins, flavonoids, alkaloids, DNP amino acids, indole auxins, and so on, proves the versatile and dynamic nature of the technique.
  3 8,531 278
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Statistical optimization of process parameters influencing the biotransformation of plant tannin into gallic acid under solid-liquid fermentation
Bibhu Prasad Panda, Rupa Mazumder, Rintu Banerjee
October-December 2009, 1(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.62685  
Purpose : To optimize and produce gallic acid by biotransformation of plant tannin under solid-liquid fermentation. Materials and Methods : Optimization of different process parameters like temperature, relative humidity, pH of the liquid medium, fermentation period, volume of inoculum weight of substrate influencing gallic acid production from plant tannin were carried out by EVOP factorial method. Results : Maximum gallic acid yield of 93.29% was produced at 28ΊC, 70% relative humidity, pH 6, a 72-hour fermentation period, 3 ml inoculum volume, and 25 g substrate weight, from plant tannin under solid-liquid fermentation. Conclusion : Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxy benzoic acid), an important organic acid for synthesis of propyl gallate and trimethoprim, was produced by solid-liquid fermentation using Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 21498. Combination of Evolutionary operation, factorial design, and response surface methodology was applied successfully to elucidate the effect of different process parameters influencing biotransformation of natural tannin (powdered chebulic myrobalan fruit) to gallic acid.
  2 2,535 178
A survey for assessment of the role of pharmacist in community pharmacy services
H Sharma, D Jindal, M Aqil, MS Alam, S Karim, P Kapur
October-December 2009, 1(1):23-26
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.62682  
Objective : To assess the role of a pharmacist in a community setting and the consumer's perception in the National Capital Region. Setting : The study was conducted in the National Capital Region of India during the year 2003 - 2004. Materials and Methods : Four pharmacies were selected for this study, which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy-seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy. Results : A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It was observed that 46.7% of the consumers came for prescription medicines and 23.4% for over-the-counter medicines. Close to the general physicians' clinics and proximity to home were the most important reasons given for visiting a particular pharmacy. A majority of the consumers (n = 56, 72.7%) rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only one (1.3%) rated it as not useful at all and two (2.6%) consumers did not respond. Among the consumer groups 31 (40.3%) thought that the pharmacist had a good balance between health and business matters, 35.7% were of the opinion that the pharmacist was more concerned with making money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist was also interested in the health of his / her customers. The pharmacists were ranked at the top by 28 (36.4%) consumers, and favored pharmacy as the most convenient place to get advice about staying healthy. Conclusion : Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that a pharmacist is concerned with the health of the consumers, although he / she was also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware about the difference between a pharmacist and a doctor, most of them considered the pharmacist to be a doctor and this was the main problem in concluding that the pharmacy was the most convenient and best place for advice about staying healthy.
  2 3,688 275
Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 2-chloro-6-methylquinoline hydrazone derivatives
Sandhya Bawa, Suresh Kumar, Sushma Drabu, Rajiv Kumar
October-December 2009, 1(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.62683  
Purpose : A series of 2-chloro-6-methylquinoline hydrazones (3a-o) were synthesized by the condensation of substituted acyl hydrazines, semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide, and INH with 2-chloro-3-formyl-6-methylquinoline in absolute alcohol and were tested for antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods : The structures of compounds were established using modern analytical technique FT-IR, 1 H and 13 C-NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (NCTC 10418), Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 65710), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662). The compounds were also tested for antifungal activity aganist Aspergillus niger (MTCC 281), Aspergillus flavus (MTCC 277), Monascus purpureus (MTCC 369) and Penicillium citrinum (NCIM 768) by the cup-plate method. Results : It was observed that maximum antibacterial activity was shown by compounds having the 4-fluoro, 4-chloro, 4-nitro, and 2, 4-dicloro group in the benzoyl ring. Compounds were weakly active against fungal strains. Conclusion : Quinolinyl hydrazone of INH 3o was found to be most active toward the bacterial strains compared to their corresponding benzoyl derivatives.
  1 3,690 452
Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 2-chloroquinoline incorporated pyrazoline derivatives
Sandhya Bawa, Suresh Kumar, Sushma Drabu, Bibhu P Panda, Rajiv Kumar
October-December 2009, 1(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.62684  
Purpose : A series of 2-chloroquinoline containing pyrazoline derivatives having 3,4-dichloro/ 3,4-dimethoxy in the phenyl ring were synthesized and screened for their antimicrobial activity against a panel of bacterial and fungal strains. Materials and Methods : The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectral data obtained from the FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (NCTC, 10418), Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC, 65710), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC, 10662). The compounds were also tested for antifungal activity aganist Aspergillus niger (MTCC, 281), Aspergillus flavus (MTCC, 277), Monascus purpureus (MTCC, 369) and Penicillium citrinum (NCIM, 768) by the cup-plate method. Results : Among the compounds tested, 3,4-dichloro derivatives were comparatively more active in antimicrobial screening with respect to their 3,4-dimethoxy analog. Conclusion : A careful analysis of the antimicrobial activity data of the compounds revealed that compounds 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3e exhibited potent antibacterial
  1 3,672 563
REVIEW ARTICLES
Intellectual property: A strong determinant of economic growth
Munmun Rai, Love Kumar Singh, Aarti Sharma
October-December 2009, 1(1):1-7
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.62679  
The returns from almost all human endeavors can ultimately be translated into monetary gains. The past few years have seen increased attention paid to the strengthening of intellectual property rights due to globalization. The development of Intellectual property rights (IPR) over the years has invariably brought an upsurge in the outlook of nations toward the aspect of societal and cultural growth, this being said with the preliminary assumption that economic growth has been the most affected realm and that it requires a separate spectrum of analysis. The artifacts between the IP regime and the national economy can be easily interpreted by the fact that India's independence had itself brought an era where the enactment of the national IP laws were considered to stand on the touchstone of the market economy. The aim of the present article is to investigate the impact of a strong IP regime on the economic development of a nation and also a light is raised into Indian economy, and the creation of an efficient innovative system is discussed. A strong relation of the IPR with the pharma and biotech sectors has been discussed. Undoubtedly, the Intellectual property (IP) systems must be developed so as to bring in socioeconomic well-being. The fact that a strong IPR actually provokes IPR infringements in many developing nations also seems to be an issue that needs to be analyzed while understanding the need of the former. The trade-off between unfair competition laws and IP also assumes importance of high magnitude and hence needs to be particularly emphasized. With the growing recognition of IPR, the importance of worldwide forums on IPR has been realized. Companies, universities, and industries want to protect their IPR internationally. In order to reach this goal, countries have signed numerous agreements and treaties.
  1 4,893 295
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn
Naveen Goyal, Sumitra Singh, Surendra K Sharma
October-December 2009, 1(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.62686  
Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn.) sweet (Malvaceae) commonly called 'Country Mallow' is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g) was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C), methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g), while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals' models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.
  - 3,873 358
REVIEW ARTICLES
Molecular modeling
Aarti Sharma, Himanshu Gupta
October-December 2009, 1(1):16-22
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.62681  
The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.
  - 2,762 249
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