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SYMPOSIUM - HERBAL DRUGS AND BOTANICALS - RESEARCH ARTICLES
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 272-274  

Bergenin determination in different extracts by high-performance thin-layer chromatographic densitometry


Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission10-Apr-2014
Date of Decision04-Jan-2015
Date of Acceptance15-Feb-2015
Date of Web Publication23-Oct-2015

Correspondence Address:
Sayeed Ahmad
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.168024

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   Abstract 


Aim: Bergenin is an active secondary metabolite, found in Bergenia ligulata, family Saxifragaceae, which is an important medicinal plant used in the traditional system of medicine. It is distributed throughout the South and East Asia and some European countries, usually growing on high altitude in the Himalayan region and known as Pashanbhed (meaning "to break the stone"). The rhizome of B. ligulata has been used since long time in different traditional formulations of kidney and liver disorders. Due to its exhaustive use in the traditional system, it is commonly adulterated with the rhizome of other plants which do not contain its chemical marker bergenin. Hence, we developed high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for quantification of bergenin in B. ligulata which can be used for its quality control. Materials and Methods: A sensitive HPTLC method has been developed for the estimation of bergenin in different extracts of B. ligulata and its traditional formulations. Precoated HPTLC silica gel plates were used as stationary phase, and chloroform: methanol: acetic acid (8:1:1, v/v/v) was used as mobile phase. Results: The Rfvalue of bergenin was found to be 0.28 ± 0.03. Detection and quantification were performed by densitometry at 276 nm. The calibration plot was linear in the range of 200–5000 ng of bergenin with the correlation coefficient of (r2) 0.999, which confirms good linearity. The content of bergenin in methanolic and acetone extracts was found to be 5.51 ± 0.14 and 5.76 ± 0.16, respectively. Conclusion: The method can be applied for quality control and standardization of B. ligulata and its traditional formulations as well as for checking the presence of adulterants.

Keywords: Bergenin, high- performance thin- layer chromatographic, quality control


How to cite this article:
Khan MS, Khan W, Ahmad W, Singh M, Ahmad S. Bergenin determination in different extracts by high-performance thin-layer chromatographic densitometry. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2015;7:272-4

How to cite this URL:
Khan MS, Khan W, Ahmad W, Singh M, Ahmad S. Bergenin determination in different extracts by high-performance thin-layer chromatographic densitometry. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Nov 23];7:272-4. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2015/7/4/272/168024

Bergenin is an active secondary metabolite, found in Bergenia ligulata, family Saxifragaceae, which is an important medicinal plant used in the traditional system of medicine. It is distributed throughout the South and East Asia and some European countries, usually growing on high altitude in the Himalayan region and known as Pashanbhed (meaning "to break the stone"). The ethno-botanical and ethno-medicinal literature states that in Ayurveda and Unani medicines, the roots of B. ligulata possess astringent, tonic, antiscorbutic, and laxative properties [1] and is recommended for ulcers, dysuria, spleen enlargement, cough and fever,[2] and for kidney and liver disorders.[3] Alcoholic extract of the plant exhibited significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic activity.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8] Due to its exhaustive use in the traditional system, it is commonly adulterated with the rhizome of other plants which do not contain its chemical marker bergenin. Because of its great importance as major ingredients in different formulations worldwide, we developed high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for quantification of bergenin in B. ligulata which can be used for its quality control.


   Materials and Methods Top


Drug and chemicals

Bergenin standard was procured from Sigma-Aldrich having the purity of 99%. B. ligulata was procured from the local drug market and identified by Dr. S. Ahmad, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hamdard University, New Delhi. A sample specimen was deposited in the herbarium of the Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, (Specimen no- /BL/BNPL/2012). All chemicals and reagents used were of analytical grade and purchased from Merck Chemicals, India.

Sample preparation

The samples were prepared by refluxing 1.0 g of dried powdered drug in methanol and acetone separately for 2 h. Solutions were filtered and cooled. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in 5.0 mL of methanol and acetone.

High-performance thin-layer chromatographic instrumentation and general conditions

The sample is spotted in the form of bands of width 5.0 mm using Camag Linomat Applicator (Hamilton, Switzerland) on a precoated silica gel aluminum plate thin-layer chromatography (TLC) F254 (20 cm × 10 cm). The mobile phase consisted of chloroform: methanol: acetic acid (8:1:1, v/v/v). Densitometric scanning was performed on Camag TLC scanner III in the wavelength of 276 nm operated by WINCATS Software 6 (CAMAG, Switzerland). The slit dimension was kept at 5 mm × 0.45 mm at 10 mm/s scanning speed.


   Results and Discussion Top


In the preliminary TLC experiments, bergenin was found to be one of the major compounds in the rhizome of B. ligulata, considering the importance of bergenin.[9],[10] In the present work, a simple, sensitive HPTLC method was developed for the estimation of bergenin as a marker compound. TLC procedure was optimized with a view to develop a method for determining bergenin in different extracts. Initially, chloroform: Methanol in various ratios was tried. When chloroform and methanol tried with formic acid in the ratio of 8:1:1, v/v/v, a good spot was observed but the Rf was nearby about 0.8. So, the mobile phase again modified and instead of formic acid, acetic acid is used. When chloroform, methanol, and acetic acid used in the ratio of 8:1.1, v/v/v, a compact, resolved and well-defined peaks of standard as well as sample [Figure 1] was observed with an Rf value of 0.28 ± 0.03.
Figure 1: (a) High-performance thin-layer chromatographic chromatogram of standard bergenin (4000 ng/spot), 276 nm wavelength showing an Rfvalue of 0.28; (b) high-performance thin-layer chromatographic chromatogram of methanolic extract of Bergenia ligulata; (c) high-performance thin-layer chromatographic chromatogram of acetone extract of Bergenia ligulata

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Calibration curve of bergenin by high-performance thin-layer chromatographic

The linear regression data for the calibration curve (n = 3) as shown in [Table 1] produced a good linear relationship over the concentration range 200–5000 ng/spot with respect to the peak area [Figure 2]. The concentration of bergenin in the sample was calculated by using this regression equation [Table 1].
Table 1: Calibration data for standard bergenin

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Figure 2: Calibration curve for standard bergenin

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Analysis of bergenin in different extracts

The quantitative estimation of bergenin content was carried out by HPTLC WinCats software using the calibration curve with respect to the peak area of standard spots which were found to be 5.51% ± 0.14% and 5.76% ± 0.16% w/w.


   Conclusion Top


The simple HPTLC method developed for the estimation of the biomarker bergenin has the applicability in the quantification of bergenin and can be applied for quality control and standardization of B. ligulata and its traditional formulations as well as for checking the presence of adulterants.



 
   References Top

1.
Kirtikar K, Basu B. Textbook of Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed., Vol. II. Dehradun, India: International Book Distributors; 2005. p. 993-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Anonymous. The Wealth of India, Raw Materials. Vol. 2:B. New Delhi: Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR; 1988. p. 120.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Mukherjee T, Bhalla N, Singh AG, Jain HC. Herbal drugs for urinary stones. Indian Drugs 1984;21:224-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Dixit BS, Srivastava SN. Tannin constituents of Bergenialigulata roots. Indian J Nat Prod 1989;5:24-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Joshi VS, Parekh BB, Joshi MJ, Vaidya AB. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro. J Cryst Growth 2005;275:1403-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ballabh B, Chaurasia OP, Ahmed Z, Singh SB. Traditional medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh-used against kidney and urinary disorders. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;118:331-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gürocak S, Küpeli B. Consumption of historical and current phytotherapeutic agents for urolithiasis: A critical review. J Urol 2006;176:450-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sharma HK, Chhangte L, Dolui AK. Traditional medicinal plants in Mizoram, India. Fitoterapia 2001;72:146-61.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Boros B, Jakabova S, Madarasz T, Molnar R, Galambosi B, Kilar F, et al. Validated HPLC method for simultaneous quantitation of bergenin, arbutin, and gallic acid in leaves of different Bergenia species. Chromatographia 2004:77:1129-35.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Singh DP, Srivastava SK, Govindarajan R, Rawat AK. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of bergenin in different Bergenia species. Acta Chromatogr 2007;19:246.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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