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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 283-284  

Advancement of orthodontic and craniofacial research sites in the last three decades

Department of Orthodontics, KSR institute of Dental Science and Research, Thiruchengode, Namakkal Dt, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission01-Dec-2011
Date of Decision02-Jan-2012
Date of Acceptance26-Jan-2012
Date of Web Publication28-Aug-2012

Correspondence Address:
Gobichettipalayam Jagatheeswaran Anbuselvan
Department of Orthodontics, KSR institute of Dental Science and Research, Thiruchengode, Namakkal Dt, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.100273

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Background: Scientific literature has grown tremendously in past five decades in volume as well as content. This communication enlightens young dentist and scientist about availability of scientific literature in digital format and on the web since it has become impossible to maintain literature in printed format due to sheer volume and content. Materials and Methods: The key words were searched in Result: Out of 3500 results relevant web pages was selected by the authors unanimously. Conclusion: This article was primarily written to create awareness among young dentists and orthodontists the availability of varied orthodontic literature and contributors and journals in disseminating knowledge and opportunities.

Keywords: Orthodontic research, scientific literature, databases

How to cite this article:
Anbuselvan GJ, Karthi M, Raja S, Prabhakar K, Mahabob MN. Advancement of orthodontic and craniofacial research sites in the last three decades. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2012;4, Suppl S2:283-4

How to cite this URL:
Anbuselvan GJ, Karthi M, Raja S, Prabhakar K, Mahabob MN. Advancement of orthodontic and craniofacial research sites in the last three decades. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2022 Aug 19];4, Suppl S2:283-4. Available from:

Over three decades, dental science has advanced tremendously in clinical research, [1],[2] with innovation in the use of biomaterials, techniques, utilization of cell research, and application and induction of other sciences into dentistry like bioengineering, stem cell research [3],[4],[5] and use of biocompatible inert materials. [6] Ideally, a dental material that is to be used in the oral cavity should be harmless to all oral tissues. Rarely, unintended side effects may be caused by dental restorative materials. This demands appropriate biological tests and standards for evaluating any material that is developed and intended to be used in the mouth. Such tests and standards, which have been developed in the past 10-15 years, serve as the basis for recommending any dental restorative material.

Three decades ago, a researcher primarily had to search for reference materials from national libraries [7] through printed books and journals. [8] Medical history landmarks in the collection include Andreas Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica (1543), William Harvey's Exercitatio anatomica de motu corids (1628), William Withering's An Account of the Fox glove (1785), and Edward Jenner's An Inquiry into the Causes and Effect of the Variolae vaccinae (1798), as well as comprehensive holdings of the works of major medical figures such as Hippocrates, Galen, Paracelsus, Boerhaave, and Osler. National Library of Medicine (NLM) holds approximately 500 incunabula titles. The word incunabula comes from the Latin word "cuna" (cradle) and refers to books printed during the infancy of printing, which dates from the invention of moveable type (c. 1455) until 1500. [9]

The scientific literature available online focuses on original scientific articles, short communications, literature reviews, interesting case reports and biomaterials, which will help the student and the clinician to apply evidence-based protocols for quality dental care and oral health. Comprehensive list of journals and publications that are available online to assist dentists and dental personnel maintains and improves their clinical and management skills. The main objective of these online journals is to promote research and further to publish quality scientific evidence from the grass root [10] and are now available through a click of a mouse and on mobile in handheld instruments. Android [11] is a Linux-based operating system for mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers. It was developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google. Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices. The iPad [12] is a line of tablet computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc., primarily as a platform for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, and web content. The iPad was introduced on January 27, 2010, by Apple's the then CEO, Steve Jobs.

The NLM, the world's largest medical library and a component of the National Institutes of Health, announces the release of a new Turning the Pages "app" for the iPad. The application is free and features selection from three rare books from the library's collection, which include one of the featured works in 19 th century, a Japanese surgical manuscript by noted physician Hanaoka Seishu, the first surgeon to use anesthesia in an operation. Another book in the app is Hieronymus Brunschwig's De Arte Distillandi, printed in Strasbourg in 1512. The third book is an early Persian manuscript by medieval natural historian, al-Qazwini, entitled, "The Cosmography," which includes colorful hand-drawn illustrations of zodiac constellations, animals, and plants from the Islamic world of the period. [13]

A researcher three decades ago in a remote place had to wait for a communication to arrive by post or had to go in person to the national libraries. After the advent of internet, there has been a remarkable change and an immense number of research materials are available pertaining to each topic. Now, vast number of journals is available for searching for any particular topic, however new it may be. PubMed [14] indexing and related citations are readily available in the internet, making the researcher's job very easy. PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. PubMed is a free database accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States NLM at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez information retrieval system. PubMed was first released in January 1996. PubMed / MEDLINE can be accessed via handheld devices, using for instance, the "PICO" option (for focused clinical questions) created by the NLM. A "PubMed Mobile" option, providing access to a mobile-friendly, simplified PubMed version, is also available.

Identifying and communicating with similar researcher three decades ago was very time consuming and it involved huge cost and hardships. Now, one needs to only give an email journal alert [15] and find the status of the topic.

Three decades ago, one could only copy and read the materials which were costlier. Now, we can download any number of articles and store it in digital form. [16] Digital forms are increasingly common at research institutions; digital repositories have become important infrastructure for disseminating and curating a wide range of digital works. Repositories managed by libraries usually collect locally authored and locally produced works.

Worldwide, digital and online libraries are disseminating knowledge and are very useful for a dental researcher. There are research forums in universities; [17] public-private partnership, individual by social media, [18] international publisher's forum, and non-governmental organizations, scientific societies, and professional societies have taken the lead role in research sites.

Following are some of the orthodontic and craniofacial research sites that can be searched by dental specialists, orthodontists, and orthodontic post graduates for references and research purposes.

   Conclusion Top

This article was primarily written to create awareness among young dentists and orthodontists the availability of varied orthodontic literature and contributors and journals in disseminating knowledge and opportunities. To quote Dr. Thomas M. Graber, who in his preface of the orthodontic book [19] said, "This Labor of love by our outstanding panel of world-class orthodontists is strictly that - love of our wonderful dental specialty and the desire to help others attain that achievable optimum with maximum health and stability. Nobody is being paid to say anything. Read, enjoy, and profit yourself by rendering the best possible patient care!"

   Acknowledgments Top

We acknowledge sincerely the following interns, Priyanka S, Roniya Joseph, Seby Thomas, and Naziya KB, at KSR Institute of Dental science and Research, Thokkavadi, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India.

   References Top

1.Oral Hygiene Volume 1, number 1, January 1911.   Back to cited text no. 1
2.Journal of Dental Research March 1919;1(1).   Back to cited text no. 2
3.Journal of Dental Research, 2010; DOI: 10.1177/0022034510366846.   Back to cited text no. 3
4.Available from: pdf/v016a01.pdf [Last accessed 19/2/2012.   Back to cited text no. 4
5.J Dent Res. Available from: pubmed/21335539. [Last accessed date 19/2/2012].   Back to cited text no. 5
6. [http://www. accessed- 19/2/2012]   Back to cited text no. 6
7.National library of USA- Available from:; National library of Australia -; British national library-; National library of China - old/english.htm; National medical library in India -http://www.nml. [Last accessed- 19/2/2012].   Back to cited text no. 7
8.AJO-DO - Available from: http://www.journals.elsevierhealth. com/periodicals/ymod [Last accessed].   Back to cited text no. 8
9.Graber TM, Vanarsdall RL, Vig KWL, In Orthodontics: Current principles and techniques ed 4, Mosby Elsevier; 2005. p. 13. [Available from:] [Last accessed 19/2/2012].   Back to cited text no. 9
10.Available from: AQ8 [Last accessed 19/2/2012].   Back to cited text no. 10
11.Available from: system%29.   Back to cited text no. 11
12.Available from:   Back to cited text no. 12
13.Available from: id423830194?mt=8.   Back to cited text no. 13
14.Available from: [Last accessed 19/2/2012].   Back to cited text no. 14
15.Wiley black well, Springer, PubMed, Cochrane, Elsevier, Medscape.   Back to cited text no. 15
16.file:///J:/repositories/search.htm [Last accessed 19/2/2012].   Back to cited text no. 16
17.University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry (US) - http://dentistry.; University of Kentucky (US) - [Last accessed 19/2/2012].   Back to cited text no. 17
18.Available from:, Face book, Twitter, Linked in. [Last accessed 19/2/2012].   Back to cited text no. 18
19.Orthodontics - Current Principles and techniques 4 th ed. In: Graber TM, Robert L, editors. Vanarsdall, Katherine WL. 2005. p. 13.  Back to cited text no. 19


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