Detection of salivary alkaline phosphatase levels in smokers, diabetic patients, potentially malignant diseases and oral malignant tumours
Adi Ravi Prakash1, Prashant Nahar2, Madhusudhan Ashtekar3, Srikant Natarajan4, Rohit Singh5, Ganesh Kulkarni6
1 Department of Oral Pathology, Pacific Academy of Higher Education & Research University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Pacific Academy of Higher Education & Research University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Oral Pathology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, MAHE, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Prosthodontics, Crown, Bridge and Implantology, Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
6 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pathology, Malla Reddy Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Adi Ravi Prakash
Department of Oral Pathology, Pacific Academy of Higher Education & Research University, Udaipur, Rajasthan.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is present in human and plays a key role in intracellular destructive processes and cellular damage. It has bicarbonate and phosphate ions, which help in buffering against acids. ALP activity is affected by smoking, which changes pH in oral environment and has harmful effects. Thus, the evaluation of ALP activity of smokers and healthy nonsmoker along with patients who were diabetic, potentially malignant, and malignant was carried out in this study. Materials and Methods: The study took place between 2016 and 2017. A total of 150 smokers, non-smokers, and patients who were diabetic, potentially malignant, and malignant were included. Collection of unstimulated whole saliva was done from each participant, and salivary ALP levels were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary ALP levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to those in nonsmokers. Mean ALP levels were also increased in patients who were diabetic, potentially malignant, and malignant compared to those in controls. Conclusion: ALP levels were significantly higher among smokers when compared to a healthy control group. Oral tissue function and side effects among smokers can be evaluated by these salivary enzyme alterations, which can serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of any disease process. These salivary alterations could potentially be used as biochemical markers for the evaluation and early diagnosis. The higher levels were also found in patients who were diabetic, potentially malignant, and malignant, and ALP levels may also be used as biomarkers for the evaluation of the disease process.