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   2015| August  | Volume 7 | Issue 6  
    Online since September 1, 2015

 
 
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DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review
K Ramakrishnan, Subramanya Sharma, C Sreeja, D Bhavani Pratima, I Aesha, B Vijayabanu
August 2015, 7(6):398-402
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163469  PMID:26538886
Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination.
  3,456 331 -
Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management
S Uma Maheswari, Jacob Raja, Arvind Kumar, R Gnana Seelan
August 2015, 7(6):320-324
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163436  PMID:26538870
The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain what behaviors are increasing a patient's risk for disease and disease progression by evaluating the current caries risk of a patient. With this modern CAMBRA protocol, a novel treatment plan can be designed to arrest dental caries thereby decreasing the chance of cavitation. After the recognition of the multi factorial nature of caries involving the biofilm, the contemporary approaches focused mainly on the various options to cope with the locally out-of-balance oral biofilm and stop the progression of the disease. The initial caries lesions can be diagnosed with modern diagnostic aids and with the help of CAMBRA, reestablishment of the integrity of the tooth surface early on in the caries process will bring great rewards for patients. This review focuses on the repair of hard tooth tissues using noninvasive strategies.
  3,269 232 2
Biomarkers in orthodontic tooth movement
A Anand Kumar, K Saravanan, K Kohila, S Sathesh Kumar
August 2015, 7(6):325-330
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163437  PMID:26538871
Tooth movement by orthodontic treatment is characterized by remodeling changes in the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and gingiva. A reflection of these phenomenons can be found in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of moving teeth, with significant elevations in the concentrations of its components like, cytokines, neurotransmitters, growth Factors, and a arachidonic acid metabolites. GCF arises at the gingival margin and can be described as a transudate or an exudate. Several studies have focused on the composition of GCF and the changes that occur during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). GCF component analysis is a non-invasive method for studying the cellular response of the underlying periodontium. Clinically, GCF can be easily collected using platinum loops, filter paper strips, gingival washings, and micropipettes. A number of GCF biomarkers involve in bone remodeling during OTM. The data suggest that knowledge of all the biomarkers present in the GCF that can be used to mark the changes in tooth that is undergoing orthodontic treatment may be of clinical usefulness leading to proper choice of mechanical stress to improve and to shorten treatment time and avoid side effects.
  3,107 254 1
Oral pigmentation: A review
C Sreeja, K Ramakrishnan, D Vijayalakshmi, M Devi, I Aesha, B Vijayabanu
August 2015, 7(6):403-408
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163471  PMID:26538887
Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.
  2,669 277 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Lip repositioning surgery for correction of excessive gingival display
Santhanakrishnan Muthukumar, Shanmuganathan Natarajan, Seenivasan Madhankumar, Jayakrishnakumar Sampathkumar
August 2015, 7(6):794-796
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163567  PMID:26538972
Esthetic demands have considerably increased over the years in routine clinical practice. A pleasant smile can give supreme confidence to an individuals personality. However, a perfect smile is dictated by a perfect balance of the white (teeth) and pink (gingival) display. This balance can be managed different treatment modalities, which is based on proper diagnosis. This case report demonstrates a successful management of gummy smile with a lip-repositioning procedure in a patient with an incompetent upper lip. This was accomplished by removing a partial thickness strip of mucosa from the maxillary buccal vestibule and suturing the lip mucosa to the mucogingival line. This resulted in a narrower vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby resulting incompetent lips and reduced gingival display during smiling.
  2,718 111 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Friction in orthodontics
PS Prashant, Hemant Nandan, Meera Gopalakrishnan
August 2015, 7(6):334-338
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163439  PMID:26538873
Conventional wisdom suggests that resistance to sliding (RS) generated at the wire-bracket interface has a bearing on the force transmitted to the teeth. The relative importance of static and kinetic friction and also the effect of friction on anchorage has been a topic of debate. Lot of research work has been done to evaluate the various factors that affect friction and thus purportedly retards the rate of tooth movement. However, relevancy of these studies is questionable as the methodology used hardly simulates the oral conditions. Lately studies have concluded that more emphasis should be laid on binding and notching of archwires as these are considered to be the primary factors involved in retarding the tooth movement. This article reviews the various components involved in RS and the factors affecting friction. Further, research work should be carried out to provide cost effective alternatives aimed at reducing friction.
  2,589 187 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical evaluation of direct composite restoration done for midline diastema closure - long-term study
R Prabhu, S Bhaskaran, KR Geetha Prabhu, MA Eswaran, G Phanikrishna, B Deepthi
August 2015, 7(6):559-562
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163539  PMID:26538917
Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically the performance of composite resin used to restore midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Methodology: Direct composite restorations were done for 45 patients with midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Standard protocols were followed for the placement of composite resin for the diastema closure, and recall visits were made for every 6 months for a period of 60 months for evaluation of the success of these restorations made. Qualified dental personnel examined the restorations made. Results: Clinical evaluations were done after the restorations had been in place for an average of 6 months. Results indicate that none of the restorations were totally lost, and resulting in a 91% overall retention rate for the period of 60 months. About 62% of the restorations made had no noticeable color difference with that of the adjacent tooth, and gingival health indicated 73% of the sample was without any signs of inflammation. Conclusions: Composites restored for diastemas exhibit satisfactory survival rates placed with recommended placement protocols and without occlusal loading.
  2,713 49 3
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Oral mucocele: Review of literature and a case report
KU Nallasivam, BR Sudha
August 2015, 7(6):731-733
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163516  PMID:26538955
Mucocele is the most common lesion of the oral mucosa, which results from the accumulation of mucous secretion due to trauma and lip biting habits or alteration of minor salivary glands. Mostly they are two types based on histological features which as follows: Extravasation and retention. Mucoceles can appear at anywhere in the oral mucosa such as lip, cheeks and the floor of the mouth, but mainly appear in the lip. Diagnosis is mostly based on clinical findings. The most common location of the extravasation mucocele is the lower lip. Mucoceles most probably affect young patients but can affect all the age groups. They may have a soft consistency, bluish, and transparent cystic swelling, history of bursting and collapsing due to which resolves themselves then refilling which may be repeated. The treatment of choice is surgical removal of the mucocele.
  2,409 175 -
Treatment of gingival recession using free gingival graft with fibrin fibronectin sealing system: A novel approach
B. V. V. Srinivas, N Rupa, KV Halini Kumari, A Rajender, M Narendra Reddy
August 2015, 7(6):734-739
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163524  PMID:26538956
Periodontal plastic surgery is the branch of periodontology that is focused mainly on the correction or elimination of mucogingival problems associated with lack of attached gingiva, a shallow vestibule and aberrant frenum. Various mucogingival surgical procedures are used to halt the progression of the gingival recession and to correct poor esthetic appearance. Free gingival autograft is one of the most common techniques used for a gingival recession in areas of inadequate attached gingiva in the mandibular anterior region. Fibrin sealants are human plasma derivatives that mimic the final stages of blood coagulation, forming a fibrin clot. Fibrin Sealants enhances the overall outcome of surgical intervention because of their hemostatic, adhesive, and healing properties. These properties of fibrin sealants may reduce operating time, prevent complications, and enhance the overall outcome of many surgical interventions. Hence, this case report aims to investigate the clinical effectiveness of free gingival graft along with the commercially available fibrin-fibronectin sealing system (Tissucol®) in the treatment of Miller's class II gingival recession.
  2,427 113 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Periodontal risk calculator versus periodontal risk assessment
G. V. Naga Sai Sujai, V. S. S. Triveni, S Barath, G Harikishan
August 2015, 7(6):656-659
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163593  PMID:26538938
Introduction: The purpose of study was twofold: To determine the extent of inter valuator and inter group variation in risk scores assigned to study subjects by PRC and PRA. To explore the relationship between risk scores assigned by PRC and using the PRA. Materials and Methods: 57 patients (33 male patients and 24 Female patients between 20 and 65 years age group) were assessed with PRC and PRA tools during their first visit. Results and Conclusion: We entered the resulting information in to the PRC and PRA to obtained a riskscore for each subject at first visit.The chi-square test significance between PRC and PRA is < 0.05 indicatesthe accuracy of the both tools.
  2,360 63 -
Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study
V Poongodi, R Kanmani, MS Anandi, CL Krithika, A Kannan, PH Raghuram
August 2015, 7(6):504-508
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163518  PMID:26538907
Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application.
  2,206 209 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Halitosis - An overview: Part-I - Classification, etiology, and pathophysiology of halitosis
GS Madhushankari, Andamuthu Yamunadevi, M Selvamani, KP Mohan Kumar, Praveen S Basandi
August 2015, 7(6):339-343
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163441  PMID:26538874
Halitosis is a condition where the breath is altered in an unpleasant manner for the affected individuals and impairs them socially as well as psychologically. Halitosis can be clinically classified as real halitosis, pseudohalitosis, and halitophobia. Real halitosis has oral and extra-oral etiologies and the pathophysiology involves interaction of anaerobic microbes (mainly) with the proteins present in the oral cavity fluids and contents, resulting in production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). These VSCs, beyond responsible for halitosis, can also initiate and accelerate periodontal disease progression. Thus, this review is about the pathophysiology and various etiologies of halitosis, the knowledge of which can help in the betterment of treatment options.
  2,217 126 4
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Cracked tooth syndrome: A report of three cases
Kadandale Sadasiva, Sathishmuthukumar Ramalingam, Krishnaraj Rajaram, Alagappan Meiyappan
August 2015, 7(6):700-703
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163482  PMID:26538947
Cracked tooth syndrome (CTS), the term was coined by Cameron in 1964, which refers to an incomplete fracture of a vital posterior tooth extending to the dentin and occasionally into the pulp. CTS has always been a nightmare to the patient because of its unpredictable symptoms and a diagnostic dilemma for the dental practitioner due to its variable, bizarre clinical presentation. The treatment planning and management of CTS has also given problems and challenges the dentist as there is no specific treatment option. The management of CTS varies from one case to another or from one tooth to another in the same individual based on the severity of the symptoms and depth of tooth structure involved. After all, the prognosis of such tooth is still questionable and requires continuous evaluation. This article aims at presenting a series three cases of CTS with an overview on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and the different treatment options that varies from one case to another.
  2,081 57 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Enzymatic antioxidants and its role in oral diseases
J Sathiya Jeeva, J Sunitha, R Ananthalakshmi, S Rajkumari, Maya Ramesh, Ramesh Krishnan
August 2015, 7(6):331-333
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163438  PMID:26538872
Antioxidants are substances that when present at very low concentration inhibits the oxidation of a molecule. It has the capacity to nullify the ill effects of oxidation caused by free radicals in the living organisms. The unpaired electrons of these free radicals are highly reactive and neutralize the harmful reactions of human metabolism. Protection of the body against free radicals is provided by some enzymes which come under a distinctive group, concerned solely with the detoxification of these radicals. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase are the key enzymatic antioxidants of this defense system by which the free radicals that are produced during metabolic reactions are removed. This review highlights the mechanism of action of enzymatic antioxidants SOD, GPX and catalase and its role in oral disease.
  1,991 129 5
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy of curcumin as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiological study
M Nagasri, M Madhulatha, S. V. V. S. Musalaiah, P Aravind Kumar, CH. Murali Krishna, P Mohan Kumar
August 2015, 7(6):554-558
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163537  PMID:26538916
Background and Objectives: Curcumin is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent with various biologic and medicinal properties. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, but only few studies have evaluated the efficacy of curcumin as local drug delivery agent and in the treatment of periodontitis. The present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the adjunctive use of curcumin with scaling/root planing as compared with scaling/root planing alone in the treatment of the chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with two sites in the contralateral quadrants having probing pocket depths (PPDs) of ≥5 mm were selected. Full mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed followed by application of curcumin gel on a single side. Assessment of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), PPD, and clinical attachment levels (CALs) were done at baseline and at 4 th week. Microbiologic assessment with polymerase chain reaction was done for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tanerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola by collection of plaque samples. Results: The results revealed that there was a reduction in PI, GI, probing depth, CAL, and microbiologic parameters in test sites following SRP and curcumin gel application, when compared with SRP alone in control group. Conclusion: The local application of curcumin in conjunction with scaling and root planing have showed improvement in periodontal parameters and has a beneficial effect in patients with chronic periodontitis.
  1,961 146 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
A rare case of mumps orchitis
Pavitra Chandrashekar, Anisha Cynthia Sathiasekar, K Namaratha, Jaish Lal Mariachelliah Singarayan, Arul Prakash Arul Gnanam
August 2015, 7(6):773-775
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163555  PMID:26538966
Mumps is a relatively mild short-term viral infection of the salivary glands that usually occurs during childhood. Meningitis/encephalitis is a well-known complication of mumps, but involvement and infection of the testis in adolescent boys and adult men are rare. We report a case of an 18-year-old male patient with mumps associated epididymo-orchitis on the left side. The diagnosis was confirmed clinically and serologically by IgG and IgM titers. The symptoms were resolved after the administration of anti-inflammatory and pain medications with bed rest and ice packs applied to the area.
  1,961 36 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Natural head position: An overview
N Meiyappan, S Tamizharasi, KP Senthilkumar, K Janardhanan
August 2015, 7(6):424-427
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163488  PMID:26538891
Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario.
  1,839 156 2
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A clinical study on oral lichen planus with special emphasis on hyperpigmentation
Ravi Teja Chitturi, Pandian Sindhuja, R Arjun Parameswar, Ramdas Madhavan Nirmal, B Venkat Ramana Reddy, Janardhanam Dineshshankar, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan Yoithapprabhunath
August 2015, 7(6):495-498
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163513  PMID:26538905
Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a unique disorder affecting generally the older age group. Numerous studies have been done on various aspects of OLP such as pathogenesis, rate of malignant transformation, etc. However, very few studies are available with respect to clinical features especially association of hyperpigmentation and OLP. This study aims at studying the clinical aspects of OLP and study the association between hyperpigmentation and OLP in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 patients with OLP who attended the outpatient department of our institution were included in the study and a complete history, followed by thorough intraoral examination was done. All the data were recorded and assessed for statistical analysis using SPSS software. Results: We found that the male to female ratio affected with OLP was 1:1 and the most common form of OLP that was seen was the reticular subtype. Also, buccal mucosa was the most common affected site and more than 60% patients had hyperpigmentation associated with the site affected by OLP. We found a statistically significant relation between the reticular type of OLP and the older age group (51-70 years) with hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: Although further studies are required to say anything conclusively, post-inflammatory changes occurring the mucosa due to OLP could be a cause for hyperpigmentation in the sites affected.
  1,835 90 2
Comparative evaluation of the effect of denture cleansers on the surface topography of denture base materials: An in-vitro study
Karthigeyan Jeyapalan, Jaya Krishna Kumar, NS Azhagarasan
August 2015, 7(6):548-553
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163536  PMID:26538915
Aims: The aim was to evaluate and compare the effects of three chemically different commercially available denture cleansing agents on the surface topography of two different denture base materials. Materials and Methods: Three chemically different denture cleansers (sodium perborate, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate) were used on two denture base materials (acrylic resin and chrome cobalt alloy) and the changes were evaluated at 3 times intervals (56 h, 120 h, 240 h). Changes from baseline for surface roughness were recorded using a surface profilometer and standard error of the mean (SEM) both quantitatively and qualitatively, respectively. Qualitative surface analyses for all groups were done by SEM. Statistical Analysis Used: The values obtained were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: All three denture cleanser solutions showed no statistically significant surface changes on the acrylic resin portions at 56 h, 120 h, and 240 h of immersion. However, on the alloy portion changes were significant at the end of 120 h and 240 h. Conclusion: Of the three denture cleansers used in the study, none produced significant changes on the two denture base materials for the short duration of immersion, whereas changes were seen as the immersion periods were increased.
  1,770 88 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Posturedontics: How does dentistry fit you?
Praveen S Jodalli, Suchi Kurana, Shameema , Mallikarjuna Ragher, Jaishree Khed, Vishnu Prabhu
August 2015, 7(6):393-397
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163463  PMID:26538885
Dentists are at high risk for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD's) due to their work. MSD's is an umbrella term for number of injuries affecting different parts of the body, including joints, muscles, tendons, nerves that can arise from sudden exertion or making the same motions repeatedly. These injuries can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. Dental professional often develop musculoskeletal problems due to bad working habits, uncomfortable physical posture causing unnecessary musculoskeletal loading, discomfort and fatigue. Ergonomic principles when it is applied, it will help to reduce stress and eliminate many potential injuries and disorders associated with the overuse of muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks. This can be accomplished by using a proper dental chair, lighting and the selection of ergonomically-friendly equipment to fit the dental professionals physical capabilities and limitations. This review addresses about the basics of ergonomics, positioning, viewing, handling, and prevention of MSD's.
  1,770 83 2
Three-dimensional assessment of facial asymmetry: A systematic review
Gopi Akhil, Kullampalayam Palanisamy Senthil Kumar, Subramani Raja, Kumaresan Janardhanan
August 2015, 7(6):433-437
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163491  PMID:26538893
For patients with facial asymmetry, complete and precise diagnosis, and surgical treatments to correct the underlying cause of the asymmetry are significant. Conventional diagnostic radiographs (submento-vertex projections, posteroanterior radiography) have limitations in asymmetry diagnosis due to two-dimensional assessments of three-dimensional (3D) images. The advent of 3D images has greatly reduced the magnification and projection errors that are common in conventional radiographs making it as a precise diagnostic aid for assessment of facial asymmetry. Thus, this article attempts to review the newly introduced 3D tools in the diagnosis of more complex facial asymmetries.
  1,764 75 2
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
The orthodontic management of ectopic canine
R Thirunavukkarasu, G Sriram, R Satish
August 2015, 7(6):749-751
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163534  PMID:26538959
The canines being the cornerstone of the arch and smile is one of the teeth, which has the longest eruption passage that gets influenced by local and general etiological factors easily. The initial calcification of the crowns starts at 4-5 months of age and proceeds toward eruption about 11-13 years of age with mesiobuccal crown angulation that gets corrected toward occlusion. It gets displaced buccally or palatally or may sometimes get impacted. Early intervention is the best suited to manage canine eruption patterns. Once erupted ectopically, they possess a great challenge in repositioning them back into their correct position. This case report discusses an orthodontic treatment planning and execution to correct a buccally placed canine with an anterior crossbite in an adult.
  1,723 97 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
LASER curettage as adjunct to SRP, compared to SRP alone, in patients with periodontitis and controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus: A comparative clinical study
Sugumari Elavarasu, Thangakumaran Suthanthiran, Arthiie Thangavelu, Lakshmi Mohandas, Saranya Selvaraj, Jayashakthi Saravanan
August 2015, 7(6):636-642
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163579  PMID:26538934
Aim: To compare the effect of scaling and root planning (SRP) alone, and laser curettage as an adjunct to SRP, on the clinical parameters of patients with periodontitis and controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Ten patients were divided into two equal groups in a split-mouth design - Group I: SRP alone, Group II: SRP + laser curettage. The following clinical parameters were recorded: (i) Gingival index (ii) plaque index (iii) sulcular bleeding index (iv) probing depth (PD) and (v) clinical attachment level (CAL). SRP was done in one quadrant using Gracey curettes and in another quadrant SRP plus laser curettage was done. Three weeks after the therapy, the clinical parameters were recorded and the results were analyzed and the percentage of improvement were evaluated. Results: The results of this study indicated that both SRP and SRP + laser curettage were efficient for reducing gingival inflammation and PD. Group II showed more reduction in PD and more gain in CAL than Group I. Mean reduction in PD was 20.22% in Group I and 26.76% in Group II. Mean CAL gain is 32.5% in Group II and 22.34% in Group I. Conclusion: In both the groups, gingival inflammation was reduced. When laser curettage was used as adjunct to SRP more reduction in PD and CAL was seen.
  1,718 101 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis
S Aravind Warrier, S Sathasivasubramanian
August 2015, 7(6):812-814
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163577  PMID:26538978
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection.
  1,766 39 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology
R Shashikala, AP Indira, GS Manjunath, K Arathi rao, BK Akshatha
August 2015, 7(6):409-413
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163472  PMID:26538888
In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer.
  1,655 143 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Interdental papilla regeneration around implants: A novel window technique (2 years follow-up)
R Lambodharan, VR Balaji
August 2015, 7(6):815-818
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163587  PMID:26538979
Reconstructing predictable and esthetic papilla is the most complex and challenging aspect of implant dentistry. To obtain an esthetic and predictable gingival architecture and implant restoration, interdental papilla plays an important role. The main objective of the surgeon during the second stage of implant treatment should be the creation of interdental papilla prior to prosthetic restoration. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate a novel window technique for developing predictable and esthetic papilla around dental implants, which was followed for 2 years with excellent esthetic results.
  1,692 94 -
Dental rehabilitation of a child with early childhood caries using Groper's appliance
C Chrishantha Joybell, K Ramesh, Paul Simon, Jayashree Mohan, Maya Ramesh
August 2015, 7(6):704-707
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163483  PMID:26538948
The mainstay of pediatric dental practice is the successful esthetic rehabilitation of a preschooler with advanced carious lesions. Loss of masticatory efficiency, compromised esthesis, mispronunciation of labiodentals sounds, and development of abnormal oral habits are compromises arising due to the loss of primary anterior teeth at an early age either due to trauma or due to caries. Parental desire is the most decisive factor for the placement of an anterior esthetic appliance. This unique case report highlights the fabrication of simple, Groper's appliance in a 5-year-old child with early childhood caries.
  1,629 105 -
Prosthetic management of malpositioned implant using custom cast abutment
Aishwarya Chatterjee, Mallikarjuna Ragher, Sanket Patil, Debopriya Chatterjee, Savita Dandekeri, Vishnu Prabhu
August 2015, 7(6):740-745
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163528  PMID:26538957
Two cases are reported with malpositioned implants. Both the implants were placed 6-7 months back. They had osseointegrated well with the surrounding bone. However, they presented severe facial inclination. Case I was restored with custom cast abutment with an auto polymerizing acrylic gingival veneer. Case II was restored with custom cast UCLA type plastic implant abutment. Ceramic was directly fired on the custom cast abutments. The dual treatment strategy resulted in functional and esthetic restorations despite facial malposition of the implants.
  1,633 86 -
Rehabilitation of Bell's palsy patient with complete dentures
J Muthuvignesh, N Suman Kumar, D Narayana Reddy, Pradeep Rathinavelu, S Egammai, A Adarsh
August 2015, 7(6):776-778
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163558  PMID:26538967
Facial nerve disorders may be of sudden onset and more often of unknown etiology. Edema of the facial nerve within the fallopian canal results in Bell's palsy. This causes compression of the nerve and affects the microcirculation. Many authors have suggested treatment for facial nerve paralysis ranging from simple physiotherapy to complicated microvascular decompression. It more often results in symptoms like synkinesis and muscle spasm after the decompression surgery of the nerve because of the inability to arrange the nerve fibers within the canal. The treatment choice also depends on patient's age, extent of the nerve damage, and patient's needs and desires. Many patients who cannot be rehabilitated functionally can be treated for esthetics of the involved muscles. This case report elaborates about a patient who was rehabilitated for esthetics and to some extent for function.
  1,614 102 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer
A Murali Balasubramaniam, Rajkumari Sriraman, P Sindhuja, Khadijah Mohideen, R Arjun Parameswar, KT Muhamed Haris
August 2015, 7(6):374-377
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163456  PMID:26538880
Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid in the early diagnosis of oral cancer. Now a day's many adjunctive oral cancer screening techniques are available for the early diagnosis of cancer. Among these, autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool. These techniques are broadly discussed in this review.
  1,569 134 3
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Comparative evaluation of depigmentation techniques in split-mouth design with electrocautery and laser
Sugumari Elavarasu, Arthiie Thangavelu, Sanjay Alex
August 2015, 7(6):786-790
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163563  PMID:26538970
Excessive gingival pigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Melanin pigmentation is known to be caused by melanin granules within the gingival epithelium. Smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. It is not a medical problem, but it feels unesthetic for the patient and particularly in patients having a very high lip/smile line. Depigmentation is not a clinical indication but a treatment of choice where esthetics is a concern and is desired by the patient. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. The present case series describes two simple and effective surgical depigmentation techniques treated with diode laser and electrosurgery.
  1,580 98 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of flexural strength in three types of denture base resins: An in vitro study
R Arun Jaikumar, Suma Karthigeyan, Syed Asharf Ali, N Madhulika Naidu, R Pradeep Kumar, K Vijayalakshmi
August 2015, 7(6):461-464
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163505  PMID:26538898
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the flexural strength of a commercially available, heat polymerized acrylic denture base material could be improved using reinforcements. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 specimens (65 mm × 10 mm × 3 mm) were fabricated; the specimens were divided into three groups with 10 specimens each. They were Group 1 - conventional denture base resins, Group 2 - high impact denture base resins, and Group 3 - glass reinforced denture base resins. The specimens were loaded until failure on a three-point bending test machine. An one-way analysis of variance was used to determine statistical differences among the flexural strength of three groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21.0© (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) and the results were obtained. Results: The flexural strength values showed statistically significant differences among experimental groups (P < 0.005). Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) reinforced with glass fibers showed the highest flexural strength values this was followed by PMMA reinforced with butadiene styrene, and the least strength was observed in the conventional denture base resins.
  1,542 108 -
Root coverage using subepithelial connective tissue graft with platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of gingival recession: A clinical study
B. V. V. Srinivas, N Rupa, KV Halini Kumari, S. S. V. Prasad, U Varalakshmi, K Sudhakar
August 2015, 7(6):530-538
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163530  PMID:26538912
Introduction: The presence of gingival recession associated with an insufficient amount of keratinized tissue may indicate gingival augmentation procedure. It is a multifaceted problem for which several treatment options are available. The most predictable technique used for gingival augmentation is the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an enhanced source of growth factors and helps in accelerated periodontal repair and regeneration. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SCTG along with PRP in the treatment of Miller's class I and II gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Eleven subjects with Miller's class I and II gingival recessions were treated using SCTG with PRP. Clinical variables, including plaque index, gingival index, recession depth (RD), Recession width (RW), width of the keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. Patients were recalled at baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 1-year after surgery and clinical recordings were taken. Root coverage percentage (%) was measured at the end of 1-year. Results: The clinical parameters were analyzed during the follow-up period by repeated measures ANOVA test. Twelve months follow-up results showed significant improvements in all the clinical parameters. Reduction of recession resulted in a significant decrease in CAL, PD, RW and RD at the end of 12 months. A statistically significant gain in width of keratinized gingiva and a mean root coverage of 84.72 ΁ 19.10 was obtained at the end of 12 months. Conclusion: From the results of this study, it may be concluded that SCTG with PRP is an effective and predictable method to treat miller's class I and II gingival recession.
  1,570 79 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Management of invasive cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor
S Senthil Kumar, NS Mohan Kumar, JV Karunakaran, S Nagendran
August 2015, 7(6):712-717
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163494  PMID:26538950
Invasive cervical resorption is often not diagnosed properly, leading to improper treatment or unnecessary loss of the tooth structure. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are the keys to a successful outcome of therapy. Invasive cervical resorption is often seen in the cervical area of the tooth, but because it is initiated apical to the epithelial attachment, it can present anywhere in the root. In the early stages, it may be symmetrical, but larger lesions have the tendency to be asymmetrical. It can expand apically or coronally.
  1,596 49 2
Cleft rhinoplasty
M Baskaran, I Packiaraj, S Gidean Arularasan, TK Divakar
August 2015, 7(6):691-694
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163480  PMID:26538945
It is universally accepted that correction of cleft lip nose deformity remains a formidable challenge for any cleft surgeon. The nose is a prominent part of the face, and hence a masterly executed cleft lip repair directs the beholders' eyes from the deformed lip to the deformed nose. A deformed nose that results from unilateral cleft of the lip and palate is likened to a tent whose one side is depressed. Many investigators believe that the deformity of the nose is produced by the malpositioning of essentially normal structures, on the other hand some cleft surgeons contend that it is the intrinsic defects in nasal structures that result in cleft nasal deformity. Depressed and hypoplastic bony scaffolding is the most important aspect of cleft nose deformity and addressing this aspect of cleft nose deformity is the secret of success of a perfect secondary rhinoplasty. Controversy still exists on timing of cleft nasal deformity. Proponents of delayed nasal repair suggest that altering the cartilages in early nasal repair at the time of lip repair would complicate future corrective nasal surgeries if the primary repair would prove unsatisfactory. The correction of nasal deformity could be performed with closed or open technique. This paper highlights one such challenging unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity in a adult patient treated by secondary rhinoplasty by open technique.
  1,570 72 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antimicrobial effect of herbal dentifrices: An in vitro study
J Sunitha, R Ananthalakshmi, J Sathiya Jeeva, Nadeem Jeddy, Subhashini Dhakshininamoorthy, RM Muthu Meenakshi
August 2015, 7(6):628-631
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163575  PMID:26538932
Aim: This study was taken up to compare the antimicrobial effect of few herbal dentifrices against cariogenic organism such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vitro model using the well method of microbial culture. Colgate total was used as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control. Dentifrices were prepared in 1:1 dilution using sterile distilled water. The standard strains were inoculated and incubated for 4 h. They were then lawn cultured. Wells were made using a standard template, and the dentifrices were placed in these wells Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In case of S. mutans, the maximum antimicrobial effect among the six dentifrices was shown by Babool followed by Colgate Herbal. For L. acidophilus, the antimicrobial zone exhibited by all the six dentifrices were similar to the positive control. Conclusions: Babool and Colgate Herbal have more inhibitory effect against S. mutans than the other dentifrices of the group. Dabur Red, Colgate Herbal, and Himalaya are efficient against L. acidophilus.
  1,536 92 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer
Vijayan Srinivasprasad, Janardhanam Dineshshankar, J Sathiyajeeva, M Karthikeyan, J Sunitha, Ramachandran Ragunathan
August 2015, 7(6):354-360
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163451  PMID:26538877
Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the "role" that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology.
  1,526 99 -
Harvesting dental stem cells - Overview
PM Sunil, Ramanathan Manikandan, Muthumurugan , Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan Yoithapprabhunath, Muniapillai Sivakumar
August 2015, 7(6):384-386
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163461  PMID:26538883
Dental stem cells have recently become one of the widely researched areas in dentistry. Ever since the identification of stem cells from various dental tissues like deciduous teeth, dental papilla, periodontal ligament and third molars, storing them for future use for various clinical applications was being explored. Dental stem cells were harvested and isolated using various techniques by different investigators and laboratories. This article explains the technical aspects of preparing the patient, atraumatic and aseptic removal of the tooth and its safe transportation and preservation for future expansion.
  1,503 106 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Upper and lower pharyngeal airway space in West-Tamil Nadu population
Prabhakaran Mani, Karthi Muthukumar, Prabhakar Krishnan, KP Senthil Kumar
August 2015, 7(6):539-542
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163532  PMID:26538913
Aim: To compare the upper and lower pharyngeal airway (LPA) width in Class II malocclusion patients with low, average, and high vertical growth patterns. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalometric films of 90 Class II subjects were used to measure the upper and LPAs. The inclusion criteria were subjects of West-Tamil Nadu, aged between 14 and 25 years, only skeletal Class II subjects of either gender and no pharyngeal pathology at initial visit. The sample comprised a total of 90 Class II subjects divided into three groups according to the vertical facial pattern: Normodivergent (n = 30), hypodivergent (n = 30), and hyperdivergent (n = 30). The assessment of upper and LPAs was done according to McNamara's airway analysis. Statistical Analysis: The intergroup comparison of the upper and LPAs was performed with one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test was used to compare among the various vertical patterns. Results: Skeletal Class II subjects with hyperdivergent facial pattern showed statistically significant narrow upper pharyngeal width when compared to normodivergent and hypodivergent facial patterns. No statistically significant difference was found in the lower pharyngeal width in all three vertical facial growth patterns. Conclusion: Subjects with Class II malocclusions and hyperdivergent growth pattern have significantly narrow upper pharyngeal airway space when compared to other two vertical patterns. Narrow pharyngeal airway space is one of the predisposing factors for mouth breathing and obstructive sleep apnea.
  1,534 69 -
An assessment of coronal leakage of permanent filling materials in endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study
Kishore Shetty, V Ashiq Habib, S Vidhyadhara Shetty, Jaishri N Khed, Vishnudas Dinesh Prabhu
August 2015, 7(6):607-611
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163566  PMID:26538928
Introduction: The present in vitro study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of hybrid composite, glass ionomer cement type II, silver amalgam and Ketac molar as permanent filling material in root canal treated teeth. Methodology: Hundred maxillary central incisors were selected for the study. After cleaning all the teeth, root canal treatment was carried out on all of them. The crown portion was cut-off at the cervical level. Three millimeter of coronal Gutta-percha was replaced by four different restorative materials. Then after thermocycling, samples were immersed in dye for 2 weeks. The amount of dye penetration was measured using stereomicroscope. Data were collected and analyzed statistically with ANOVA test and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: Coronal leakage was seen in all groups. Composite hybrid showed least amount of microleakage as compared to the other three experimental groups, and Ketac molar showed more leakage compared to other experimental groups. Conclusion: This study showed that hybrid composites offer better sealing ability compared to other materials tested in this study.
  1,496 67 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Denture bar-coding: An innovative technique in forensic dentistry
Janardhanam Dineshshankar, Rajendran Venkateshwaran, J Vidhya, R Anuradha, Gold Pealin Mary, R Pradeep, AR Senthileagappan
August 2015, 7(6):350-353
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163450  PMID:26538876
Denture markers play an important role in forensic odontology and also in identifying a person. A number of methods are there for identifying dentures from a less expensive technique to a more expensive technique. Out of different denture markers, the bar-coding system is a way of collecting data from the mobile. Even a huge amount of data can be stored in that. It can be easily incorporated during acrylization of the denture and thus could be helpful in identification. This article reviews the strengths of bar-coding and how easily it can be used in the routine procedure.
  1,420 142 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Digital model as an alternative to plaster model in assessment of space analysis
A Anand Kumar, Abraham Phillip, Sathesh Kumar, Anuradha Rawat, Sakthi Priya, V Kumaran
August 2015, 7(6):465-469
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163506  PMID:26538899
Introduction: Digital three-dimensional models are widely used for orthodontic diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to appraise the accuracy of digital models obtained from computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for tooth-width measurements and the Bolton analysis. Materials and Methods: Digital models (CAD/CAM, CBCT) and plaster model were made for each of 50 subjects. Tooth-width measurements on the digital models (CAD/CAM, CBCT) were compared with those on the corresponding plaster models. The anterior and overall Bolton ratios were calculated for each participant and for each method. The paired t-test was applied to determine the validity. Results: Tooth-width measurements, anterior, and overall Bolton ratio of digital models of CAD/CAM and CBCT did not differ significantly from those on the plaster models. Conclusion: Hence, both CBCT and CAD/CAM are trustable and promising technique that can replace plaster models due to its overwhelming advantages.
  1,479 75 2
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Biological post
B Suresh Kumar, Senthil Kumar, NS Mohan Kumar, JV Karunakaran
August 2015, 7(6):721-724
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163500  PMID:26538952
Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as "biological restoration." This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of "biological post" in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual-represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth.
  1,447 99 -
Platysma myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of intraoral defects following excision of oral sub mucous fibrosis: A report of 10 cases
Sathyanarayanan Ramanujam, Suresh Venkatachalam, Monica Subramaniyan, Deepika Subramaniyan
August 2015, 7(6):708-711
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163485  PMID:26538949
Various surgical procedures are available for treating oral submucous fibrosis, but all of them have their inherent drawbacks. The superiorly based platysma myocutaneous flap is a common reconstruction option for intraoral defects followed after excision of fibrous bands in oral submucous fibrosis. The superiorly based flap has an excellent blood supply, but less efficient venous drainage when compared with posteriorly based flap. We present our results of using a superiorly based flap in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis. Of 10 patients eight had no postoperative complications, one patient developed partial skin loss and other developed venous congestion which was managed conservatively.
  1,432 94 1
Root canal treatment of a maxillary first premolar with three roots
Josey Mathew, Aravindan Devadathan, Gibi Syriac, Sai Shamini
August 2015, 7(6):746-748
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163531  PMID:26538958
Successful root canal treatment needs a thorough knowledge of both internal and external anatomy of a tooth. Variations in root canal anatomy constitute an impressive challenge to the successful completion of endodontic treatment. Undetected extra roots and canals are a major reason for failed root canal treatment. Three separate roots in a maxillary first premolar have a very low incidence of 0.5-6%. Three rooted premolars are anatomically similar to molars and are sometimes called "small molars or radiculous molars." This article explains the diagnosis and endodontic management of a three rooted maxillary premolar with separate canals in each root highlighting that statistics may indicate a low incidence of abnormal variations in root canal morphology of a tooth, but aberrant anatomy is a possibility in any tooth. Hence, modern diagnostics like cone beam computed tomography, and endodontic operating microscope may have to be used more for predictable endodontic treatment.
  1,464 50 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study to evaluate cephalometric hard tissue profile of Tamil population for orthognathic surgery
S Nachiappan, S Tharanikumar, Ajay Chandran, P Anusudha, GD Nandini, Murali Balasubramaniam
August 2015, 7(6):680-686
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163600  PMID:26538943
The primary aim of this study is to compare, the cephalometric hard tissue profile values and analysis between Tamil and Caucasian population. The study also aims to create a better understanding in the facial proportions of Tamil Nadu population and to have better diagnosis and treatment planning for orthognathic surgery for Tamil population in Tamil Nadu.
  1,448 64 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Tools for evaluating oral health and quality of life
Nirmal F Bettie, Hari Ramachandiran, Vijay Anand, Anusha Sathiamurthy, Preethi Sekaran
August 2015, 7(6):414-419
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163473  PMID:26538889
The seven dimensions of quality of life are required for a healthy living. Any impairment or disability affects any one or more of these dimensions resulting in functional impairment or handicap, which indicates the presence of disease. The success of any oral treatment depends on how far the individual is relieved of his disease process. Relief of symptoms provides patient comfort and enable functional activities. This well-being is considered as a measure of oral health and reflects patient satisfaction. This article presents various instruments or tools available in the form of a questionnaire that estimates patient satisfaction and thereby oral health.
  1,437 60 -
Robotics and medicine: A scientific rainbow in hospital
S Jeelani, A Dany, B Anand, S Vandana, T Maheswaran, E Rajkumar
August 2015, 7(6):381-383
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163460  PMID:26538882
The journey of robotics is a real wonder and astonishingly can be considered as a scientific rainbow showering surprising priceless power in the era of future technologies. The astonishing seven technologies discussed in this paper are da Vinci Robotic surgical system and sperm sorters for infertility, Veebot for blood investigation, Hanako the robotic dental patient for simulating the dental patient and helping a trainee dentist, RP-7 robot who is around-the-clock physician connecting the physician and patient, Robot for Interactive Body Assistance (RIBA) who is a RIBA serving as a nurse, Bushbot serving as a brilliant surgeon, and Virtibot helping in virtual autopsy. Thus, robotics in medicine is a budding field contributing a great lot to human life from before birth to afterlife in seven forms thus gracefully portraying a scientific rainbow in hospital environment.
  1,428 55 3
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Erosive potential of commonly used beverages, medicated syrup, and their effects on dental enamel with and without restoration: An in vitro study
Krishna Trivedi, Vijay Bhaskar, Mahadevan Ganesh, Karthik Venkataraghavan, Prashant Choudhary, Shalin Shah, Ramesh Krishnan
August 2015, 7(6):474-480
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163508  PMID:26538901
Aim: This study evaluates erosive potential of commonly used beverages, medicated syrup, and their effects on dental enamel with and without restoration in vitro. Materials and Methods: Test medias used in this study included carbonated beverage, noncarbonated beverage, high-energy sports drink medicated cough syrup, distilled water as the control. A total of 110 previously extracted human premolar teeth were selected for the study. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Test specimens were randomly distributed to five beverages groups and comprised 12 specimens per group. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 h/day). Microleakage was evaluated. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance using SPSS-PC package using the multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of P < 0.05. Paired t-test, Friedman test ranks, and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: For surface roughness high-energy sports drink and noncarbonated beverage showed the highly significant difference with P values of 0.000 and 0.000, respectively compared to other test media. For microleakage high-energy sports drink had significant difference in comparison to noncarbonated beverage (P = 0.002), medicated syrup (P = 0.000), and distilled water (P = 0.000). Conclusion: High-energy sports drink showed highest surface roughness value and microleakage score among all test media and thus greater erosive potential to enamel while medicated syrup showed least surface roughness value and microleakage among all test media.
  1,419 61 -
Influence of erbium, chromium-doped: Yttrium scandium-gallium-garnet laser etching and traditional etching systems on depth of resin penetration in enamel: A confocal laser scanning electron microscope study
Vishal Vijayan, K Rajasigamani, K Karthik, Sasidharan Maroli, Jitesh Chakkarayan, Mohamed Haris
August 2015, 7(6):616-622
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163571  PMID:26538930
Objective: This study was performed to assess the resin tag length penetration in enamel surface after bonding of brackets to identify which system was most efficient. Methodology: Our study was based on a more robust confocal microscopy for visualizing the resin tags in enamel. Totally, 100 extracted human first and second premolars have been selected for this study and were randomly divided into ten groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, the buccal enamel surface was etched with 37% phosphoric acid (3M ESPE), Group 2 with 37% phosphoric (Ultradent). In Groups 5, 6, and 7, erbium, chromium-doped: Yttrium scandium-gallium-garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser (Biolase) was used for etching the using following specifications: Group 5 (1.5 W/20 Hz, 15 s), Group 6 (2 W/10 Hz, 15 s), and Group 7 (2 W/20 Hz, 15 s). In Groups 8, 9, and 10, Er, Cr: YSGG laser (Biolase) using same specifications and additional to this step, conventional etching on the buccal enamel surface was etched with 37% (3M ESPE) after laser etching. In Groups 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 3M Unitek Transbond XT primer was mixed with Rhodamine B dye (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) to etched surface and then cured for 20 s. In Group 2, Ultradents bonding agent was mixed with Rhodamine B. In Group 3, 3M Unitek Transbond PLUS, Monrovia, USA, which was mixed with Rhodamine B dye (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany). Group 4, with self-etching primer (Ultradent-Peak SE, USA) was mixed with Rhodamine B dye (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany). Later (3M Unitek, Transbond XT, Monrovia USA) [Figure 1] was used to bond the modified Begg brackets (T. P. Orthodontics) in Groups 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. In Groups 2, 4 Ultradent-Peak LC Bond was used to bond the modified brackets. After curing brackets were debonded, and enamel depth penetration was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscope. Results: Group J had a mean maximum depth of penetration of 100.876 μm, and Group D was the least having a maximum value of 44.254 μm. Conclusions: Laser alone groups had comparable depths of penetration to that of self-etching groups but much lower than conventional acid etched groups.
  1,425 51 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Bleaching of fluorosis stains using sodium hypochlorite
Narendra Varma Penumatsa, Rajashekhara Bhari Sharanesha
August 2015, 7(6):766-768
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163552  PMID:26538964
Fluorosis staining is commonly considered an esthetic problem because of the psychological impact of unesthetic maxillary anterior teeth. Numerous treatment approaches have been proposed, ranging from bleaching to enamel reduction to restorative techniques. Bleaching of hypomineralized enamel lesions, using 5% sodium hypochlorite, has been useful clinically. The technique described, in this case, appears to have advantages over other methods for improving the appearance of fluorotic lesions. It is simple, low cost, noninvasive, so the enamel keeps its structure, relatively rapid, and safe; it requires no special materials, and it can be used with safety on young permanent teeth.
  1,396 56 2
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The prevalence of mandibular incisive nerve canal and to evaluate its average location and dimension in Indian population
AS Ramesh, K Rijesh, Aruna Sharma, R Prakash, Arun Kumar, Karthik
August 2015, 7(6):594-596
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163559  PMID:26538925
Aim: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of the mandibular incisive canal, evaluate its location and dimensions using cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) in Indian population. Materials and Methods: CBCT scan images of 120 subjects were analyzed for the presence of the mandibular incisive canal, its location, size, and its length. The distance between the incisive canal and the buccal and lingual plate of the alveolar bone, and the distance from the canal to the inferior border of the mandible were also measured to position the canal in the mandible. Results: About 71.66% of the CBCT scans of Indian subjects examined showed the presence of the Incisive canal, of which 48.33% exhibited canals bilaterally and 23.33% showed unilateral canals. 28.33% of the subjects CBCT scans did not exhibit the presence of incisive nerve canal. The average length of the incisive canal was 10.173 mm. The average diameter of the Incisive canal in the CBCT scans was 2.578 mm. The distance from the Inferior border of the mandible to (a) the origin of the Incisive canal was 9.425 mm and (b) to the apex of the Incisive canal was 9.095 mm. The distance from the buccal cortex of the mandible to (a) the origin of the incisive canal was 1.48 mm and (b) to the apex of the incisive canal was 4.476 mm. The distance from the lingual cortex of the mandible to (a) the origin of the incisive canal was 4.464 mm and (b) to the apex of the incisive canal was 5.561 mm. Conclusion: The presence, location, and dimensions of the mandibular incisive canal are an additional required data that needs to be elicited before planning an inter-foraminal placement of implants.
  1,345 84 1
Gender identification and morphologic classification of tooth, arch and palatal forms in Saudi population
Aljanakh Mohammad, Pavankumar Ravi Koralakunte
August 2015, 7(6):486-490
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163510  PMID:26538903
Aims: To determine various tooth form, arch form, and palatal form with gender identification between males and females of the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: Irreversible hydrocolloid impressions were made of the maxillary teeth of 100 dentate male and female subjects to obtain study casts. A standardized procedure was adopted to photograph the maxillary dental arches and the maxillary central incisors on the study casts taken from each subject. The outline form of tooth, arch, and palatal form were determined using a standardized method. The average of six prosthodontist's evaluation was considered who classified the outline tracings visually. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square and results tabulated. Results: The predominant tooth is combination form in males and ovoid form in females, the predominant arch is ovoid form in males and square form in females and the predominant palatal form are both U and V shaped in males and U-shaped in females. Conclusion: Except for the tooth form there was a significant difference with arch and palatal form among males and females of the population group studied. The determined tooth, arch and palatal forms are useful in selection and arrangement of artificial teeth among Saudi edentulous population group. Generalizing from the study is questionable as the sample size is small. Further studies should be conducted in a larger sample to confirm the study results
  1,348 62 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Stevens-Johnson syndrome induced by a combination of lamotrigine and valproic acid
S Kavitha, T Anbuchelvan, V Mahalakshmi, R Sathya, TR Sabarinath, N Gururaj, S Kalaivani
August 2015, 7(6):756-758
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163545  PMID:26538961
Lamotrigine and valproic acid are well-tolerated anticonvulsants, but frequently associated with severe cutaneous reactions, such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis, when used in combination. We report a case of SJS likely induced by the use of a lamotrigine and valproic acid regimen and as a dental surgeon it is important to identify such lesion and report to pharmacovigilance.
  1,348 50 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Acupuncture - An effective tool in the management of gag reflex
M Vijay Anand, Rathika Rai, Nirmal F Bettie, Hari Ramachandiran, Solomon , Subramaniyam Praveena
August 2015, 7(6):677-679
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163601  PMID:26538942
Gagging is of great concern to the dentist as it is a serious impediment during the execution of various dental procedures. The etiology of gagging is multifactorial, and several suggestions have been offered to arrest this reflex, some of which are nonsustainable and does not show the immediate result. Acupuncture has been successfully employed as an adjunct to local anesthesia in dental extractions, pain management and also in the symptomatic management of temporomandibular joint disorders. The author highlights the application of acupuncture in the management of patients with gag reflex during dental procedures and its benefits are reported.
  1,322 54 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Crown lengthening procedure in the management of amelogenesis imperfecta
S Kalaivani, Jenish Manohar, P Shakunthala, S Sujatha, SA Rajasekaran, B Karthikeyan, S Kalaiselvan
August 2015, 7(6):769-772
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163553  PMID:26538965
Full mouth rehabilitation includes a promising treatment planning and execution thus fulfilling esthetic, occlusal, and functional parameters maintaining the harmony of the stomatognathic system. Crown lengthening procedures have become an integral component of the esthetic armamentarium and are utilized with increasing frequency to enhance the appearance of restorations placed in the esthetic zone. Crown lengthening plays a role to create healthy relationship of the gingiva and bone levels so as to gain access to more of the tooth which can be restored, if it is badly worn, decayed or fractured, below the gum line. This paper highlights the full mouth crown lengthening procedure performed on a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta.
  1,323 44 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
A review of clinical and radiological features of cleidocranial dysplasia with a report of two cases and a dental treatment protocol
S Arun Paul, S Sibu Simon, A Kaneesh Karthik, Rabin K Chacko, S Savitha
August 2015, 7(6):428-432
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163490  PMID:26538892
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare autosomal dominant condition with generalized dysplasia of bone characterized by delayed closure of cranial sutures, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles, short stature, dental abnormalities and a variety of other skeletal abnormalities. We report two cases presenting with classical features of CCD because of its rarity.
  1,310 56 -
Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia - Mystery of pathogenesis revisited
R Sarangarajan, VK Vaishnavi Vedam, G Sivadas, Anuradha Sarangarajan, S Meera
August 2015, 7(6):420-423
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163474  PMID:26538890
Oral ulcers are a common symptom in clinical practice. Among various causative factors, different types of ulcers in oral cavity exist. Among this, traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE) appears to be quite neglected by the clinicians due to the limited knowledge and awareness. On reviewing with a detailed approach to titles and abstracts of articles eliminating duplicates, 40 relevant articles were considered. Randomized studies, review articles, case reports and abstracts were included while conference papers and posters were excluded. Of importance, TUGSE cases been reported only to a minimal extent in the literature. Lack of its awareness tends to lead clinicians to a misconception of cancer. Thus, this particular lesion needs to be differentiated from other malignant lesions to provide a proper mode of treatment. The present article reviews various aspects of the TUGSE with emphasis on the clinical manifestation, pathogenesis, histological, and immunohistochemical study. This study provides the clinician contemporaries, a humble expansion to their knowledge of the disease, based on the searched literature, enabling a more comprehensive management of this rare occurrence.
  1,307 54 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Peri-implant soft tissue management: A case report (2 years follow-up) (Patrick Palacci technique revisited)
VR Balaji, R Lambodharan, V Lavanya
August 2015, 7(6):819-822
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163589  PMID:26538980
Peri-implant plastic surgery aims at improving the esthetic aspects of smile and masticatory function. Over the years, several techniques such as tissue punch technique, full thickness flaps, and scalloping adjustment of flaps around implants have been employed; it was very difficult to achieve a papilla like formation around implants. These added time and expense of the final results and led to undesirable complications. In order to overcome these difficulties, this case report describes a surgical technique where in papilla like formation and increase in width of attached gingiva around implants can be achieved with a single surgical procedure.
  1,305 53 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of dental age in protein energy malnutrition children
Vinod Kumar, Kavitha Patil, Karishma Munoli
August 2015, 7(6):567-571
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163543  PMID:26538919
Background: Knowledge of dental age is very essential for a dental practitioner in planning treatment and it is a supplementary source of information for Pediatrician, Orthopedician and Endocrinologist. There are few studies in the literature about the comparison of dental with chronological age in protein energy malnutrition children (PEM). Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dental age and chronological age in PEM children. Aims and Objective: To determine and compare dental age and chronological age in PEM children. Methods: A total of 100 PEM children within the age range of 6-12 years were selected. Chronological age was recorded using date of birth. Dental age was assessed by Demirjian's method using orthopantomogram. Comparison of two ages was done using the unpaired Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Dental age was retarded compared to chronological age, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The correlations between two ages were positive in both sexes. Conclusion: Dental age was delayed in our sample of 100 PEM children. Dental age can be considered as variable for diagnosing growth retardation in PEM children. Further studies are required to support our findings.
  1,317 39 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Construction of a three-dimensional finite element model of maxillary first molar and it's supporting structures
M Sameena Begum, MR Dinesh, Kenneth F. H. Tan, Vani Jairaj, K Md Khalid, Varun Pratap Singh
August 2015, 7(6):443-450
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163496  PMID:26538895
The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful computational tool for solving stress-strain problems; its ability to handle material inhomogeneity and complex shapes makes the FEM, the most suitable method for the analysis of internal stress levels in the tooth, periodontium, and alveolar bone. This article intends to explain the steps involved in the generation of a three-dimensional finite element model of tooth, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone, as the procedure of modeling is most important because the result is based on the nature of the modeling systems. Finite element analysis offers a means of determining strain-stress levels in the tooth, ligament, and bone structures for a broad range of orthodontic loading scenarios without producing tissue damage.
  1,273 54 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antibacterial efficacy and effect of Morinda citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid for dental impressions: A randomized controlled trial
A Shafath Ahmed, P David Charles, R Cholan, M Russia, R Surya, L Jailance
August 2015, 7(6):597-599
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163562  PMID:26538926
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate whether the extract of Morinda citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid powder decreases microbial contamination during impression making without affecting the resulting casts. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10). Group A 30 ml extract of M. citrifolia L diluted in 30 ml of water was mixed to make the impression with irreversible hydrocolloid material. Group B 30 ml deionized water was mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid material to make the impressions following which the surface roughness and dimensional stability of casts were evaluated. Results: Extract of M. citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid decreased the percentage of microorganisms when compared with water (P < 0.001) but did not affect the surface quality or dimensional stability of the casts. Conclusion: Mixing the extract of M. citrifolia L. with irreversible hydrocolloid powder is an alternative method to prevent contamination without sacrificing impression quality.
  1,272 47 1
Evaluation of Health on the Net seal label and DISCERN as content quality indicators for patients seeking information about thumb sucking habit
DP Shital Kiran, Seema Bargale, Parth Pandya, Kuntal Bhatt, Nirav Barad, Nilay Shah, Karthik Venkataraghavan, K Ramesh
August 2015, 7(6):481-485
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163509  PMID:26538902
Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of websites on the thumb sucking habit using DISCERN instrument and Health on the Net (HON) seal code at a single moment in time. Subjects and Methods: An Internet search engine (www.google.com) was used to identify websites comprising information on "thumb sucking habit." Of over 204,000 links for thumb sucking habit, the first 100 were analyzed in detail. After excluding discussion groups, news and video feeds, and removing carbon copy sites, only 36 relevant websites remained, which were then assessed using the DISCERN instrument and HON seal code. Using the 16 questions of DISCERN for assessing the reliability and quality of the consumer information which were scored from 1 to 5, an appropriate index of the quality of the information was generated. All the assessed websites were also checked for presence or absence of HON seal code. Results: The maximum score attainable for an outstanding website is 80. Of the 36 websites that were scored the highest score obtained by one of the websites according to the DISCERN tool was 55 of 80, and the lowest score achieved was 16 of 80. The websites achieving the maximum and minimum score were children.webmd.com and thebehaviorsolution.com, respectively. The HON seal was displayed only in three websites, which were medicinenet.com, righthealth.com, and children.webmd.com. Conclusions: By directing patients to validated websites on the thumb sucking habit, clinicians can ensure patients find appropriate information.
  1,280 37 4
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Surgical management of a large cleft palate in a Pierre Robin sequence: A case report and review of literature
Sherry Andrews, Mathew Sam, Ramesh Krishnan, Maya Ramesh, Shiji M Kunjappan
August 2015, 7(6):718-720
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163498  PMID:26538951
Pierre Robin syndrome or Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a congenital etiologically heterogeneous condition presenting with various malformations. Here we are reporting the surgical management of an 18-month-old female baby who was referred from Department of Pediatrics with a complaint of a large cleft palate. She was taken up for palatoplasty with consent for elective tracheostomy. After genetic evaluation, the authors conclude that the presented case was a PRS in isolation with mild cardiac anomalies and an inferiorly placed hypoplastic epiglottis. Patient should be followed up and growth modifications of the jaws should be done.
  1,272 38 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Stem cells: An insight into the therapeutic aspects from medical and dental perspectives
Muniapillai Sivakumar, Janardhanam Dineshshankar, PM Sunil, R Madhavan Nirmal, J Sathiyajeeva, Balasubramanian Saravanan, AR Senthileagappan
August 2015, 7(6):361-371
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163453  PMID:26538878
The recent advancements in the field of stem cell (SC) biology have increased the hope of achieving the definitive treatments for the diseases which are now considered incurable such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease and other chronic long standing conditions. To achieve this possibility, it is necessary to understand the basic concepts of SC biology to utilize in various advanced techniques of regenerative medicine including tissue engineering and gene therapy. This article highlights the types of SCs available and their therapeutic capacity in regenerative medical and dental fields.
  1,225 83 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An in vitro evaluation of the demineralization inhibitory effect of F varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on enamel in young permanent teeth
Vinola Duraisamy, Ananda Xavier, Ullal Anand Nayak, Venugopal Reddy, Arun Prasad Rao
August 2015, 7(6):513-517
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163521  PMID:26538909
Aims and Objectives: To determine the demineralization inhibitory potential of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and to compare and evaluate the additive effect of fluoride varnish + CPP-ACP. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy premolar teeth that were extracted for orthodontic purposes were collected, and each tooth was longitudinally sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally into four sections. The teeth were then assigned to four different treatment groups namely fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, F varnish followed by CPP-ACP and control. The prepared enamel samples were suspended in an artificial caries challenge for 10 days. The demineralizing inhibitory effects of the groups were recorded using polarized light microscopy. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range tests. Results: The mean lesion depths of all the groups were Group 1 (fluoride varnish): 104.71, Group 2 (CPP-ACP): 127.09, Group 3: (F varnish + CPP-ACP): 82.34, Group 4 (control): 146.93. Conclusion: Demineralization inhibitory potential on the additive use of F varnish and casein phosphopeptide was superior to fluoride varnish or CPP-ACP applied alone on the enamel of young permanent teeth.
  1,250 56 1
Efficacy of 2% mepivacaine and 2% lignocaine in the surgical extraction of mesioangular angulated bilaterally impacted third molars: A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial
S Barath, V. S. S. Triveni, G. V. Naga Sai Sujai, G Harikishan
August 2015, 7(6):600-606
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163564  PMID:26538927
Objective: The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 2% mepivacaine and 2% lidocaine (both with 1:80,000 epinephrine) for inferior alveolar nerve block in mesioangular bilaterally impacted third molar extraction. Study Design: Forty patients with mesioangular bilaterally impacted third molars were taken for the study; either 2% mepivacaine or 2% lidocaine is given in a double-blind manner. Surgery started 5 min after solution deposition. Success was defined as no or mild discomfort (visual analog scale [VAS] recordings) during the surgical procedure. Results: The mean time for onset period 4.2 min and 4.6 min (P = 0.018). The mean duration anesthesia 177.17 min 166.71 min (P = 0.085). No significant difference between the scores of pain reported by the patients by VAS and venovenous bypass treated with mepivacaine and lidocaine (P = 0.000). Slight increased postoperative analgesics required for mepivacaine group (4.000 tablets) and lidocaine group (4.170 tablets) (P = 0.335). The sharp increase of pulse rate with respect to both the solutions at 5 min after postinjection of local anesthetics. However, there was no statically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood (P = 0.681) and (P = 0.270). Conclusion: Lidocaine and mepivacaine with the same vasoconstrictor have similar action and both solutions are effective in surgical procedures. There were also no significant differences between them in relation to the intensity of postoperative pain.
  1,259 46 1
Prevalence of partial edentulousness among the patients reporting to the Department of Prosthodontics Sri Ramachandra University Chennai, India: An epidemiological study
Seenivasan Madhankumar, Kasim Mohamed, Shanmuganathan Natarajan, V Anand Kumar, I Athiban, TV Padmanabhan
August 2015, 7(6):643-647
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163580  PMID:26538935
Aims and Objectives: To determine the occurrence of various missing teeth pattern among the partial edentulous patients residing in Chennai who are undergoing treatment for the replacement of missing teeth in the Department of Prosthodontics, Sri Ramachandra University Chennai, India. Settings and Design: Study was undertaken from January 2014 to October 2014, and the design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and sixty-one persons aged between 13 and 87 years (267 males and 294 females) were selected, intraoral examination was done visually and results were recorded on specially designed clinical examination forms. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using statistics SPSS 19.0 version (IBM India Private Limited Bangalore) to investigate the relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The results showed the patients with Kennedy's Class III were found to be the most prevalent among all the groups (55%). The most common modification in all the groups was Class III modification I (26%). It was also found that Kennedy's Class III was founded more in the age group of 31-40 with 54.4% in the maxillary arch and 47.2% in the mandibular arch. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the Kennedy's Class III was the most commonly occurring and were found to be more predominant in the younger group of population.
  1,217 73 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
The extended tentacles of laser - From diagnosis to treatment in orthodontics: An overview
SD Milling Tania, Cynthia Sathiasekar, Job Jacob Anison, BV Samyukta Reddy
August 2015, 7(6):387-392
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163462  PMID:26538884
Since the introduction of lasers in dentistry in the mid-1990's, research in laser supported dental therapies is progressing at a rapid pace. Orthodontics is no exception. In orthodontics, lasers have many diagnostic, therapeutic, and biomodulating applications. To update the various applications of lasers in orthodontics. Lasers work by delivering energy in the form of light. Laser, striking the biological tissues can either get reflected, absorbed or scattered depending on several factors. Depending on the fate of the emitted laser, it can be applied for different diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical procedures. The knowledge and understanding of different types of lasers and its specific applications is a prerequisite before it can be applied beneficially. In Orthodontics, the versatility of laser has expanded into bonding, curing, debonding, imaging, growth modification, pain reduction, etc. Definitely laser has extended its tentacles from diagnosis to treatment in orthodontics.
  1,231 59 -
Squamous cell carcinoma and dental implants: A systematic review of case reports
S Jeelani, E Rajkumar, G Geena Mary, Parvez Ahmad Khan, Harish Gopal, Soumya Roy, T Maheswaran, B Anand
August 2015, 7(6):378-380
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163457  PMID:26538881
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death world-wide. Apart from the most common etiopathological factors related to cancer, at times very rare causes such as irritant or foreign body induced carcinogenesis is not to be overlooked. To systematically review case reports concerned with the association between dental implants and oral squamous cell carcinoma. A Medline (PubMed), Cochrane database, and Google Scholar search was conducted of dental article published in English related to case reports concerned with oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring around dental implants from 2000 to 2014. Twenty articles were retrieved, which included 20 rare case reports which were systematically reviewed and the results were obtained pertaining to age, clinical symptoms, habits, previous history of cancer, potentially malignant disorders, systemic illness, and local factors. It is imperative to identify promptly persisting inflammation associated with implants. Since malignancy may disguise as periimplantitis, especially in patients who are at risk with contributing prominent predisposing factors.
  1,240 50 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of shear bond strength between zirconia core and ceramic veneers fabricated by pressing and layering techniques: In vitro study
M Subash, D Vijitha, Saikat Deb, A Satish, N Mahendirakumar
August 2015, 7(6):612-615
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163568  PMID:26538929
Statement of Problem: Although ceramic veneered on to zirconia core have been in use for quite some time, information regarding the comparative evaluation of the Shear bond strength of Pressable & Layered ceramic veneered on to zirconia core is limited. Purpose of study: To evaluate the shear bond strength of zirconia core and ceramic veneer fabricated by two different techniques, Layering (Noritake CZR) and Pressing (Noritake, CZR Press). Materials and Method: 20 samples of zirconia blocks were fabricated and the samples were divided into group A & B. Group A - Ceramic Veneered over zirconia core by pressing using Noritake CZR Press. Group B - Ceramic Veneered over zirconia core by layering using Noritake CZR. The veneered specimens were mounted on to the center of a PVC tube using self-cure acrylic resin leaving 3 mm of the veneered surface exposed as cantilever. Using a Universal testing machine the blocks were loaded up to failure. Result: The results were tabulated by using independent samples t-test. The mean shear bond strength for Pressed specimens was 12.458 ΁ 1.63(S.D) MPa and for layered specimens was 8.458 ΁ 0.845(S.D) MPa. Conclusion: Pressed specimens performed significantly better than the layered specimen with a P value 0.001. Clinicians and dental laboratory technicians should consider the use of pressed ceramics as an alternative to traditional layering procedures to reduce the chances of chipping or de-lamination of ceramics
  1,236 52 -
Prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma of tongue in and around Davangere, Karnataka, India: A retrospective study over 13 years
M Selvamani, Andamuthu Yamunadevi, Praveen S Basandi, GS Madhushankari
August 2015, 7(6):491-494
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163511  PMID:26538904
Aim: The aim was to determine the frequency and distribution of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) involving tongue among patients by studying biopsy specimens obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India, during the past 13 years. Methodology: Data for the study were retrieved from the case records of patients. Analyzed clinical variables included age, sex, anatomical site, and histological diagnosis. Results: Of the 369 squamous cell carcinoma involving head and neck region, we found 52 biopsies reported exclusively involving tongue. Lateral border of the tongue was most commonly involved (43 cases, 82.7%), followed by base of tongue and posterior part of tongue. The patient were affected over a wide range of 27-80 years with mean age of 55.75 years and peak incidence was seen in the fourth and fifth decades of life, with the male: female ratio of 1.7:1. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of OSCC involving tongue showed a definite geographic variation when compared with a study done in other parts of the world.
  1,189 92 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
A simple method of enhancing retention in interim hollow bulb obturator in a case of an acquired palatal defect
S Karthikeyan, K Balu, V Devaki, R Ajay
August 2015, 7(6):782-785
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163561  PMID:26538969
Maxillary defects occur either as a result of surgical resection of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses or of the congenital causes. Rehabilitation of the patients with maxillectomy defects presents a challenge in restoring the lost form, function and speech. Maxillary interim obturators in prosthetic reconstruction of the defects are often complicated with lack of adequate retention, stability, and support. This case report presents the simplified approach, to rehabilitate a case of sub-total maxillectomy due to squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus, using a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis fabricated with a "U" loop and a modified buccal flange for enhanced retention of the prosthesis.
  1,210 54 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Association between chronic periodontitis and hypertension in South Indian population: A cross-sectional study
Preethe Paddmanabhan, Bagvad Gita, SC Chandrasekaran
August 2015, 7(6):543-547
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163535  PMID:26538914
Aim: The aim of this work was investigating if there is any association between chronic periodontitis and hypertension, to assess any individual relationship with Basal metabolic index (BMI) and any association with white blood cell count (WBC count) in South Indian population. Settings and Design: This study is a cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 77 patients between the age group of 30-50 years, who were included after excluding risk factors for hypertension. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Sree Balaji Dental College in the Outpatient Department of Periodontology. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded in the sitting, standing, and lying positions. The three positions were examined to assess the mean value of BP. Other data collected include sociodemographic details, diet, education status, height, weight, BMI, and WBC. The periodontal status of the subjects was assessed by the bleeding index (Ainamo and Bay) and community periodontal index by community periodontal index and treatment needs. Statistical Data: The statistical data were assessed by SPSS software version 17. Results: There were 77 subjects participated in this study. However, there was an association between BMI sitting systolic BP is negative the P = 0.044, which is significant. Mean of generalized chronic periodontitis in sitting systolic BP is 118.0833 (95% confidence intervals 112.17 ΁ 123.99). Conclusions: We did not find any statistical significance between these two variables. However, this study is a cross-sectional study further; longitudinal studies need to be done to establish the true phenomena.
  1,208 47 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of proteomics in physiologic and pathologic conditions of dentistry: Overview
Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan Yoithapprabhunath, Ramadas Madhavan Nirmal, Arumugam Santhadevy, Abraham Anusushanth, Duraisamy Charanya, Rojiluke , KK Sri Chinthu, Andamuthu Yamunadevi
August 2015, 7(6):344-349
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163448  PMID:26538875
Proteomics is the study of structure and function of proteins in a large scale. For any living organism, preteins are considered to be the vital part because of its role in metabolic pathways of cells. These proteins not only play a role in physiological condition of the cell but also in altered manner during pathologic conditions. These altered proteins in diseased conditions are called as biomarkers. Several such biomarkers were identified in oral diseaes. This review is a brief note on proteins involved in odontogenesis and list of altered proteins proteins identified in various dental and oral diseases. The knowledge about the role of proteomics in dentistry and the importance of proteomic studies in early diagnosis and prognostic part of oral diseases helps in appliction of precised and sucessful treatment.
  1,149 93 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Management of severe sleep apnea secondary to juvenile arthritis with temporomandibular joint replacement and mandibular advancement
S Arun Paul, S Sibu Simon, Barney Issac, Saurav Kumar
August 2015, 7(6):687-690
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163479  PMID:26538944
Variations affecting the growth centers can severely affect the normal formation and subsequent function of vital musculoskeletal structures. We report a case of bilateral condylar atrophy with a history of juvenile arthritis (JA) resulting in progressive obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adulthood. In addition to this, the case report emphasizes the role of temporomandibular joint replacement and advancement of the mandible to correct progressive OSA secondary to idiopathic JA. Computed tomography revealed micrognathia, condylar hypoplasia, and decreased pharyngeal airway space. The resultant increase in the retrolingual-pharyngeal airway space following the surgery, helped to completely resolve the presenting symptoms. It is hoped that the described technique could be used in similar cases with a predictable outcome.
  1,197 33 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Coalition of attitude and practice behaviors among dental practitioners regarding pregnant patient's oral health and pregnant patient's perception toward oral health in and around Pondicherry
S Jeelani, K Abdul Khader, R Vishwanath Rangdhol, A Dany, Swetha Paulose
August 2015, 7(6):509-512
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163520  PMID:26538908
Background: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, practice behaviors among general dental practitioners and assess the perception toward oral health by pregnant patients in and around Puducherry. Methodology: A self-designed and structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from the dental practitioner and the pregnant patients. Results: The majority of the dental practitioners had a lack of knowledge, attitude, practice behaviors regarding pregnant patient's oral health and similarly majority of pregnant patient's perception toward oral health was poor. Conclusions: Drowning and dilemmatic attitude and practice behavior of dentists to be streamlined to render right care to the pregnant women at the right time. Perplexing perception toward oral health care by pregnant women to be overcome to orient them to understand the impact of oral health on their general systemic health.
  1,183 47 2
Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid β-glucuronidase levels in health, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis
PP Sanara, Mohammed Shereef, Shashikanth Hegde, KS Rajesh, MS Arun Kumar, Shabeer Mohamed
August 2015, 7(6):660-665
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163596  PMID:26538939
Background and Objectives: Current methods available for periodontal disease diagnosis are seriously deficient in terms of accuracy, in the ability to predict ongoing or future disease activity and indeed in determining whether previously diseased sites are in an arrested phase or still active. One area that is receiving a great deal of attention is the biochemical investigation of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). β-glucuronidase (βG) is one of the enzymes found in GCF that is involved in degradation of the ground substance and fibrillar components of host connective tissue. GCF βG activity might be a good indicator or predictor of periodontal disease activity. This study was conducted to estimate and compare the GCF βG levels in patients with healthy periodontium, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. Methodology: Subjects were classified into three groups of 20 patients each; healthy individuals, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. After recording the plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth, 1 μL GCF was collected by placing a calibrated microcapillary pipette extracrevicularly and transferred to sterile plastic vials containing 350 μL of normal saline with 1% bovine serum albumin. Analysis of βG was done by spectrophotometry Results: βG levels in GCF were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group (mean value - 2.04743), followed by chronic gingivitis group (mean - 1.11510) and healthy group (0.53643). Conclusion: Increased βG levels were observed in patients with increased periodontal destruction, hence GCF βG levels can be used as biochemical marker for periodontal disease activity.
  1,145 51 1
Evaluation of transcription factor that regulates T helper 17 and regulatory T cells function in periodontal health and disease
B Karthikeyan, Talwar , KV Arun, S Kalaivani
August 2015, 7(6):672-676
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163602  PMID:26538941
Background: The differentiation of naοve T helper (Th) cells towards Th17 and regulatory T cells (Treg) is regulated by the transcription factors retinoic acid related orphan receptor gamma transcription (RORYt) and Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), respectively. An imbalance in the activity of these transcription factors could result in the dysregulation of Th17/Treg response. Materials and Methods: Total RNA was isolated from gingival tissue obtained from 10 patients, each from periodontally healthy and diseased groups. The gene expression of RORYt and Foxp3 was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerization chain reaction using total RNA isolates from gingival tissues group when compared to the healthy group, while Foxp3 demonstrated a 6.68 ΁ 0.03 fold decrease of expression in diseased group when compared to healthy group. Conclusion: Our results indicate a functional imbalance in the Th17/Treg response in periodontal disease group when compared to the periodontally healthy group.
  1,159 33 2
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Ghost teeth: Regional odontodysplasia of maxillary first molar associated with eruption disorders in a 10-year-old girl
Anju Mathew, Liju Mercley Dauravu, SN Reddy, K Retna Kumar, V Venkataramana
August 2015, 7(6):800-803
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163570  PMID:26538974
 Regional odontodysplasia (RO) is an uncommon, developmental anomaly of the dental hard tissues that affects ectodermal and mesodermal dental components with characteristic clinical and radiographic findings. Clinically, RO affects a particular segment in either or both dentitions in the maxilla or mandible or both jaws. Radiographic features have consistently demonstrated thin and defective layers of enamel and dentine, resulting in a faint, fuzzy outline, creating a ghost-like appearance. The RO etiology is uncertain; numerous factors have been suggested and considered as local trauma, irradiation, hypophosphatasia, hypocalcemia, hyperpyrexia. A case of RO in a 10-year-old girl whose chief complaint were forwardly placed upper front teeth and the absence of eruption of permanent teeth. Clinical and radiographic features are described.
  1,145 43 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - EDITORIAL
Indian Academy of Dental Specialists releases it's annual dental science literature as print dental suppliment in association with jpbsonline.org from India, August 2015
GJ Anbuselvan
August 2015, 7(6):319-319
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163434  PMID:26538869
  1,106 77 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of cigarette smoking on the severity of periodontal diseases among adults of Kothamangalam Town, Kerala
Mohammed Shereef, PP Sanara, Sasikumar Karuppanan, AM Noorudeen, Kiran Joseph
August 2015, 7(6):648-651
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163588  PMID:26538936
Aims and Objectives: Smoking is one of the major risk factors for periodontal disease. This study aims at examining the difference in the periodontal status of current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers among the adults of Kothamangalam, Kerala. It investigates the association between the level of cigarette consumption and periodontal attachment loss taking into account the effect of age, gender, and oral hygiene. Methodology: The study population consisted of 30 subjects and divided into three groups as current, former, and nonsmokers with periodontal disease. All clinical parameters were recorded. Smoking assessment was done using a self-reported questionnaire, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Current smokers had a higher percentage of sites with mean probing depth, and greater mean clinical attachment level than former smokers and nonsmoker. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in clinical attachment loss (CAL) between Group I (current smokers) and III (nonsmokers), that shows the increased risk of current smokers for future periodontal destruction. The CAL for current smokers was 5.20 ± 2.440 and for the nonsmokers was 1.50 ± 1.265. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in CAL between Group I and III. Summary and Conclusion: The study revealed a marked association between cigarette smoking and the risk of periodontitis. The increased destruction among current smokers showed a dose-dependent relationship with the amount of cigarette consumption. For former smokers, the duration since quitting smoking was associated with a lower risk for severe periodontitis.
  1,133 46 -
Estimation and comparison of serum cortisol levels in periodontally diseased patients and periodontally healthy individuals: A clinical-biochemical study
G Rohini, S Kalaivani, Vipin Kumar, SA Rajasekar, Jaishree Tuckaram, Vinisha Pandey
August 2015, 7(6):457-460
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163501  PMID:26538897
Introduction: Psychological conditions, particularly psychosocial stress have been implicated as risk indicators of periodontal disease. Stress increases cortisol production from the adrenal cortex by stimulating an increase in the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Increased cortisol production suppresses the immune response and increases the potential of periodontal tissue destruction. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the serum cortisol levels in periodontally diseased patients and periodontally healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Total of 45 subjects were recruited for this study and were categorized into three groups. Group I - Comprised of aggressive periodontitis patients (n = 15), Group II - Chronic periodontitis patients (n = 15), and Group III - Healthy controls (n = 15). Serum samples were collected from each of the groups and cortisol levels were determined using cortisol immunoassay kit. Clinical examination covered probing depth, gingival index (GI), gingival recession, plaque index, and clinical attachment level. The statistical analysis was done using nonparameteric t-test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: With respect to cortisol, the levels were higher in Group-I compared to the other groups. On comparison of mean cortisol levels among the groups, the values were statistically significant between Group-I and Group-III. Group-I showed a significant negative correlation between cortisol levels and GI. Conclusion: Within the limits of the study serum cortisol levels was higher in the chronic periodontitis group compared to the other groups. Positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and other clinical parameters except for the GI.
  1,110 67 -
A case-control study to detect the extent of DNA damage in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reactions using comet assay
N Madhulika, R Vishwanath Rangdhol, G Sitra, John Ballaiah, R Arun Jaikumar, S Brooklyin
August 2015, 7(6):451-456
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163499  PMID:26538896
Aim: This study aims to quantify the extent of DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reactions (OLRs) using comet assay. Methodology: Lymphocytes from peripheral blood were subjected to alkaline comet assay. Comet length (CL), head diameter (HD), percentage of DNA in head, tail length (TL), percentage of DNA in tail, tail intensity, tail mean and tail moment were compared between study group (OLP and OLR) and control group using Student's t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine the linear association between the variables. Results: Significantly higher levels of DNA damage was present in study group as reflected by CL, HD and TL, tail intensity and tail moment with P = 0.0001; percentage of DNA in head and tail with P = 0.02 and tail mean with P = 0.012. Conclusion: This study brings out the fact that DNA damage measured by comet assay was greater in the study group when compared to the control group. As a reflection of uniqueness, this study crowns the scenario with respect to early detection and prevention of potentially malignant disorders and the process of malignant transformation.
  1,091 73 -
Comparative evaluation of effect of different irrigation solutions against Enterococcus faecalis: A polymerase chain reaction-based study
R Gnana Seelan, Arvind Kumar, R Jonathan, Uma Maheswari, Jacob Raja, P Chelliah
August 2015, 7(6):576-579
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163546  PMID:26538921
Enterococcus faecalis is the most isolated or detected species from oral infections including marginal periodontitis, infected root canals, periradicular abscesses and also detected in cases of failed endodontic therapy. To prevent endodontic treatment failure irrigation is mandatory for the effective removal of smear layer, pulp tissue, and microorganisms. Cultivation and other traditional identification methods have been demonstrated to have several limitations when it comes to microbiological identification. Polymerase chain reaction was selected because it has an added advantage over traditional microbiological methods. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted premolars were taken were taken stored in 0.1% thymol solution at 4°C decoronated to obtain 12 mm length, teeth were autoclaved at 121°C, canals were instrumented up to 35k file (International Organization for Standardization). The samples were randomly divided into three groups Group I - 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Group - II 5.25% NaOCL and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), Group III - 5.25% NaOCL and 17% EDTA and 2% CHX. Results: The results showed that Group III which is 5% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA and followed by 2% CHX showed maximum antimicrobial activity in all the three different time intervals.
  1,098 59 -
Assessment of perceptibility and acceptability of color variations between matched teeth among trainee dentist and lay person
AS Ramesh, Aruna Sharma, K Rijesh, R Prakash, Lakshmi Devi, Edilbert Raja
August 2015, 7(6):632-635
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163578  PMID:26538933
Aim: The aim of this study was to find the difference in perceptibility and acceptability of changes done to various color coordinates of matched teeth, between trainee dental surgeons, and lay person. Materials and Methods: A photograph with a set of matched central incisor teeth was selected. In one of the central incisors, the color coordinates (hue, value, and chroma) were altered to a preset value. These pictures were presented to trainee dental surgeons and lay person and their level of perception of color change and acceptance of color change was registered and compared. Results: It was found that trainee dental surgeons fared better in perceiving the color change and accepted less of the color changed specimens. The dimension of color that was more discerned both by lay person and trainee dental surgeons was value, hue, and last chroma. Conclusion: When compared to a lay person, dental surgeons are more acute in perceiving color changes and do not accept the color difference between teeth to a higher degree.
  1,107 33 -
Sprue design alterations and its effect on the properties of base metal alloy castings: An in vitro study
KR Geetha Prabhu, R Prabhu, H Maheswari, MA Eswaran, G Phanikrishna, B Deepthi
August 2015, 7(6):524-529
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163527  PMID:26538911
Introduction: To study the effect of various sprue designs on the properties of base metal alloy castings. The base metal alloys are extensively used for their excellent properties such as an increase in hardness, high melting range, high elastic modulus, its compatibility with ceramic material and low cost. However, to improve the properties of the base metal alloys is an ongoing research leading to various modifications in their fabrication procedure - which include sprue designs and their mode of attachment to the wax pattern. Aims and Objectives: Study compared the effect of three sprue designs viz. conical sprue, cylindrical sprue and bottleneck sprue on the properties of mass and microhardness of base metal alloy castings. Materials and Methods: A prefabricated wax mesh pattern was selected for the fabrication of the alloy test samples in the study. The cylindrical sprue design was connected to the mesh pattern with a straight attachment. The bottleneck sprue design was connected to the mesh pattern with a constricted attachment. The conical sprue design was connected to the mesh pattern with a flared attachment. In this manner, ten samples for each of the three different sprue designs were prepared. Results: The obtained value for mass and microhardness were subjected to statistical analysis. ANOVA test was performed to determine the difference between the sprue designs. Conclusion: The bottleneck sprue, conical sprue, and cylindrical sprue designs did not exert any apparent influence on the mass and microhardness.
  1,082 48 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Myoepithelioma
Ramasamy Sundararajan Karthik, Jambai Sampathkumar Sivakumar, Ramanujam Cholan, Shanmugapriya , Veerakesari Sundara Rajan, Murugesan Senthil Moorthy, A Yamunadevi, B Vidula Karthik
August 2015, 7(6):779-781
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163560  PMID:26538968
Myoepithelioma is a benign salivary gland tumor in the head and neck region, accounting for 1-1.5% of all glandular tumors. The diagnosis is rendered histopathologically, and it includes the proliferation of myoepithelial cells, without chondroid or myxochondroid stroma and ductal components (up to 5% of ductal component is acceptable). In our case report, this lesion has occurred in a 46-year-old female patient, and presented as well defined, nodular growth on the right posterior palatal region. Bony erosion and invasion were observed radiographically, and the lesion was excised surgically, with 1-2 cm of clear margin. The microscopic features included proliferating tumor sheets, composed of bland looking spindle and plasmacytoid shaped myoepithelial cells, and few cells showed clear cytoplasm, which were confirmed immunohistochemically as myoepithelial cells. Thus, the final diagnosis of benign myoepithelioma was rendered and no recurrence had been reported so far in the regular follow-up.
  1,076 46 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 8 levels in health and periodontal disease: A clinic-biochemical study
Sugumari Elavarasu, Thangakumaran Suthanthiran, Arthiie Thangavelu, Jayashakthi Saravanan, Saranya Selvaraj, Lakshmi Mohandas
August 2015, 7(6):470-473
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163507  PMID:26538900
Aim and Background: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8) is a marker belonging to the class of ADAM family of metalloproteinase which is found to be involved in inflammation and bone resorption in periodontal disease by acting as osteoclast stimulating factor. In several systemic inflammatory diseases, elevated levels of ADAM8 are detected in human serum and other body fluids. Recently, ADAM8 was even detected in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with periodontal diseases. Hence, the aim of the study was to estimate the levels of ADAM8 in GCF of healthy and chronic periodontitis subjects. Materials and Methods: Periodontal examination and collection of GCF by the extracrevicular method was performed in 30 subjects selected randomly and categorized into two groups. Group I (healthy, n = 15) and Group II (chronic periodontitis, n = 15). ADAM8 levels in GCF were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: ADAM8 was detected in both Group I and II. Highest mean ADAM8 concentration was obtained for Group II, whereas the lowest concentration was seen in Group I. This suggests that ADAM8 levels increase proportionally with the progression of periodontal disease. There was a significant correlation between ADAM8 levels and clinical parameters in the study group. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that the ADAM8 levels in GCF are positively associated with periodontal disease, which may provide a useful tool in monitoring its progression. Nevertheless, further longitudinal studies are required with larger sample sizes in which ADAM8 levels are progressively estimated and compared to baseline values.
  1,072 41 2
Comparative evaluation of nickel discharge from brackets in artificial saliva at different time intervals
C Jithesh, V Venkataramana, Narendravarma Penumatsa, SN Reddy, KY Poornima, K Rajasigamani
August 2015, 7(6):587-593
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163557  PMID:26538924
Objectives: To determine and compare the potential difference of nickel release from three different orthodontic brackets, in different artificial pH, in different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven samples of three different orthodontic brackets were selected and grouped as 1, 2, and 3. Each group was divided into three subgroups depending on the type of orthodontic brackets, salivary pH and the time interval. The Nickel release from each subgroup were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer, Optima 2100 DV, USA) model. Quantitative analysis of nickel was performed three times, and the mean value was used as result. ANOVA (F-test) was used to test the significant difference among the groups at 0.05 level of significance (P < 0.05). The descriptive method of statistics was used to calculate the mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum. SPSS 18 software ((SPSS.Ltd, Quarry bay, Hong Kong, PASW-statistics 18) was used to analyze the study. Result: The analysis shows a significant difference between three groups. The study shows that the nickel releases from the recycled stainless steel brackets have the highest at all 4.2 pH except in 120 h. Conclusion: The study result shows that the nickel release from the recycled stainless steel brackets is highest. Metal slot ceramic bracket release significantly less nickel. So, recycled stainless steel brackets should not be used for nickel allergic patients. Metal slot ceramic brackets are advisable.
  1,060 48 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura
Anisha Cynthia Sathiasekar, D Angeline Deepthi, G Suresh Sathia Sekar
August 2015, 7(6):827-829
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163595  PMID:26538982
Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura is a skin condition result from a low platelet count due to drug-induced anti-platelet antibodies caused by drugs. Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura should be suspected when a patient, child or adult, has sudden, severe thrombocytopenia. Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura is even more strongly suspected when a patient has repeated episodes of sudden, severe thrombocytopenia
  1,049 43 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of remineralization capacity of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the carbamide peroxide treated enamel
Narendra Varma Penumatsa, Raja Rajeswari Kaminedi, Kusai Baroudi, Ola Barakath
August 2015, 7(6):583-586
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163556  PMID:26538923
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in remineralizing the bleached enamel surface using micro-hardness. Materials and Methods: Thirty human enamel slabs were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). Groups A and B were exposed to 20% carbamide peroxide and 35% carbamide peroxide gel, respectively. After the exposure to the bleaching agent, the slabs were kept in artificial saliva for 1-week. Group C (control group) were kept in artificial saliva for 1-week. Vickers micro-hardness test was performed by Leica VMHT-Mot micro-hardness tester. CPP-ACP (Gc Tooth Mousse, Melbourne, Australia) was then applied to specimens of Groups A and B for 3 min for 2 weeks. Micro-hardness values of postbleach Group A (Ar) and Group B (Br) were recorded and statistically analyzed by paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance at the significance level of α =0.05. Results: There was a significant decrease in micro-hardness of enamel in carbamide peroxide bleached groups. However, there was a significant increase in micro-hardness after the remineralization by CPP-ACP and the extent of remineralization is more for the Group B. Conclusions: That bleaching agents reduced enamel micro-hardness and the use of CPP-ACP after bleaching can significantly enhance the micro-hardness of bleached enamel.
  1,041 48 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla: A rare presentation in an elderly female
B Vijayabanu, C Sreeja, N Bharath, I Aesha, V Sadesh Kannan, M Devi
August 2015, 7(6):759-762
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163550  PMID:26538962
Odontogenic myxomas are rare benign neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, comprising 3-6% of all odontogenic tumors. They are slow growing, non-metastasizing, often asymptomatic with local aggressiveness due to its infiltrative nature and hence high recurrence rate, with a high incidence of occurrence in the mandible. Most frequently occurs in second to third decade of life, seldom occurs beyond these age groups. Hereby, we present a case of odontogenic myxoma occurring in the maxilla in a 65-year-old female managed by partial maxillectomy.
  1,026 46 -
Multiple myeloma involving mandible: In an elderly female
C Sreeja, B Vijayabanu, D Vijayalakshmi, M Devi, K Ramakrishnan, K Dhivya
August 2015, 7(6):763-765
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163551  PMID:26538963
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cell origin. It often has a multicentric origin within the bone. It makes about 1% of all malignancies and 15% of all hematologic malignancies . There is a monoclonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in this disease that arise from a single malignant precursor that has undergone uncontrolled mitotic division. These cells in turn produce one type of immunoglobulin light chain, either kappa or lambda. Unifocal, monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells is called plasmacytoma. Hereby, we present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who presented with a swelling of the mandible. The uniform sheets of plasma cells in the histopathology punched out radiolucencies in skull radiograph and the blood picture of anemia and hypercalcemia, confirmed the case as MM.
  1,035 35 -
Cyst or tumor in the buccomaxillary region: Review of literature and a case report
Syed Ahmed Raheel, Omar Bashar Kujan, Hisham Mohammed Najeeb Dwedary, Mohammed Hilal Sikander, Sunil Mankar, M Nidha Amrin
August 2015, 7(6):752-755
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163540  PMID:26538960
Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient.
  1,025 36 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of caries in deciduous second molar and adjacent permanent molar in mixed dentition
Daya Srinivasan, C Joe Louis
August 2015, 7(6):572-575
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163544  PMID:26538920
Aim: This study was done to evaluate association of caries in deciduous second molar and adjacent permanent first molar, tooth surface more involved in permanent first molar and to assess the parental awareness regarding the eruption of permanent first molar. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred and ten children (160 boys, 150 girls) of mixed dentition aged between 6 and 11 years were included. Presence or absence of paired association of caries in primary second molar and adjacent permanent first molar, of both the jaws, were noted. Parental awareness regarding the child's dentition was asked by pointing the maxillary and mandibular permanent first molar. Results: Pearson Chi-square test was used. Significance was noted in both sexes between paired nonassociation of caries in mandibular primary second molar and mandibular permanent molar (P =0.01) and paired nonassociation of caries in primary maxillary second molar and maxillary permanent first molar in girls only (P =0.04). Parental awareness that permanent first molar has erupted was 24.83% and not to be exfoliated and replaced was 22.9% for both the sexes. In permanent teeth of both the sexes, the occlusal surface was more involved with caries in maxillary teeth; the buccal surface was more involved in mandibular teeth. About 10% of the sample did not have caries in both maxillary and mandibular permanent first molar. Conclusions: Paired association of caries of primary second molar and permanent first molar though found in large number of cases was not significant. It is clear that parental awareness is less regarding the child's oral health. Thus, community-based awareness program has to be conducted to emphasize on pediatric oral health status and care.
  1,023 36 -
Knowledge and attitude toward human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome among dental and medical undergraduate students
Vinod Kumar, Kavitha Patil, Karishma Munoli
August 2015, 7(6):666-671
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163598  PMID:26538940
Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health challenge. Unjustified calls for the isolation of patients with HIV infection might further constrain the potential for expansion of clinical services to deal with a greater number of such patients. This infectious illness can evoke irrational emotions and fears in health care providers. Keeping this in view, a study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among dental and medical students. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional survey of the entire dental and medical undergraduate students from two colleges was carried out using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as percentage was used to present the data. Results: Ninety-eight percentage medical and dental undergraduate graduate students knew about HIV transmission in the hospital. Journals and internet were the leading source of information among both medical and dental undergraduates. The majority of respondents discussed HIV-related issues with their classmates. Surprisingly, 38% medical and 52% dental undergraduates think that HIV patient should be quarantined (isolation) to prevent the spread of infection. 68% medical and 60% dental undergraduates are willing to rendering dental/medical care to HIV-infected patients. Relatively large proportion (98%) of participants was willing to participate for HIV prevention program. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical and dental students is adequate, but the attitude needs improvement. Dental and medical students constitute a useful public health education resource. Comprehensive training, continuing education, and motivation will improve their knowledge and attitude, which enable them to provide better care to HIV patients.
  1,012 40 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
A comparison of efficiency of biopolymer and allograft matrix with autogenous gingival graft used in root coverage procedure
K Hameed Fathima, VS Harish
August 2015, 7(6):695-699
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163481  PMID:26538946
Severe surgical techniques have been introduced to augment gingival tissue dimensions like the free gingival graft, free connective grafts, etc., However, both the techniques are associated with significant patient morbidity due to the secondary surgical site. In order to overcome these postsurgical complications, acellular dermal allografts have been used as a substitute for the palatal donor tissue yielding clinically comparable results. However, the cost and origin of the material raises concern regarding the frequent use of the material. As an improved alternative to above-mentioned graft material, the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and collagen matrices has been promoted in the recent past. The objective of this illustrative case report is to test the efficacy of collagen matrix, PRF to augment attached gingiva and to assess the esthetic outcome when compared to the standard treatment with free autogenous graft.
  1,017 33 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
India's baby boomers: In driving need for dental care
Savita Dandakeri, Shilpa Dandekeri, B Gunachandra Rai, Nitin Suvarna, Mallikarjuna Ragher, Rachana Prabhu
August 2015, 7(6):438-442
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163493  PMID:26538894
The present paper aims to review the literature on increasing health care challenges and needs of a growing Indian geriatric population. It also focuses on the need to overcome the shortfalls in its current oral health status in elderly. This review is based on a PubMed database search engine published in the period from 1990 to 2010 in various dental journals. Different strategies are designed to provide better facilities and easy access of these facilities not only to elderly living in the city but to the one's in rural areas. It is emphasized that geriatric dentistry should be included in the educational systems to help resolve problems of oral health care for the elderly in India.
  984 65 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical evaluation of nonsyndromic dental anomalies in Dravidian population: A cluster sample analysis
Andamuthu Yamunadevi, M Selvamani, V Vinitha, R Srivandhana, M Balakrithiga, S Prabhu, N Ganapathy
August 2015, 7(6):499-503
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163517  PMID:26538906
Aim: To record the prevalence rate of dental anomalies in Dravidian population and analyze the percentage of individual anomalies in the population. Methodology: A cluster sample analysis was done, where 244 subjects studying in a dental institution were all included and analyzed for occurrence of dental anomalies by clinical examination, excluding third molars from analysis. Results: 31.55% of the study subjects had dental anomalies and shape anomalies were more prevalent (22.1%), followed by size (8.6%), number (3.2%) and position anomalies (0.4%). Retained deciduous was seen in 1.63%. Among the individual anomalies, Talon's cusp (TC) was seen predominantly (14.34%), followed by microdontia (6.6%) and supernumerary cusps (5.73%). Conclusion: Prevalence rate of dental anomalies in the Dravidian population is 31.55% in the present study, exclusive of third molars. Shape anomalies are more common, and TC is the most commonly noted anomaly. Varying prevalence rate is reported in different geographical regions of the world.
  980 56 -
Evaluation of sealing ability two self-etching adhesive systems and a glass ionomer lining LC under composite restoration in primary tooth: An in vitro study
Ananda Xavier Pragasam, Vinola Duraisamy, Ullal Anand Nayak, Venugopal Reddy, Arun Prasad Rao
August 2015, 7(6):518-523
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163525  PMID:26538910
Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the sealing ability of two self-etching adhesive systems and glass ionomer cement (GIC) lining  Light cure (LC) under composite restorations in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities are prepared on the cervical third of the facial and lingual surfaces of primary molars. The specimens are then assigned into four experimental groups. The restored primary molars are stored in distilled water and subjected to thermocycling. Each section was examined using a stereomicroscope to assess dye penetration at the margin of the restoration and evaluated via pictures. Statistical Analysis Used: The degree of microleakage was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and the intergroup significance by multiple comparison analysis. Results: The mean rank of the groups are Group I (Adper Prompt TM + Z−100) 19.44, Group II (UniFil BOND + Solare) 5.38, Group III (GIC lining LC + Z−100) 20.06, and Group IV (GIC lining LC + Solare) 21.13 with the P < 0.001. Conclusion: Composite resin restorations bonded with two-step self-etching adhesive system (UniFil Bond) exhibited lesser microleakage than one-step self-etching adhesive system (Adperprompt TM ) in primary teeth.
  985 50 -
Association of matrix metalloproteinase 1 gene promoter mutation and residual ridge resorption in edentulous patients of South Indian origin
S Shyam Sundar, S Ragavendar Jayesh, Sharmila Hussain
August 2015, 7(6):652-655
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163591  PMID:26538937
Background: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) are involved in bone transformation at the extraction site postdental extraction. We examined the genetic association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP-1 and continuous atrophy of edentulous mandible. Methods: Buccal cells from 33 edentulous patients were collected using sterile wooden spatula and were suspended in 15 ml falcon tubes containing 1.5 ml of cell lysis buffer, without proteinase K. The cells were transported to the laboratory on ice and were stored at −20°C until being processed. Results: Of the samples analyzed, 26 edentulous patients (78.8%) carried 2G allele, while 7 of them (21.2%) carried 1G allele. Conclusion: The patients with the alveolar bone resorption exhibited more of 2G allele while only 21.2% of them showed 1G allele, associated with excessive atrophy of edentulous mandible. This study may provide genetic background to identify susceptible individuals prone to develop jawbone atrophy after dental extraction.
  1,000 31 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
A noble method of using intravenous infusion set as a stent in localized lower posterior vestibuloplasty: A technical note
K Velavan, V Sadesh Kannan, A Saneem Ahamed, V Roshmi Abia, E Elavarasi
August 2015, 7(6):806-808
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163574  PMID:26538976
Vestibuloplasty is the procedure for shallow vestibule, prior to the prosthesis. Usually, vestibuloplasty is carried out in patients with completely edentulous arches. There are multiple techniques of vestibuloplasty described in the review of literature. However, it has not been emphasized on isolated shallow vestibule. This article describes our experience in the isolated or localized vestibuloplasty for a partially edentulous individual with a shallow vestibule pertaining to a single missing tooth.
  981 49 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Correlation of lip prints and lip competence in children
Rajashekhara Bhari Sharanesha, Narendra Varma Penumatsa
August 2015, 7(6):580-582
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163554  PMID:26538922
Introduction: Individual identification is a significant and difficult task in forensic search; it was based on logical values. A lip print is different in every living individual and does not change with time so it can be used as a tool in forensic investigations. The present work aimed to find out the correlation between lip prints and lip competence in the pediatric population of Davangere city. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 103 children that is, 49 males and 54 females of aged between 4 and 14 years. The lip impression was made on a strip of cellophane tape on adhesive portion; it was then placed to a white bond paper. This serves as permanent record. In this study, we are followed the classification of patterns of the lines on the lips proposed by Tsuchihashi. For recording lip competence, we considered Ballard criteria. Results: Chi-square test was used to find out the degree of association between variables and to check out whether statistically significant differences exist. Conclusion: Lip prints are unique for every person and show differences according to the race and the ethnic origins of a person. The present study confirmed the distinctiveness of cheiloscopy but disproves any statistical correlation of lip print with lip competency.
  973 48 -
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLES
Eagle's syndrome - Masquerading as ear pain: Review of literature
Sahuthullah Yasmeenahamed, Bijay Kumar Laliytha, Shivakumar Sivaraman, Pazhani Ambiga, Janardhanam Dineshshankar, Mani Sudhaa
August 2015, 7(6):372-373
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163455  PMID:26538879
The name styloid process (SP) was derived from the Greek word "stylos" meaning a pillar. It is a bony, cylindrical, needle-shaped projection, which originates from the posterior-inferior side of the petrous bone, immediately in front of the stylomastoid foramen, and goes obliquely down and forward. When elongated leads to pain and discomfort called Eagle's syndrome. Elongated SP accounts approximately to 4-7% of the population, 4% only are symptomatic.
  930 49 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor
Anil Kumar Katta, Revathi Peddu, Venkataramana Vannala, Vaishnavi Dasari
August 2015, 7(6):728-730
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163504  PMID:26538954
Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months.
  927 28 -
A rare presentation of a simple bone cyst
E Tatu Joy, LP Raghupathy, J Eugenia Sherubin, M Shashi Kiran
August 2015, 7(6):823-826
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163590  PMID:26538981
Simple bone cyst is an oft-described entity, which goes by many sobriquets and has been presented in the literature as early as 1926. It is a lesion of unclear etiology with many proposed hypothesis for its pathogenesis and nonspecific histopathological presentation. We present a case of a solitary bone cyst, which clinically presented as a solitary lesion, but radiological examination revealed multiple lesions peppering the maxilla and the mandible, thereby highlighting the importance of atypical presentation and "surprise" lesions that may show up on radiological examination.
  913 38 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of clinical parameters to select high prevalence populations for periodontal disease: A cross-sectional study
G Harikishan, V. S. S. Triveni, G. S. Naga Sai Sujay
August 2015, 7(6):623-627
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163573  PMID:26538931
Epidemiological studies have shown strong evidence that periodontal disease does not affect all subjects in the same manner. Objective: There are subjects and sites with higher risk for disease progression. This study tested parameters to select "a priori" sites and subjects potentially at risk. Materials and Methods: The data from periodontal clinical examinations of 2273 subjects was used. The clinical loss of attachment was measured in 6 sites per tooth. Using computer software, the patients were distributed into 14 age groups, with intervals of 5 years, from 11 years to greater than 75 years of age. The measure of each site was compared with the average and the median values of the subject age group, with the results indicating site comparative severity (SCS). Three global parameters were calculated: parameter 1 (PI) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 4 mm; parameter 2 (P2) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss j> 7 mm; parameter 3 (P3) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss surpassing the median value for the age group by 100% or more. Results: There were 1466 (65%) females and 807 (35%) males. Most subjects had PI, P2 and P3 values less than 30%. Parameter 3 allowed a division of the sample similar to that of Parameters 1 and 2, with the advantage of analyzing the subject in relation to his/her age group. It was suggested that the methodology of SCS is useful for selecting a population with a high disease prevalence, and that cut-off lines between 10% and 20% would be appropriate for using parameter.
  867 39 -
The efficiency of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite in preventing inoculation of periapical tissues with contaminated patency files: An ex vivo evaluation
Shravan Kini, S Vidhyadhara Shetty, K Harish Shetty, Aravind Kudva, Pradeep Kumar
August 2015, 7(6):563-566
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163542  PMID:26538918
The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the effectiveness of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in preventing inoculation of periapical tissue with contaminated patency files. Fifty single-rooted teeth with single canals were used in the study. They were randomly divided into five groups of which two were experimental groups, two positive controls, and one negative control group. After root canal preparation, teeth in Group I (experimental) were filled with 2.5 NaOCl and #15 stainless steel K-files contaminated with Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC# 10556) were allowed to pass through the root canal into the culture medium and cultured. Teeth in Group II (experimental) were also filled with NaOCl, but contaminated files used in this group were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl for 10 s prior to being placed in the canal. The negative control used sterile files pass through 2.5% NaOCl into the culture medium. The first positive control used contaminated patency files in teeth with saline. The second positive control group placed contaminated files into broth next to teeth filled with NaOCl (to evaluate potential chlorine leakage). The results were as follows. Both the experimental groups and the negative control group showed no growth. Both the positive control groups 100% growth for S. sanguis. This indicates that the NaOCl present in the canal after irrigation was sufficient to kill the test organism.
  871 28 1
DENTAL SCIENCE - CASE REPORTS
Osseous choristoma of the labial mucosa: A rare case report
TS Bastian, M Selvamani, S Ashwin, VK Rahul, Maria Bobby Cyriac
August 2015, 7(6):725-727
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163502  PMID:26538953
Osseous choristoma is a normal bone tissue in an ectopic position. These are slow growing lesions that are usually completely asymptomatic and only present when there is a disruption in the function of the organ due to its large size as it grows. Definitive diagnosis is obtained only after the histopathological examination. The etiology remains still questionable. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. Here we report a case of choristoma in the lower labial mucosa in a 47-year-old female.
  854 35 -
A case report of granular cell ameloblastoma associated with aneurysmal bone cyst like features
Sriram Kaliamoorthy, Pazhani Ambiga, Shivakumar Sivaraman, Kanmani Shanmugasundaram, Mahendirakumar Nagarajan
August 2015, 7(6):797-799
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163569  PMID:26538973
Granular cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma, which is histopathologically characterized by the presence of large eosinophilic granular cells within the ameloblastic follicle. Its accurate preoperative diagnosis is based upon clinical, radiological, and incisional biopsy findings. This article reports a case of granular cell ameloblastoma in a 65-year-old female, which on incisional biopsy showed the features suggestive of aneurysmal bone cyst. Furthermore, the influence of macroscopic presentation of the current lesion on its accurate preoperative incisional biopsy diagnosis is discussed in detail.
  839 34 -
Complicated canal morphology of mandibular first premolar
Vyapaka Pallavi, Janga Ravi Kumar, Ramesh Babu Mandava, Subramanian Hari Rao
August 2015, 7(6):809-811
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163576  PMID:26538977
The aim of this article was to report an unusual anatomic variation of mandibular first premolar, with one root and three distinct canals, which leave pulp chamber and merge short of apex to exit as two separate apical foramina. The incidence of three canals existing as two apical foramina has only been documented in the literature by a few case reports. To achieve successful endodontic treatment, the clinician has to identify the different canal configurations and treat them properly.
  820 40 -
A telescopic retainer prosthesis in full mouth rehabilitation
BS Kularashmi, M Vijay Anand, Nirmal F Bettie, Hari Ramachandiran
August 2015, 7(6):804-805
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163572  PMID:26538975
The use of questionable abutments has been made possible by modifying the design of the prosthesis. Telescopic retainers help to retain a prosthesis on a tilted and malaligned abutments.
  804 46 -
Disto-angular transmigrated impacted mandibular molar with enostosis: A rare intraoral lesion
Shanmuganathan Natarajan, Seenivasan Madhankumar, Karthigeyan Jeyapalan, I Athiban, S Elengkumaran, K. P. S. Periyakaruppiah
August 2015, 7(6):791-793
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163565  PMID:26538971
A 29-year-old male patient reported for replacement of missing teeth. The patient gave history of unerupted right lower posterior teeth and the orthopantomogram revealed transmigrated mandibular second molar to the inferior border of mandible just below the root apices of second premolar associated with enostosis distally toward the ramus of mandible with size of about 21 mm Χ 20 mm. This rare interosseous defect plays a vital role in deciding prosthetic treatment options for missing teeth and utmost care should be taken to preserve the health of the patient during such procedures.
  802 43 -
NOTICE OF RETRACTION
Sealing ability of lateral condensation, thermoplasticized gutta-percha and flowable gutta-percha obturation techniques: A comparative in vitro study: Retraction

August 2015, 7(6):830-830
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.163597  PMID:26538983
  796 32 -
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