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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 300-308

Optimization, characterization, and efficacy evaluation of 2% chitosan scaffold for tissue engineering and wound healing

1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organisation, New Delhi, India
2 Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Amit Kumar
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organisation, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199346

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Objective: To develop a chitosan-based scaffold and carry out a complete comprehensive study encompassing optimization of exact chitosan strength, product characterization, toxicity evaluation, in vitro validation in cell culture experiments, and finally in vivo efficacy in animal excision wound model. Materials and Methods: Developed chitosan scaffolds (CSs) were optimized for tissue engineering and wound healing efficacy by means of microstructure, toxicity, and biocompatibility evaluation. Results: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies revealed that porosity of CS decreased with increase in chitosan concentration. Chemical stability and integrity of scaffolds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared studies. Highest swelling percentage (SP) of 500% was observed in 2%, while lowest (200%) was observed in 1% CS. Reabsorption and noncytotoxic property of optimized scaffold were established by enzymatic degradation and MTT assay. Enzymatic degradation suggested 20–45% of weight loss (WL) within 14 days of incubation. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that scaffolds were noncytotoxic against normal human dermal fibroblast human dermal fibroblast cell lines. Significant cellular adherence over the scaffold surface with normal cellular morphology was confirmed using SEM analysis. In vivo efficacy evaluation was carried out by means of reduction in wound size on Sprague-Dawley rats. Sprague-Dawley rats treated with optimized scaffold showed ~ 100% wound healing in comparison to ~80% healing in betadine-treated animals within 14 days. Histological examination depicted advance re-epithelization with better organization of collagen bundle in wound area treated with 2% CS in comparison to conventional treatment or no treatment. Conclusion: This study, thus, reveals that 2% CSs were found to have a great potential in wound healing.

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