Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences Login  | Users Online: 733  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
    Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission




 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 26-28  

Obstructive sleep apnea


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Thai Moogambigai Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Madha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Sibar Dental College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Madha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Oral Pathology, Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India
6 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sree Balaji Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication27-Nov-2017

Correspondence Address:
Joseph Arnold
48i/30i, Kandasamy Street, Pallipattu, Taramani Post, Chennai - 600 113, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_155_17

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a potentially serious disorder attacking millions of people around the world. Many of these individuals are undiagnosed, and even though diagnosed often exhibit a poor compliance with the use of continuous positive airway pressure at nights, a very effective nonsurgical treatment. A variety of surgical procedures have been proposed to manage and treat OSA. This article throws insights into assessing the sites of obstruction and a number of surgical procedures designed to address OSA. The scope of this article is to provide information to dentists which enables them to identify the patients who have OSAS and to guide these patients in making informed decisions regarding treatment options.

Keywords: Apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep, snoring


How to cite this article:
Arnold J, Sunilkumar M, Krishna V, Yoganand S P, Kumar M S, Shanmugapriyan D. Obstructive sleep apnea. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2017;9, Suppl S1:26-8

How to cite this URL:
Arnold J, Sunilkumar M, Krishna V, Yoganand S P, Kumar M S, Shanmugapriyan D. Obstructive sleep apnea. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Jul 6];9, Suppl S1:26-8. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2017/9/5/26/219285




   Introduction Top


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep-concerned breathing disorder that involves a decrease or complete stop in airflow in spite of an ongoing effort to breathe, which is a result of relaxation of the pharyngeal muscles. Majority of people with OSA snore loudly and frequently, with periods of pause when airflow is reduced or blocked.[1],[2] They then have choking, snorting, or gasping sounds when their airway resumes during sleep, causing soft tissue in the back of the throat to collapse and obstruct the upper airway. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is 4% in men whereas 2% in women among middle-aged population.[3] As age increases, the prevalence also rises and is estimated around 28%–67% for elderly men and 20%–54% for elderly women.[4]


   Classification Top


  • Mild OSA: (apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] of 5–15) – Involuntary sleepiness at times of activities that demand little attention, such as watching TV or reading
  • Moderate OSA: (AHI of 15–30) – Involuntary sleepiness during activities that need some attention, such as meetings or presentations
  • Severe OSA: (AHI of >30) – Involuntary sleepiness during activities that need more attention such as talking or driving.



   Symptoms Top


  • Chronic, loud snoring – high risk[5]
  • Gasping or choking episodes during sleep – definitive of further evaluation
  • Obesity, especially nuchal obesity – indication of severity
  • Neck size >17 inches in males and >16 inches in females – high risk.[6],[7]



   Signs to Identify Patients at Risk of Apnea Top


  • Increased daytime sleepiness – drowsy driving
  • Automobile or work-related accidents due to fatigue
  • Personality changes or cognitive difficulties related to fatigue
  • Hypertension
  • Nasopharyngeal narrowing
  • Pulmonary hypertension (rarely).



   Pathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Top


The major factors that play a potential role in the development of OSA are: (i) decrease in the forces of the pharyngeal dilators, (ii) the negative inspiratory pressure generated by the diaphragm, and (iii) improper upper airway anatomy, the element most effectively addressed by surgery.[8] The common sites of obstruction are located in the pharynx.[9] Airway failure often occurs when patients sleep on their back and the base of the tongue adheres to the posterior pharyngeal wall and soft palate. Elongated or excessive tissue of the soft palate, a large tongue, swollen uvula, large tonsils, and redundant pharyngeal mucosa are the most common reasons of snoring and OSA. The accomplishment of airway surgery depends on an appropriate diagnosis of the sites of obstruction and the perfect selection of procedures to address these sites [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Anatomy of sleep apnea

Click here to view
Figure 2: Sites of obstruction

Click here to view



   Tests to Determine Obstruction of Sleep Top


Currently, polysomnography, which requires a sleepover in a laboratory, is the optimum test for diagnosing sleep apnea. It involves the evaluation of sleep staging [Figure 3], airflow and ventilatory effort, arterial oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, body position, and periodic limb movements. Polysomnography is not always readily available. Alternative methods to consider are evaluation using pulse oximetry and portable (home) monitoring of cardiopulmonary channels.[10]
Figure 3: Evaluation of sleep chart

Click here to view



   Management Top


OSAS can be managed nonsurgically or surgically. The treatment modality should focus on the potential contributing factors identified by the history, physical examination, and upper airway imaging. The severity of the patient's condition must also be taken into consideration in developing a treatment plan. Since obesity is a risk factor for OSAS, a weight loss program can reduce sleep apnea.[11]


   Nonsurgical Methods Top


Continuous positive airway pressure

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment option for moderate-to-severe cases of OSA and a better option for mild sleep apnea.[12] The first treatment of sleep apnea was introduced in 1981; CPAP provides a steady stream of pressurized air to patients through a mask that they wear.

Oral appliances

Oral or dental appliances may be the choice for patients with mild-to-moderate sleep apnea. However, they are not a remedy for all patients. This airflow maintains the airway open, preventing pauses in breathing and restoring normal oxygen levels. Novel CPAP models are small, light, and virtually silent. A variety of devices that move the tongue forward or move the mandible to an anterior and forward position to improve patency of the airway have been marketed.[13]

Oral appliances are preferred to people with mild-to-moderate OSA who either prefer it than CPAP or they are not able to successfully comply with CPAP therapy. Oral appliances resemble much like sports' mouth guards, and they aid in maintaining an open and unobstructed airway by repositioning or stabilizing the lower jaw, tongue, soft palate, or uvula. Some are specifically designed for snoring and others are planned to treat both snoring and sleep apnea.


   Surgical Treatment Methods Top


Tracheotomy is the primary treatment modality for OSA and a temporary measure during other surgical procedures where airway cannot be maintained through oro-nasal routes. Thatcher and Maisel state that tracheostomy leads to quick reduction in sequelae of OSA and results in only a very few complications.[14]

The initial methods used were surgical and upper airway reconstructive or bypass procedures. Bypass procedure comprises nasal procedures which include septoplasty, functional rhinoplasty, nasal valve surgery, nasal polypectomy, and endoscopic procedures.

Oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal procedures include uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, palatal advancement pharyngoplasty, tonsillectomy, and excision of tori mandibularis.

Hypopharyngeal procedures include tongue reduction, partial glossectomy, lingual tonsillectomy, and mandibular advancement. Laryngeal procedures include epiglottoplasty and hyoid suspension. Global airway procedure consists of maxillo-mandibular advancement bariatric surgery. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty is the most widely performed surgery for OSA. Friedman et al. showed a success rate in a period of 6 months to be 80% in selected patients.[15]


   Conclusion Top


OSAS is a condition that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, dentists must be aware of the signs and symptoms of OSAS such that they can confirm the diagnosis, and treatment can be initiated at the appropriate time. In patients with anatomic abnormalities of the maxilla and mandible resulting in a narrow pharyngeal airway, orthognathic surgery proves to be an excellent choice of treatment.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Ephros HD, Madani M, Yalamanchili SC. Surgical treatment of snoring; obstructive sleep apnoea. Indian J Med Res 2010;131:267-76.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Sojot AJ, Meisami T, Sandor GK, Clokie CM. The epidemiology of mandibular fractures treated at the Toronto general hospital: A review of 246 cases. J Can Dent Assoc 2001;67:640-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S, et al. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1230-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Goodday RH. Nasal respiration, nasal airway resistance, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 1997;9:167-77.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hoffestein V, Szalai J. Predictive value of clinical features in diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea. Sleep 1993;16:118.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Millman RP, Carlisle CC, McGarvey ST, Eveloff SE, Levinson PD. Body fat distribution and sleep apnea severity in women. Chest 1995;107:362-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Davies RJ, Stradling JR. The relationship between neck circumference, radiographic pharyngeal anatomy, and the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Eur Respir J 1990;3:509-14.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ephros HD, Madani M, Yalamanchili SC. Surgical treatment of snoring; obstructive sleep apnoea. Indian J Med Res 2010;131:267-76.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.
Kuna ST, Sant'Ambrogio G. Pathophysiology of upper airway closure during sleep. JAMA 1991;266:1384-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Gyulay S, Olson LG, Hensley MJ, King MT, Allen KM, Saunders NA, et al. A comparison of clinical assessment and home oximetry in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:50-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Loube DI, Loube AA, Mitler MM. Weight loss for obstructive sleep apnea: The optimal therapy for obese patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1291-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Sullivan CE, Issa FG, Berthon-Jones M, Eves L. Reversal of obstructive sleep apnoea by continuous positive airway pressure applied through the nares. Lancet 1981;1:862-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Schmidt-Nowara W, Lowe A, Wiegand L, Cartwright R, Perez-Guerra F, Menn S, et al. Oral appliances for the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea: A review. Sleep 1995;18:501-10.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Thatcher GW, Maisel RH. The long-term evaluation of tracheostomy in the management of severe obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope 2003;113:201-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Friedman M, Ibrahim H, Bass L. Clinical staging for sleep-disordered breathing. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;127:13-21.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Peripheral blood oxidative stress markers for obstructive sleep apnea—a meta-analysis
Yuzhui Hu, Lin Mai, Jingying Luo, Wensong Shi, Hui Xiang, Sijia Song, Liuyan Hong, Wenting Long, Biwen Mo, Miao Luo
Sleep and Breathing. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The association between sleep architecture, quality of life, and hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
Lixia Chen, Chunjie Bai, Yanan Zheng, Lai Wei, Cuihua Han, Na Yuan, Daihong Ji
Sleep and Breathing. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Association between laryngopharyngeal reflux and obstructive sleep apnea in adults
Susyana Tamin, Dumasari Siregar, Syahrial Marsinta Hutauruk, Ratna Dwi Restuti, Elvie Zulka Kautzia Rachmawati, Saptawati Bardosono
PeerJ. 2022; 10: e13303
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Review of Literature
Farhan A Shah, Shaidy Moronta, Michalla Braford, Nelson Greene
Cureus. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Obstructive sleep apnea and the retina: a review
Luis Filipe Nakayama, Priscila Farias Tempaku, Vinicius Campos Bergamo, Murilo Ubukata Polizelli, Natasha Ferreira Santos da Cruz, Lia Rita Azeredo Bittencourt, Caio Vinicius Saito Regatieri
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2021; 17(9): 1947
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 The Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on the Sleep of Critically Ill Patients
Michaelynn Paul
Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 2021; 33(2): 173
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 The Clinical Evaluation of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders
Samantha S. Anguizola E, Laura M. Botta P, Andrea Castro-Villacañas, Diego Garcia-Borreguero
Sleep Medicine Clinics. 2021; 16(2): 223
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Effectiveness of different mandibular advancement device designs in obstructive sleep apnoea therapy: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials with meta-analysis
Maria Lavinia Bartolucci, Francesco Bortolotti, Giulia Corazza, Serena Incerti Parenti, Corrado Paganelli, Giulio Alessandri Bonetti
Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2021; 48(4): 469
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Sudden death in individuals with obstructive sleep apnoea: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Emily S Heilbrunn, Paddy Ssentongo, Vernon M Chinchilli, John Oh, Anna E Ssentongo
BMJ Open Respiratory Research. 2021; 8(1): e000656
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 A Pilot Study of Detecting Individual Sleep Apnea Events Using Noncontact Radar Technology, Pulse Oximetry, and Machine Learning
Ståle Toften, Jonas T. Kjellstadli, Stig S. Tyvold, Mads H. S. Moxness, Qiang Wu
Journal of Sensors. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Sudden death in individuals with obstructive sleep apnoea: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis
Emily Heilbrunn, Paddy Ssentongo, Vernon M Chinchilli, Anna E Ssentongo
BMJ Open. 2020; 10(8): e039774
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Comparison of screening methods for obstructive sleep apnea in the context of dental clinics: A systematic review
Cecilia Rossi, Laura Templier, Manuel Miguez, Javier De La Cruz, Adrián Curto, Alberto Albaladejo, Manuel Lagravère Vich
CRANIO®. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Improved Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence with Pillow Height Change: A Case Report
Hyungee Kim, Jungjoo Lee, Hyeyun Kim
Journal of Sleep Medicine. 2019; 16(2): 113
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Classification
   Symptoms
    Signs to Identif...
    Pathophysiology ...
    Tests to Determi...
   Management
   Nonsurgical Methods
    Surgical Treatme...
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5467    
    Printed80    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded261    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 13    

Recommend this journal