Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences Login  | Users Online: 841  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
    Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 230-233  

Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy

1 Department of Pedodontics and Reventive Dentistry, Vivekanandha Dental College for Women, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pedodontics and Reventive Dentistry, PMS Dental College and Hospital, Trivandrum, India

Date of Submission01-Dec-2011
Date of Decision02-Jan-2012
Date of Acceptance26-Jan-2012
Date of Web Publication28-Aug-2012

Correspondence Address:
Rangasamy Vijayaraghavan
Department of Pedodontics and Reventive Dentistry, Vivekanandha Dental College for Women, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.100214

Rights and Permissions

The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization.

Keywords: Non-vital, triple antibiotic paste, young permanent tooth

How to cite this article:
Vijayaraghavan R, Mathian VM, Sundaram AM, Karunakaran R, Vinodh S. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2012;4, Suppl S2:230-3

How to cite this URL:
Vijayaraghavan R, Mathian VM, Sundaram AM, Karunakaran R, Vinodh S. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2022 Aug 10];4, Suppl S2:230-3. Available from:

The role of microorganisms in the development and perpetuation of pulp and periapical diseases has clearly been demonstrated in animal models and human studies. [1] The development and progression of endodontically induced periapical lesion is clearly associated with the presence of microorganisms in the root canal system. [2] Bacteria in infected root canals and periradicular tissues are capable of invading and residing deeply within dentin and in cementum around the periapex. Endodontic therapy is aimed at elimination of bacteria from the infected root canal and at the prevention of infection. [3] The infection of the root canal system is considered to be a polymicrobial infection, consisting of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Because of the complexity of the root canal infection, it is unlikely that any single antibiotic could result in effective sterilization of the canal. More likely, a combination would be needed to address the diverse flora encountered. The combination that appears to be most promising consists of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline. [4] Majority of bacteria in the infected root canal dentin are obligate anaerobes. Hence, metronidazole was selected as the first choice among antibacterial drugs. Even at a high concentration, it cannot kill all the bacteria, indicating the necessity for combination of other drugs. Propylene glycol can be used as a vehicle for the delivery of this paste. [3] The triple-antibiotics regimen was first tested by Sato et al. [5] Teeth with immature root development, necrotic pulps, and apical periodontitis present multiple challenges for successful treatment. [6]

Recently, the concept of revascularization of necrotic pulps regained interest and became an alternative conservative treatment option for young permanent teeth with immature roots. [7] "Lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR) therapy" employs the use of a combination of antibacterial drugs (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) for the disinfection of oral infectious lesions, including dentinal, pulpal, and periradicular lesions. [8] Traditionally, the treatment of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps involves long-term application of calcium hydroxide to induce apexification at the root apex. Recently, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been used in one-step apexification procedures to create an artificial apical barrier on which the obturation material can be compacted. Although clinically successful for treatment of apical periodontitis, these techniques do not help strengthen the root, and in the absence of continued development of the root, the roots remain thin and fragile. [9] Hoshino et al. performed an in vitro study testing the antibacterial efficacy of these drugs alone and in combination against the bacteria of infected dentin, infected pulps, and periapical lesions. Alone, none of the drugs resulted in complete elimination of bacteria. However, in combination, these drugs were able to consistently sterilize all samples. [10] Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole compound that exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against protozoa and anaerobic bacteria. Minocycline is a semisynthetic derivative of tetracycline with a similar spectrum of activity. Ciprofloxacin, a synthetic fluoroquinolone, has a bactericidal mode of action. [4]

The endodontic regenerative procedure (ERP), an alternative clinical approach to apexification, has received great attention in recent years. This treatment protocol involves the use of a triple antibiotic paste (TAP) consisting of metronidazole, minocycline, and ciprofloxacin as a dressing and the induction of bleeding to create a matrix for the ingrowth of new vital tissue in the pulp canal space. [10]

A gentle treatment regimen (minimal or no instrumentation and an intracanal medication with TAP) before ERP may conserve any viable tissue that may remain in the canal (stem cells in the apical papilla (SCAP) and dental pulp stem cells in the pulp). [10] Many clinical investigations have reported an increase in root thickness and length, resembling normal maturation of the root after TAP therapy. [11],[12],[13]

With the increase in non-surgical approach, the goal of this study is to perform a literature search on TAP in endodontics No attempt is made to undertake additional statistical analysis.

   Materials and Methods Top

A PubMed, Medine search was carried out with the key words: "non-vital", "young permanent tooth", and "triple antibiotic paste." Articles were selected after reading the title and abstract. References from the selected articles were also considered for review. Case reports, and in vitro, in vivo animal studies and investigations on TAP were included for review.

   Discussion Top

Modern concept of medicine emphasizes prevention and reversal of the diseases. Only when these attempts fail, we would take on the unfavorable approaches, i.e., surgical intervention and restoration with artificial prostheses. [14] The success of non-surgical endodontic treatment method is based on appropriate cleaning, shaping, asepsis, and filling of the root canal. [2] Several case reports have been published on non-surgical management of tooth with a non-vital pulp and persisting sinus tract using TAP. TAP was successful in promoting the healing and repair of the periapical tissue. [2],[15] The systemic administration of antibiotics relies on patient compliance with the dosing regimens followed by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and distribution via the circulatory system to bring the drug to the infected site. Hence, the infected area requires a normal blood supply which is no longer the case for teeth with necrotic pulps and for teeth without pulp tissue. Therefore, local application of antibiotics within the root canal system may be a more effective mode for delivering the drug. [15]

Microorganisms in dentinal tubules may constitute a reservoir from which root canal and surrounding tissue infection and re-infection may occur. [16] Portenier et al. demonstrated that dentin itself can have an inhibitory effect on the bactericidal activity of intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide. [17]

William Windley observed a statistically significant reduction in bacteria, following the irrigation and antibiotic paste protocol. 90% of the bacteria remained positive following irrigation with 10 ml 1.25% sodium hypochlorite. However, this dropped to 30% following the application of the TAP for 2 weeks. [4]

Dental trauma may tear the apical neurovascular bundle and cause pulp necrosis, resulting in arrested root formation in immature teeth. [18] The traditional approach for treating cases of a necrotic immature permanent tooth was apexification with calcium hydroxide or MTA, but it does not lead to a further thickening of dentinal walls or an increased root length. [19] It is difficult to get an appropriate apical seal in teeth with open apices by using the conventional endodontic treatment methods. Long-term use of calcium hydroxide has several disadvantages such as multiple treatment appointments, probable recontamination of the root canal system during treatment period, and increased brittleness of root dentin which increases the risk of future cervical root fractures. [20] An alternative material of choice for apexification is MTA [21] and it has shown high success rates. [22],[23],[24] Regenerative endodontics is an emerging field focusing on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp tissue in these teeth. [25] Utilization of stem cells to regenerate the lost tissues may reverse tissues to their normal state. Regenerative endodontics deals with the healing of impaired dental tissues, including dentin, pulp, cementum, and periodontal tissues. [14]

Regeneration can occur from vital pulp cells remaining at the apical end of the root canal, [19] the multipotent dental pulp stem cells, [26] the stem cells in the periodontal ligament, [27] and stem cells from apical papilla or in bone marrow. The blood clot itself is a rich source of growth factors. [27] Revascularization of the pulp space in a tooth with necrotic infected pulp tissue and apical periodontitis has been thought to be impossible. [4] Nygaard-Ostby and Hjortdal successfully regenerated pulps after vital pulp removal in immature teeth, but were unsuccessful when the pulp space was infected. Thus, if the canal is effectively disinfected, revascularization should occur similar to that in an avulsed immature tooth. [4] Once the canal infection is controlled, it resembles the avulsed tooth that has a necrotic but sterile pulp space. The blood clot is then introduced so as to mimic the scaffold that is in place with the ischemic necrotic pulp in the avulsed tooth. [7] In this situation, the necrotic uninfected pulp acts as a scaffold for the ingrowth of new tissue from the periapical area. The absence of bacteria is critical for successful revascularization because the new tissue will stop at the level at which it meets bacteria in the canal space. The clinical effectiveness of the TAP in the disinfection of immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been reported. [7] Calcium hydroxide can cause necrosis of the surrounding tissue, destroying remnant vital tissues that have the potential to differentiate into new pulp. [28]

When the canal is properly disinfected, the inflammatory process reverses and the tissues may proliferate. Revascularization of immature teeth with apical periodontitis depends mainly on: (a) disinfection of the canal; (b) placement of a matrix in the canal for tissue ingrowth; and (c) a bacterial tight seal of the access opening. Since the infection of the root canal system is considered to be polymicrobial, a combination of drugs would be needed to treat the diverse flora. Thus, the recommended protocol combines the use of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline. [7]

Raison Bose compared TAP, calcium hydroxide, and formocresol as intracanal medicaments in non-vital young permanent tooth. The triple antibiotic group showed the highest percentage increase in the dentin wall thickness compared with the other two groups. TAP can help promote functional development of the pulp-dentin complex. [9] Reynolds et al. achieved revascularization of a necrotic bicuspid using TAP. [7] TAP contains both bactericidal (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin) and bacteriostatic (minocycline) agents to allow for successful revascularization. [29]

In apexification, the canal is temporarily filled until a hard tissue barrier forms at the apex. Because the canal space is filled, there is no space available for vital tissue to proliferate into the root canal and the possibility of revascularization is eliminated. [30] Investigations have proved that topical doxycycline and minocycline can improve radiographic and histological evidence of revascularization in immature avulsed permanent teeth. [31],[32] Several reports have recently demonstrated the potential for revascularization after infection if a sterile environment is created. [29],[33] After disinfection, the canal should be filled with a resorbable matrix to encourage the ingrowth of new tissue. Finally, the coronal access must be sealed to prevent re-infection. [4]

TAP was proved to be biocompatible. [28] Tetracycline inhibits collagenases and matrix metalloproteinases, [34] is n ot cyt otoxic, [35] and increases the level of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. [36] In addition, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin can generate fibroblasts. [37]

The concern of the antibiotic paste is that it may cause bacterial resistance. [14],[38] Additionally, minocycline may cause tooth discoloration. [14] Thibodeau and Trope suggested cefaclor instead of minocycline in TAP. [39] Reynolds et al. used dentin bonding agent and composite resin before placement of the triple antibiotic dressing to prevent discoloration, but the discoloration was only reduced. [7] The discoloration by the tetracycline family is thought to be a photo-initiated reaction. [40] Minocycline binds to calcium ions via chelation to form an insoluble complex. [41] It should be limited to the root canal because of the potential risk of tooth discoloration. [40]

   Conclusion Top

Success of the endodontic treatment relies upon the elimination of bacteria from the root canal. Microorganisms in the periapical region can cause re-infection and failure. From the existing literature, it is clear that TAP can be effectively used for sterilization of canals and healing of periapical pathology. The effectiveness of TAP in managing non-vital young permanent tooth is based on the availability of viable stem cells. Development of resistant bacterial strains and tooth discoloration are the possible drawbacks of this technique. TAP seems to be promising medicament in the sterilization and revascularization.

   References Top

1.Sundqvist G. Ecology of the root canal flora. J Endod 1992;18:427-30.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Taneja S, Kumari M, Prakash H. Non-surgical healing of large periradicular lesions using a triple antibiotic paste: A case series. Contemporary Clinical Dentistry 2010;1:31-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Pinky C, Shashibhushan KK, Subbaeddy VV. Endodontic treatment of necrosed primary teeth using two different combinations of antibacterial drugs. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2011;29:121-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
4.William W 3 rd , Teixeira F, Levin L, Sigurdsson A, Trope M. Disinfection of immature teeth with a triple antibiotic paste. J Endod 2005;31:439-43.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Sato I, Ando-Kurihara N, Kota K, Iwaku M, Hoshino E. Sterilization of infected root-canal dentine by topical application of a mixture of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline in situ. Int Endod J 1996;29:118-24.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Trope M. Treatment of immature teeth with non-vital pulps and apical periodontitis. Endodod Topics 2006;14:51-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Reynolds K, Johnson JD, Cohenca N. Pulp revascularization of necrotic bilateral bicuspids using a modified novel technique to eliminate potential coronal discolouration: A case report. Int Endod J 2009;42:84-92.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Hoshino E, Takushige T. LSTR 3Mix-MP method-better and efficient clinical procedures of lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR) therapy. Dent Rev 1998;666:57-106.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Bose R, Nummikoski P, Hargreaves K. A retrospective evaluation of radiographic outcomes in immature teeth with necrotic root canal systems treated with regenerative endodontic procedures. J Endod 2009;35:1343-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Hoshino E,Kurihara-Aando N, Sato I, Uematsu H, Sato M, Kota K, et al. In-vitro antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria taken from infected root dentine to a mixture of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline. Int Endod J 1996;29:125-30.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Ding RY, Cheung GS, Chen J, Yin XZ, Wang QQ, Zhang CF. Pulp revascularization of immature teeth with apical periodontitis: A clinical study. J Endod 2009;35:745-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Jung IY, Lee SJ, Hargreaves KM. Biologically based treatment of immature permanent teeth with pulpal necrosis: A case series. J Endod 2008;34:876-87.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Shah N, Logani A, Bhaskar U, Aggarwal V. Efficacy of revascularization to induce apexification/apexogensis in infected, nonvital, immature teeth: A pilot clinical study. J Endod 2008;34:919-25.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Huang GT. A paradigm shift in endodontic management of immature teeth: Conservation of stem cells for regeneration. J Dent 2008;36:379-86.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Manuel ST, Parolia A, Kundabala M, Vikram M. Non-surgical endodontic therapy using triple-antibiotic paste. Kerala Dental Journal 2010;33:88-90.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Athanassiadis B, Abbott PV, Walsh LJ. The use of calcium hydroxide, antibiotics, biocides as antimicrobial medicaments in endodontics. Aust Dent J 2007;52(1 Suppl):s64-82.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Portenier I, Haapasalo H, Orstavik D, Yamauchi M, Haapasalo M. Inactivation of antibacterial activity of potassium iodide and chlorhexidine digluconate against Enterococcus faecalis by dentin, dentin matrix, type-I collagen and heat killed microbial whol cells. J Endod 2002;28:634-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Soares J, Santos S, César C, Silva P, Sá M, Silveira F, et al. Calcium hydroxide induced apexification with apical root development: A clinical case report. Int Endod J 2008; 41:710-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Yousef Saad A. Calcium hydroxide and apexogenesis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1988;66:499-501.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Nosrat A, Seifi A, Asgary S. Regenerative endodontic treatment (revascularization) for necrotic immature permanent molars: A review and report of two cases with a new biomaterial. J Endod 2011;37:562-7.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Shabahang S, Torabinejad M, Boyne P, Abedi H, McMillan P. A comparative study of root-end induction using osteogenic protein-I, calcium hydroxide, and mineral trioxide aggregate in dogs. J Endod 1999;25:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Witherspoon D, Small J, Regan J, Nunn M. Retrospective analysis of open apex teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endod 2008;34:1171-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Mente J, Hage N, Pfefferle T, Koch MJ, Dreyhaupt J, Staehle HJ, et al. Mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs in teeth with open apical foramina: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome. J Endod 2009;35:1354-8.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Holden D, Schwartz S, Kirkpatrick T, Schindler W. Clinical outcomes of artificial root-end barriers with mineral trioxide aggregate in teeth with immature apices. J Endod 2008;34:812-7.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Bansal R, Bansal R. Regenerative endodontics: A state of art. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:122-31.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
26.Gronthos S, Brahim J, Li W, Fisher LW, Cherman N, Boyde A, et al. Stem cell properties of human dental pulp stem cells. J Dent Res 2002;81:531-5.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Johns DA, Arundas D, Remesh Kumar M, Shoba K. Regenerative treatment of an immature traumatized teeth with apical periodontitis. Kerala Dental Journal 2010;33:164-6.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Gomes-Filho JE, Duarte PCT, de Oliveira CB, Watanabe S, Lodi CS, Cintra LTA, et al. Tissue reaction to a triantibiotic paste used for endodontic tissue self-regeneration of nonvital immature permanent teeth. J Endod 2012;38:91-4.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Iwaya SI, Ikawa M, Kubota M. Revascularization of an immature permanent tooth with apical periodontitis and sinus tract. Dent Traumatol 2001;17:185-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Akgun OM, Altun C, Guven G. Use of triple antibiotic paste as a disinfectant for a traumatized immature tooth with a periapical lesion: A case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:e62-5.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Ritter AL, Ritter AV, Murrah V, Sigurdsson A, Trope M. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after treatment with minocycline and doxycycline assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, radiography, and histology. Dent Traumatol 2004;20:75-84.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Yanpiset K, Trope M. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after different treatment methods. Endod Dent Traumatol 2000;16:211-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Banchs F, Trope M. Revascularization of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis: New treatment protocol. J Endod 2004;30:196-200.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Soory M. A role for non-antimicrobial actions of tetracyclines in combating oxidative stress in periodontal and metabolic diseases: A literature review. Open Dent J 2008;2:5-12.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Yao JS, Chen Y, Shen F, Young WL, Yang G-Y. Comparison of doxycycline and minocycline in the inhibition of VEGF-induced smooth muscle cell migration. Neurochem Int 2007;50:524-30.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Ramamurthy NS, BR. Rifkin, RA. Greenwald, Xu JW, Liu Y, Turner G, et al. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-mediated periodontal bone loss in rats: A comparison of 6 chemically modified tetracyclines. J Periodontol 2002;73:726-34.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Ferreira MB,Myiagi S,Nogales CG,Campos MS, Lage-Marques JL. Time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of antibiotics used in endodontic therapy. J Appl Oral Sci 2010;18:259-63.  Back to cited text no. 37
38.Slots J. Selection of antimicrobial agents in periodontal therapy. J Periodontal Res 2002;37:389-98.  Back to cited text no. 38
39.Thibodeau B, Trope M. Pulp revascularization of a necrotic infected immature permanent tooth: Case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dent 2007;29:47-50.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.Kim J, Kim Y, Shin S, Park J, Jung I, Tooth discoloration of immature permanent incisor associated with triple antibiotic therapy: A case report. J Endod 2010;36:1086-91.  Back to cited text no. 40
41.Tanase S, Tsuchiya H, Yao J, Ohmoto S, Takagi N, Yoshida S. Reversed-phase ion-pair chromatographic analysis of tetracycline antibiotics: Application to discolored teeth. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 1998;706:279-85.  Back to cited text no. 41

This article has been cited by
1 Electrospun Nanofiber Films Suppress Inflammation In Vitro and Eradicate Endodontic Bacterial Infection in an E. faecalis-Infected Ex Vivo Human Tooth Culture Model
Konstantina Chachlioutaki, Christina Karavasili, Elisavet Adamoudi, Anestis Tsitsos, Vangelis Economou, Charis Beltes, Nikolaos Bouropoulos, Orestis L. Katsamenis, Regan Doherty, Athina Bakopoulou, Dimitrios G. Fatouros
ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Antibiotic usage in pediatric dentistry: A review
Vipin Ahuja, Sumit Kumar Betal
The Journal of Dental Panacea. 2022; 4(2): 64
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Facilitation of Reparative Dentin Using a Drug Repositioning Approach With 4-Phenylbutric Acid
Eui-Seon Lee, Yam Prasad Aryal, Tae-Young Kim, Ji-Youn Kim, Hitoshi Yamamoto, Chang-Hyeon An, Seo-Young An, Youngkyun Lee, Wern-Joo Sohn, Jae-Kwang Jung, Jung-Hong Ha, Jae-Young Kim
Frontiers in Physiology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Revascularization of an Immature Permanent Tooth with Periapical Periodontitis Using Concentrated Growth Factor Assisted by Erbium Laser (2940 nm) Irrigation: A Case Report
Lintong Yu, Yijie Zhou, Jiahui Li, Jing Cheng, Guangtai Song
Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(9): 4751
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Spectrophotometric analysis of crown discoloration induced by various intracanal medicaments: An in vitro study
AmishiAmit Parikh, DN Nirupama, DN Naveen, J Sindhu, MohanThomas Nainan
Endodontology. 2021; 33(3): 149
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation in the removal of three different intracanal medicaments - An in-vitro study
Gangaraju Shakapuram, MayuriSailaja Pachalla, AnandRamtheerth Karne, Sandeep Shiva, J Deepa, Supriya Kommineni
Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2021; 32(3): 390
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Strategic Evaluation of Efficacy of Different Irrigants in Effective Removal of Triple Antibiotic Paste from the Canal Spaces: An Original Research Study
Shubhra Malik, Sumita Giri Nishad, Ajeet Singh Bhalla, Harkanwal Kaur Bhullar, Saurabh, Anukriti Pathak
Journal of Research and Advancement in Dentistry. 2021; 12(5): 155
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Regenerative Endodontics as the Future Treatment of Immature Permanent Teeth
Justyna Zbanska, Katarzyna Herman, Piotr Kuropka, Maciej Dobrzynski
Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(13): 6211
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Cymbopogon citratus essential oil: an active principle of nanoemulsion against Enterococcus faecalis root canal biofilm
Jelena Marinkovic, Biljana Nikolic, Tatjana Markovic, Milena Radunovic, Jugoslav Ilic, Marko Boškovic, Ana Ciric, Dejan Markovic
Future Microbiology. 2021; 16(12): 907
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Antimicrobial efficacy of triple antibiotic paste in teeth with primary endodontic infection: A systematic review
Rhythm Bains, Aseem P. Tikku, Promila Verma, Pragya Pandey
Asian Journal of Oral Health and Allied Sciences. 2021; 11(5): 2
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Clinical and radiographic evaluation of triple antibiotic paste pulp therapy compared to Vitapex pulpectomy in non-vital primary molars
Ohoud T. Sijini, Heba J. Sabbagh, Khlood K. Baghlaf, Amina M. Bagher, Azzah A. El-housseiny, Najlaa M. Alamoudi, Sara M. Bagher
Clinical and Experimental Dental Research. 2021; 7(5): 819
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Advances in Research on Stem Cell-Based Pulp Regeneration
Hua-Nien Lee, Cheng Liang, Li Liao, Wei-Dong Tian
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 2021; 18(6): 931
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Residual antibacterial effects of a mixture of silver nanoparticles/calcium hydroxide and other root canal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis
Farzaneh Afkhami, Golriz Rostami, Sharareh Batebi, Abbas Bahador
Journal of Dental Sciences. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Conservative management of long-standing traumatised maxillary central incisor with incomplete apex and severe internal resorption using triple antibiotic paste, mineral trioxide aggregate and fiber-reinforced composite
Vivek Mehta, Anupma Raheja, Rajeev Kumar Singh
BMJ Case Reports. 2021; 14(10): e244818
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Comparing the Antifungal Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite Gel versus Different Types of Root Canal Medicaments at Different Time Intervals Using the Agar Diffusion Test: An In Vitro Study
Mohamed El Sayed, Nikta Ghanerad, Zeinab Shabanpour, Mahin Shabanpoor, Fatemeh Rahimi, Cesar Rogério Pucci
International Journal of Dentistry. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Harnessing biomolecules for bioinspired dental biomaterials
Nicholas G. Fischer, Eliseu A. Münchow, Candan Tamerler, Marco C. Bottino, Conrado Aparicio
Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2020; 8(38): 8713
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Preparation of PLGA-chitosan based nanocarriers for enhancing antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin in root canal infection
Mona G. Arafa, Hadeel A. Mousa, Nagia N. Afifi
Drug Delivery. 2020; 27(1): 26
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Case Report: Single visit photo-activated disinfection in regenerative endodontics
Al-Shaimaa Abdel Hafiz Abdel Rahim, Fatma Abdelgawad, Ahmed M. Abd Alsamed, Dalia Mohamed Moheb, Norhan Abdel Wahab El-Dokky
F1000Research. 2020; 8: 1519
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Apexification with Calcium Hydroxide vs. Revascularization
H. Boufdil, M. Mtalsi, S. El Arabi, B. Bousfiha
Case Reports in Dentistry. 2020; 2020: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Effect of Intracanal Medicaments (Modified Triple Antibiotic Paste, Calcium Hydroxide, and Aloe Vera) on Microhardness of Root Dentine: An In Vitro Study
Vijay Parashar, Shabab A Khan, Puja Singh, Shishir Sharma, Kumar Anand
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2020; 21(6): 632
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Comparison of the efficacy of CanalBrush, EndoActivator, and Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation on the removal of triple antibiotic paste from root canal walls: An in vitro study
Santosh Kumar, Kavisha Desai, Aparna Palekar, Baswaraj Biradar, Ananjan Chatterjee, Khushboo Kumari
Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry. 2020; 10(4): 424
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Comparative evaluation of calcium release of the apical plugs formed by mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine, and EndoSequence root repair material with and without 2% triple antibiotic powder: An in vitro study
PoojaNitin Mapara, ND Shashikiran, Sachin Gugawad, Namrata Gaonkar, Savita Hadakar, Swapnil Taur, Dhanshri Khade
Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. 2020; 38(2): 132
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Design of a Helical-Stabilized, Cyclic, and Nontoxic Analogue of the Peptide Cm-p5 with Improved Antifungal Activity
Fidel E. Morales Vicente, Melaine González-Garcia, Erbio Diaz Pico, Elena Moreno-Castillo, Hilda E. Garay, Pablo E. Rosi, Asiel Mena Jimenez, Jose A. Campos-Delgado, Daniel G. Rivera, Glay Chinea, Rosemeire C. L. R. Pietro, Steffen Stenger, Barbara Spellerberg, Dennis Kubiczek, Nicholas Bodenberger, Steffen Dietz, Frank Rosenau, Márcio Weber Paixão, Ludger Ständker, Anselmo J. Otero-González
ACS Omega. 2019; 4(21): 19081
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Assessment of Coronal Leakage with Two Intracanal Medicaments After Exposure to Human Saliva–An In Vitro Study
Krishna Kumar, Ramesh Venkatesan, Selva Balaji, Shantham Krishnamoorthy, Senthilkumar Marimuthu
International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2018; 11(5): 406
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Use of Platelet-rich Plasma in Endodontic Procedures in Adults: Regeneration or Repair? A Report of 3 Cases with 5 Years of Follow-up
José Francisco Gaviño Orduña,Javier Caviedes-Bucheli,María C. Manzanares Céspedes,Esther Berástegui Jimeno,Benjamín Martín Biedma,Juan José Segura-Egea,José López-López
Journal of Endodontics. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 In vitrobehavior of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing minocycline, metronidazole, and ciprofloxacin
Maryam Torshabi,Hanieh Nojehdehian,Fahimeh S. Tabatabaei
Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry. 2016; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Antibacterial efficacy of AH Plus and AH26 sealers mixed with amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver
Ali Kangarlou,Rojin Neshandar,Negin Matini,Omid Dianat
Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects. 2016; 10(4): 220
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges
Jingwen Yang,Guohua Yuan,Zhi Chen
Frontiers in Physiology. 2016; 7
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Is revascularization of immature permanent teeth an effective and reproducible technique?
Yu-Po Chen,Maria del Mar Jovani-Sancho,Chirag C. Sheth
Dental Traumatology. 2015; 31(6): 429
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Revascularization Technique for the Treatment of External Inflammatory Root Resorption: A Report of 3 Cases
Cristina N. Santiago,Shirley S. Pinto,Luciana M. Sassone,Raphael Hirata,Sandra R. Fidel
Journal of Endodontics. 2015; 41(9): 1560
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Bimix Antimicrobial Scaffolds for Regenerative Endodontics
Jadesada Palasuk,Krzysztof Kamocki,Lauren Hippenmeyer,Jeffrey A. Platt,Kenneth J. Spolnik,Richard L. Gregory,Marco C. Bottino
Journal of Endodontics. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Antifungal effectiveness of various intracanal medicaments against Candida albicans: an ex-vivo study
Eu Gene Chua,Abhishek Parolia,Priya Ahlawat,Allan Pau,Fabian Davamani Amalraj
BMC Oral Health. 2014; 14(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Pulp Revascularization of Immature Permanent Teeth: A Review of the Literature and a Proposal of a New Clinical Protocol
Mélanie Namour,Stephanie Theys
The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Lesion Sterilization and Tissue Repair (LSTR): A Review
Anila B, Murali H, Cheranjeevi J, Kapil RS
Journal of Scientific Dentistry. 2014; 4(2): 49
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Effectiveness of Antibiotic Medicaments against Biofilm Formation of Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis
Alaa H.A. Sabrah,Ghaeth H. Yassen,Richard L. Gregory
Journal of Endodontics. 2013; 39(11): 1385
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Controlled release of metronidazole from composite poly-e-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) rings for dental implants
Shih-Feng Lan,Timilehin Kehinde,Xiangming Zhang,Sharukh Khajotia,David W. Schmidtke,Binil Starly
Dental Materials. 2013; 29(6): 656
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded864    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 36    

Recommend this journal