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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 178-187

An in vitro study to determine the physicochemical, mechanical, and antibacterial properties of a novel spirulina containing controlled release intrapocket drug delivery system


1 Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
2 Department of Periodontics, Maitri College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India
3 Department of Periodontics, Mansarovar Dental College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Supriya Mishra
Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_446_20

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Context: Periodontitis is primarily an inflammatory condition caused by an array of microorganisms present in dental plaque. Elimination or adequate suppression of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival microflora is essential for adequate periodontal healing to take place. The development of subgingivally placed controlled delivery systems has provided the possibility of effective intrapocket concentration levels of antibacterial agents for an extended period of time, resulting in an altered subgingival flora and enhanced healing of the attachment apparatus. Although a number of synthetic antimicrobial agents are being used as local drug delivery, currently, pharmaceutical technology development has focused on the ingredients derived from nature. Natural phytochemicals have proven to be worthy substitutes of their synthetic and chemical-laden counterparts owing to their extensive natural activity, advanced safety margins, and inferior costs so that they can be of huge benefits, especially to the lower socioeconomic population around the world and spirulina platensis (SP) is one such emerging remedy. Aims: The aim of the study was to develop three controlled release drug delivery systems containing different concentrations of SP to be used inside the periodontal pockets. The study also aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of all the three concentrations of SP drug delivery system against major periodontopathic microorganisms and to test the physicochemical properties of the delivery system that exhibited maximum antimicrobial efficacy so that the suitability of its use inside the periodontal pocket could be determined. Settings and Design: The study was an in vitro experimental design. Subjects and Methods: Three different controlled release SP hydrogels (4%, 6%, and 12%) to be used inside the periodontal pockets were developed and antibacterial properties against periodontal pathogens were assessed. The hydrogel exhibiting maximum antimicrobial efficacy was then tested of physicochemical and mechanical properties to determine its suitability of its use inside the periodontal pocket. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test was used for comparison within the group and between the different groups. Results: 12% SP hydrogel was found to have maximum antimicrobial efficacy against major periodontal pathogens, and its physicochemical and mechanical properties were also optimum to be used inside the periodontal pocket. Conclusions: 12% SP hydrogel can act as a promising adjunct to periodontal mechanical therapy and may also reduce the chances of more invasive periodontal surgical procedures.


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