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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 85-87  

Knowledge and attitude about early childhood caries among pregnant mothers from low socioeconomic status: A questionnaire study


Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vinayaka Mission Sankarachariyar Dental College, Ariyanoor, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication27-Nov-2017

Correspondence Address:
Pooja Rajan
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vinayaka Mission Sankrachariyar Dental College, NH-47, Sankari Main Road, Ariyanoor, Salem 636 308, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_76_17

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   Abstract 


Background: For health and well-being, oral health is an integral component. Unfortunately, many children are afflicted with dental caries at an early age, even those as young as 12 months. By imparting knowledge, awareness among parents about this disease can bring about reduction of early childhood caries (ECC) at an early stage. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and attitude of expectant mothers about ECC and to reassess the level of knowledge after giving anticipatory guidance. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire consisted of 10 questions which were distributed to 100 participants after which anticipatory guidance was given to them. After 15 days, the same questionnaire was distributed among the participants with order of the questions interchanged. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant improvement in the knowledge and attitude about the disease after giving the anticipatory guidance among the participants. P < 0.01 and the result were statistically significant. Conclusion: Knowledge and attitude of mothers were found to increase on provision of anticipatory guidance, which was retained even after 15 days.

Keywords: Anticipatory guidance, early childhood caries, expectant mothers


How to cite this article:
Rajan P, Krishnan R, Kumar S, Nair S. Knowledge and attitude about early childhood caries among pregnant mothers from low socioeconomic status: A questionnaire study. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2017;9, Suppl S1:85-7

How to cite this URL:
Rajan P, Krishnan R, Kumar S, Nair S. Knowledge and attitude about early childhood caries among pregnant mothers from low socioeconomic status: A questionnaire study. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Jul 6];9, Suppl S1:85-7. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2017/9/5/85/219297




   Introduction Top


Early childhood caries (ECC) is a virulent form of dental decay which is characterized by improper feeding habits and unusual dietary practices. ECC is a serious health problem that continues to affect infants, toddlers, and preschool children worldwide. The prevalence of this disease varies from population to population, disadvantaged children, regardless of race, ethnicity, or culture.[1] Children from low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to the disease maybe because their mothers lack knowledge about it.[2] As the preventive strategies are integral to improve the oral health of young children, it is important to understand the social value that mothers ascribe to the knowledge and attitude about the disease.[3] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of pregnant mothers about ECC and to reassess their level of knowledge after giving anticipatory guidance. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude about ECC among expectant mothers from low socioeconomic status and to reassess their knowledge after providing anticipatory guidance.


   Materials and Methods Top


It was a quasi-experimental study. Institutional Ethical Committee clearance and written as well as verbal consent were obtained from the participants before the start of the study. A total of 100 expectant mothers were randomly selected from government hospitals, Salem, who belonged to low socioeconomic status, had a basic education only up to 10th class, and were pregnant for the first time, and the exclusion criteria were women who refused to take part in the study and those who could not read and write.

A printed questionnaire consisting of 10 questions relating to ECC in the local language (Tamil) was used for this study. The questionnaire was prepared to assess their knowledge on facts about ECC and its prevention and the attitude of expectant mothers about oral hygiene and dental visits. The questionnaire was prechecked for construct and content validity and was rated in a 3-point Likert scale as (a) agree, (b) don't know, and (c) disagree.

Dental health education was given to these mothers after obtaining their basic knowledge and attitude from the questionnaire. One-to-one education was provided using 10 commandments about ECC. The session lasted for 15 min. After 15 days, the same questionnaire with the order of questions rearranged was given to these mothers for reassessing their improvement in knowledge and attitude about ECC.

Statistical analysis

After collecting the pre- and post-assessment questionnaires, by adding the scores allocated to the each option, the scores of knowledge and attitude were calculated. Analysis of the data was carried out using SPSS statistical software (v. 19, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.


   Results Top


Knowledge and attitude among the expectant mothers about ECC during the prequestionnaire assessment were found to be very low as shown in [Table 1] and [Graph 1]. There was a significant improvement in the knowledge and attitude after giving anticipatory guidance as shown in [Table 2] and [Graph 2] and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.01).
Table 1: Result of the preassessment questionnaire

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Table 2: Result of the postassessment questionnaire

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   Discussion Top


Imparting knowledge to expectant mothers is one of the effective approaches to promote oral health. Not only does it improve the mother's oral condition, but it also improves the infant and toddler's future oral health.

It is crucial to discover expectant mother's knowledge and attitudes toward infant and preschool dental health and oral health quality of life if advancements are ever to be made. As per the study conducted by Saied-Moallemi et al. in 2008, mothers play an important role in establishing their child's oral health behaviors from an early age. Hence, in this study, we have targeted only expectant mothers.[4],[5]

The significant influence of mothers' attitudes on children's oral health found here may be attributed to the impact of their attitudes on their parental caring behaviors for their children.[6],[7],[8]

In this study, we have used a one-to-one anticipatory guidance technique to provide information about ECC to expectant mothers since anticipatory guidance provides a framework for prevention that goes beyond caries to address all aspects of children's oral health.[9],[10] A 3-point Likert scale was chosen since it does not require the participants to provide concrete yes or no answer and allows them to respond in a degree of agreement.[11]

In a study conducted in Salem, Tamil Nadu, the prevalence of ECC was found to be 16%. ECC was seen more in children among working mothers, low parental education, and low socioeconomic groups. Hence, we have conducted this study among the subjects of low socioeconomic status in Salem area and to provide them anticipatory guidance to prevent the disease.[12]

Many studies in the literature have only assessed knowledge of oral diseases, oral health behaviors, need for treatment, and dental visits of pregnant women; however, this study has evaluated the effect of training interventions during pregnancy and their sustainability effect on ECC. To determine the impact of intervention, the scores of variables at baseline were recorded.[13],[14],[15],[16] There was a significant improvement in the knowledge among the subjects after giving anticipatory guidance. The limitations of this study include small sample size and short follow-up periods.


   Conclusion Top


Presentation of the anticipatory guidance through the direct one-to-one counseling showed a significant improvement in the knowledge among expectant mothers about prevention strategies for ECC. Therefore, we should provide health education programs on anticipatory guidance and infant oral health care at an early stage possibly before the prenatal period for maximum benefits.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Singh S, Vijayakumar N, Priyadarshini HR, Shobha M. Prevalence of early childhood caries among 3-5 year old pre-schoolers in schools of Marathahalli, Bangalore. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012;9:710-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Priyadarshini HR, Hiremath SS, Puranik M, Rudresh SM, Nagaratnamma T. Prevalence of early childhood caries among preschool children of low socioeconomic status in Bangalore city, India. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2011;1:27-30.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Schroth J, Brothwell DJ, Moffatt ME. Caregiver knowledge and attitudes of preschool oral health and early childhood caries (ECC). Int J Circumpol Health 2007;66:2.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Saied-Moallemi Z, Virtanen JI, Ghofranipour F, Murtomaa H. Influence of mothers' oral health knowledge and attitudes on their children's dental health. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2008;9:79-83.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Adair PM, Pine CM, Burnside. Familial and cultural perceptions and beliefs of oral hygiene and dietary practices among ethnically and socio-economically diverse groups. Community Dent Health 2004;21:102-11.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Skeie MS, Riordan PJ, Klock KS, Espelid I. Parental risk attitudes and caries-related behaviours among immigrant and western native children in Oslo. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2006;34:103-13.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Szatko F, Wierzbicka M, Dybizbanska E, Struzycka I, Iwanicka-Frankowska E. Oral health of Polish three-year-olds and mothers' oral health-related knowledge. Community Dent Health 2004;21:175-80.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Saied-Moallemi Z, Murtomaa H, Tehranchi A, Virtanen JI. Oral health behaviour of Iranian mothers and their 9-year-old children. Oral Health Prev Dent 2007;5:263-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Nowak AJ, Casamassimo PS. Using anticipatory guidance to provide early dental intervention. J Am Dent Assoc 1995;126:1156-63.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Johnson K, Siegal M. Resources for improving the oral health of maternal and child populations. J Public Health Dent 1990;50:418-26.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Basavaraj SP, Basha S, Naveen Kumar PG, Manjunath PG, Hirekalmath SV, Imranulla M. Knowledge of early childhood caries among Anganwadi workers in Davangere city, India. Int J Oral Health Sci 2013:3;75-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Stephen A, Krishnan R, Ramesh M, Kumar VS. Prevalence of early childhood caries and its risk factors in 18-72 month old children in Salem, Tamil Nadu. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015;95-102.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Ramazani N, Zareban I, Ahmadi R, ZadSirjan S, Daryaeian M. Effect of anticipatory guidance presentation methods on the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women relative to maternal, infant and toddler's oral health care. J Dent (Tehran) 2014;11:22-30.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Lin DL, Harrison R, Aleksejuniene J. Can a prenatal dental public health program make a difference? J Can Dent Assoc 2011;77:b32.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
George A, Johnson M, Blinkhorn A, Ellis S, Bhole S, Ajwani S. Promoting oral health during pregnancy: Current evidence and implications for Australian midwives. J Clin Nurs 2010;19:3324-33.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Schroth RJ, Brothwell DJ, Moffatt ME. Caregiver knowledge and attitudes of preschool oral health and early childhood caries (ECC). Int J Circumpolar Health 2007;66:153-67.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

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