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   2013| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 23, 2013

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Development and evaluation of fixed dose bi therapy sublingual tablets for treatment stress hypertension and anxiety
Mohamed A El-Nabarawi, Saadia A Tayel, Nadia A Soliman, Hadel A Abo Enin
July-September 2013, 5(3):191-201
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116803  PMID:24082695
Objective: A stress induced rise in the blood pressure. Some believe that patients with hypertension are characterized by a generalized state of increased anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to prepare a fixed dose bi therapy using bisoprolol hemifumarate (BH) as antihypertensive drug and buspirone hydrochloride (BuHCl) as anxiolytic drug, which can be used to treat both diseases concomitantly. Using sublingual tablets is hopeful to improve the BuHCl poor oral bioavailability and to facilitate administration to patients experiencing problems with swallowing. Materials and Methods: A total of 5mg BH and 10mg BuHCl were selected based on compatibility study. A 3×22 full factorial design was adopted for the optimization of the tablets prepared by direct compression method. The effects of the filler type, the binder molecular weight, and the binder type were studied. The prepared formulae were evaluated according to their physical characters as hardness, friability, disintegration time (new modified method and in vivo disintegration time) and wetting properties. In vitro drugs dissolute, permeation through the buccal mucosa and the effect of storage were analyzed by a new valid high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Bioavailability study of the selected formula study was carried out and followed by the clinical. Results: The optimized tablet formulation showed accepted average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, disintegration time (less than 3 min). Maximum drug release could be achieved with in 10 min. In addition enhancing drug permeation through the buccal mucosa and, the maximum concentration of the drug that reached the blood was in the first 10 min which means a rapid onset of action and improved the extent of both drug's absorption. Conclusion: The results revealed that sublingual (F6) tablets containing both drugs would maintain rapid onset of action, and increase bioavailability. BuHCl with BH can be attributed to the marked decline in DBP and SBP. That led to a reduction in the MAP.
  2,722 132 -
In vitro antioxidant and H + , K + -ATPase inhibition activities of Acalypha wilkesiana foliage extract
Rajesh Kashi Prakash Gupta, Pradeepa , Manjunatha Hanumanthappa
July-September 2013, 5(3):214-223
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116822  PMID:24082698
Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activty and anti-acid property of Acalypha wilkesiana foliage extract. Materials and Methods: Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from healthy leaves of A. wilkesiana. Free radical scavenging activity and H + , K + -ATPase inhibition activities of aqueous foliage extracts was screened by in vitro models. Statistical Analysis Used: All experiments were performed in triplicate and results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: A. wilkesiana hot aqueous extract (AWHE) showed significant antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity. Further, AWHE has shown a potent H + , K + -ATPase inhibitory activity (IC 50 : 51.5 ± 0.28 μg/ml) when compare to standard proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (56.2 ± 0.64 μg/ml); however, latter activity is equal to A. wilkesiana cold aqueous extract (AWCE). Quantitative analysis of AWHE has revealed more content of phenols and flavonoids; this is found to be the reason for good antioxidant activity over AWCE. Molecular docking was carried out against H + , K + -ATPase enzyme crystal structure to validate the anti-acid activity of A. wilkesiana major phytochemicals. Conclusions: The present study indicates that the constituents of AWHE and AWCE have good antacid and free radical scavenging activity.
  2,663 131 2
Anti-obesity activity of chloroform-methanol extract of Premna integrifolia in mice fed with cafeteria diet
Prashant Y Mali, Papiya Bigoniya, Shital S Panchal, Irrappa S Muchhandi
July-September 2013, 5(3):229-236
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116825  PMID:24082700
Aim of the study: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of chloroform:methanol extract of P. integrifolia (CMPI) in mice fed with cafeteria diet. Materials and Methods: Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups, which received normal and cafeteria diet, standard drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg) and CMPI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for 40 days. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), Lee index of obesity (LIO), food consumption, locomotor behavior, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), atherogenic index, organ weight and organ fat pad weight were studied for evaluating the anti-obesity activity of P. integrifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint profile of chloroform-methanol extract was also studied using quercetin as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant increase in body weight, BMI, LIO, food consumption, organ weight (liver and small intestine), organ fat pad weight (mesenteric and peri-renal fat pad) and in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL with a significant decrease in locomotor behavior (ambulation, rearing, grooming) and HDL level in cafeteria diet group. Animals treated with CMPI showed dose dependent activity. P. integrifolia (200 mg/kg) supplementation attenuated all the above alterations, which indicates the anti-obesity activity. HPLC fingerprint profile of CMPI showed two peaks in the solvent system of 50 mm potassium diphosphate (pH-3 with ortho phosphoric acid): Methanol (30:70 v/v) at 360 nm. Conclusion: Present findings suggest that, CMPI possessed anti-obesity activity that substantiated its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of obesity.
  2,633 152 2
Development and validation of spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of citicoline and piracetam in tablet dosage form
Akhila Sivadas, Aiswarya Sathi, Kavya Sathi, Kalpana Pravin Rahate
July-September 2013, 5(3):202-207
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116818  PMID:24082696
Context: Citicoline (CN) and piracetam (PM) combination in tablet formulation is newly introduced in market. It is necessary to develop suitable quality control methods for rapid and accurate determination of these drugs. Aim: The study aimed to develop the methods for simultaneous determination of CN and PM in combined dosage form. Materials and Methods: The first method was developed by formation and solving simultaneous equations using 280.3 and 264.1 nm as two analytical wavelengths. Second method was absorbance ratio in which wavelengths selected were 256.6 nm as its absorptive point and 280.3 nm as λmax of CN. According to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) norm, the parameters - linearity, precision, and accuracy were studied. The methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies. Results: Both the drugs obeyed Beer-Lambert's law at the selected wavelengths in concentration range of 5-13 μg/ml for CN and 10-22 μg/ml for PM. The percentage of CN and PM in marketed tablet formulation was found to be 99.006 ± 0.173 and 99.257 ± 0.613, respectively; by simultaneous equation method. For Q-Absorption ratio method the percentage of CN and PM was found to be 99.078 ± 0.158 and 99.708 ± 0.838, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed methods were simple, reproducible, precise and robust. The methods can be successfully applied for routine analysis of tablets.
  2,625 123 1
Submandibular sialolithiasis: Report of six cases
Vikas Elias Kuruvila, N Bilahari, Beena Kumari, Biju James
July-September 2013, 5(3):240-242
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116829  PMID:24082702
  2,626 83 1
Effect of maxillary sinus floor augmentation without bone grafts
D Shiva Kumar, ND Jayakumar, O Padmalatha, M Sankari, Sheeja S Varghese
July-September 2013, 5(3):176-183
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116795  PMID:24082693
Objective: The objective of the present review was to determine the effectiveness of maxillary sinus floor augmentation without bone grafts using lateral window technique. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles. We also included articles by hand search until June 2012. The analysis included both human and animal studies which satisfied the following criteria: Minimum of 6 months follow-up, no use of bone grafts, and lateral window approach to the sinus. Results: We included 22 articles in the review. A descriptive analysis of the constructed evidence tables indicated that there is evidence of predictable a mount of bone formation in the maxillary sinus augmentation without the use of bone grafts. Conclusion: Within the limits of the articles and data available, maxillary sinus augmentation without bone graft might be considered effective inpredictable bone formation.
  2,482 137 2
Adverse drug reactions reporting : Knowledge and opinion of general public in Penang, Malaysia
Ramadan Elkalmi, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Omar Qutaiba Al-lela, Ammar Ihsan Jawad Awadh, Abdul Kareem Al-Shami, Shazia Qasim Jamshed
July-September 2013, 5(3):224-228
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116824  PMID:24082699
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system. Methods: An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (15 items) was designed. The questionnaire was subjected to face validity and content validity. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.71. This study recruited proportionately large convenience sample of the general public in Penang. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted over a week period in August 2009. The recommended sample size was calculated to be 368. Results: Three hundred thirty-four responses were received. Slightly more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 18-25 years (53.6%; n = 179). When asked about the sources of their medication majority of them reported medical doctor (85.6%), whereas small number (34.7%) reported community pharmacists as sources of medications. Three-quarter of the respondents (77.2%) get their information about the side-effects of drugs from physicians, followed by pharmacist (44.6%). More than half of the respondents (65.6%, n = 219) reported unawareness about the existence of ADR center set up by the Ministry of Health. Conclusion: Respondents reflected inadequate knowledge on ADR reporting. This needs to be corrected as the trend of future pharmacovigilance is toward the patient. Moreover, the new trend seems to be more appropriate as the patient is the group of the people who are directly affected from the ADR of a particular drug and not the health-care providers. Furthermore, the patient will be informed about the economic implications of not reporting ADR. It is recommended that government agencies, like MADRAC needs to find ways to increase patient- reported ADR cases.
  2,368 72 6
Updates on drug bioavailability and delivery to posterior segment of eye
Himanshu Gupta
July-September 2013, 5(3):173-174
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116792  PMID:24082691
  1,981 84 -
Stability-indicating assay of repaglinide in bulk and optimized nanoemulsion by validated high performance thin layer chromatography technique
Juber Akhtar, Sheeba Fareed, Mohd Aqil
July-September 2013, 5(3):184-190
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116800  PMID:24082694
A sensitive, selective, precise and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysis of repaglinide both as a bulk drug and in nanoemulsion formulation was developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of chloroform/methanol/ammonia/glacial acetic acid (7.5:1.5:0.9:0.1, v/v/v/v). This system was found to give compact spots for repaglinide (R f value of 0.38 ± 0.02). Repaglinide was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation and dry heat treatment. Also, the degraded products were well separated from the pure drug. Densitometric analysis of repaglinide was carried out in the absorbance mode at 240 nm. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2 = 0.998 ± 0.032 in the concentration range of 50-800 ng. The method was validated for precision, accuracy as recovery, robustness and specificity. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.023 and 0.069 ng per spot, respectively. The drug undergoes degradation under acidic and basic conditions, oxidation and dry heat treatment. All the peaks of the degraded product were resolved from the standard drug with significantly different R f values. Statistical analysis proves that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of the said drug. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating one. Moreover, the proposed HPTLC method was utilized to investigate the degradation kinetics in 1M NaOH.
  1,806 124 -
Cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphism in phenytoin induced gingival enlargement: A case report
S. P. K. Kennedy Babu, V Ramesh, Agila Samidorai, N. S. C. Charles
July-September 2013, 5(3):237-239
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116828  PMID:24082701
Gingival enlargement comprises any clinical condition in which an increase in the size of the gingiva is observed. Among the drugs that induce gingival enlargement, the antiepileptic agent phenytoin has been widely related to this condition. The Cytochrome P450(CYP) superfamily is the most commonly involved enzymes in metabolism of drugs. Common coding region CYP variants that affects drug elimination and response has been studied in great detail. Pharmacogenetic influences on drug metabolism have been widely reviewed and gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C9 appeared to be responsible for much of the interindividual variability on drug elimination. Genetic variation in the CYP2C9 gene can affect metabolism, leading to altered phenotypes. Individuals with poor metaboliser alleles of CYP2C9 gene were shown to have a reduced metabolism of phenytoin compared with wild-type alleles. Thus identification of patients genotype prior to anti-epileptic drug administration could potentially prevent higher serum drug concentrations leading to adverse side effects such as gingival enlargement. This case report addresses the influence of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism on Phenytoin drug metabolism thereby causing gingival enlargement.
  1,786 89 4
Pleiotropy of chemically modified tetracycline in periodontitis
Ashish Agarwal
July-September 2013, 5(3):242-243
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116831  PMID:24082703
  1,532 109 -
Tobacco addiction augments obesity and carcinogenesis: Matter of concern for Indian patients
AK Singh, A Pandey, M Tewari, BP Singh, HP Pandey, HS Shukla
July-September 2013, 5(3):208-213
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116819  PMID:24082697
Purpose: Life-style and tobacco addiction is the major risk factors for cancer progression in all over the world. Knowledge gaps between tobacco addiction, obesity and cancer in Indian patients brought an interdisciplinary group of investigators together to discuss the present study. Patients and Methods: We calculated the body mass index (BMI) of all the patients (N = 927) who were diagnosed with cancer for its treatment. National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria were used to categorize the patients. All the patients of this disease could be contacted in person to find out the history of the disease. Results: The frequency of addiction in urban cancer patient was found to be about 53.3% and in a rural area it was only 33.7%. Tobacco addiction was independently associated with younger age of cancer patient (odds ratio [OR] 2.242; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.653-3.042), obese (OR 7.433; 95% CI 3.746-14.750), overweight (OR 4.676; 95% CI 3.381-6.468) and advanced stage of cancer (OR 11.950; 95% CI 5.283-27.030). Conclusion: Tobacco consumption appears to be a major contributor to cancer in younger age with elevated BMI in India. Rapid changes in diet and life-style, increase in tobacco consumption appear to be strongly associated with the carcinoma in this middle-income country.
  1,531 76 -
A medico-legal case of irresponsiveness to antibiotic therapy: A point that should not be forgotten
Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-September 2013, 5(3):243-243
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.116833  PMID:24082704
  1,235 56 -
Recent advance technique for ocular drug delivery by Gupta et al.: Nanoparticle laden in situ gel
Parul Gupta, Manish Kumar
July-September 2013, 5(3):175-175
  1,177 81 -