|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 246-250
Knowledge and practice about self-medication for oral health problems among population in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia
Inderjit Murugendrappa Gowdar1, Meshal Mohammed Alhaqbani2, Ahmad Mohammed Almughirah2, Saeed Abdullah Basalem2, Fahad Ibrahim Alsultan2, Mohammed Rashed Alkhathlan2
1 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
|Date of Submission||01-Dec-2020|
|Date of Decision||01-Dec-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||21-Dec-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||05-Jun-2021|
Inderjit Murugendrappa Gowdar
Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Prince Sattam bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Aim: The aim of this study was to know self-medication practices among the population of Riyadh region for oral health issues. Methodology: A questionnaire consisting of demographic self-practice of medication for oral health problems and knowledge about self-medication practices was sent through Google forms and it was in Arabic and English languages. The link of the questionnaire was sent through social and requested to send the link to their friends and relatives. Results: About 50.4% of study participants were having self-practice of medication for oral health problems. Self-practice of medication for oral health issues was statistically significant according to age gender and education (P < 0.05). Toothache (62.4%) is the main problem triggering self-medication and lack of time (44.6%) is the main reason for self-medication. Pain killer (68.8%) was the main medication and antibiotics were used by 2.2% of subjects. Conclusion: Self-medication practice is prevalent in the world and hence, education regarding its consequences and adverse effects for the general public is mandatory.
Keywords: Oral health, over-the-counter, pain killers, self-medication
|How to cite this article:|
Gowdar IM, Alhaqbani MM, Almughirah AM, Basalem SA, Alsultan FI, Alkhathlan MR. Knowledge and practice about self-medication for oral health problems among population in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S1:246-50
|How to cite this URL:|
Gowdar IM, Alhaqbani MM, Almughirah AM, Basalem SA, Alsultan FI, Alkhathlan MR. Knowledge and practice about self-medication for oral health problems among population in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 May 25];13, Suppl S1:246-50. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/5/246/317636
| Introduction|| |
The practice of diagnosing the disease by self and taking a prescription without professional health-care workers' advice is known as self-medication., Over-the-counter and dietary supplements are the most widely self-medicated substances to treat common health issues at home. In few countries, these drugs are obtained without the prescription of a doctor and are easily available in supermarkets and convenience stores.
These medicines include analgesics, antimalarials, antibiotics, and cough syrups, and a range of alternative medicines such as herbal remedies and traditional products. The WHO reported antibiotic resistance as an attention call due to self-medication with antibiotics., Irrational use of these drugs have caused doctors as well as people concerns about the use of these drugs over the years as it developed more serious side effect frequently than the original disease itself.
Many factors have been correlated to self-medications such as education, easy availability of drugs, and exposure to advertisements and media, society, laws, and legislation are some among other factors. Many studies from both developed and developing countries reported self-medication as a common behavior.
Patients often use over-the-counter drugs for oral health-related problems to reduce acute or chronic pain. Many were not aware of its contraindications and side effects. The injudicious self-practice of taking medicines results in wastage of resource, increase resistance to microbes, and pose a serious health hazard like adverse drug reactions and drug dependence. As health care professionals, it is our responsibility to create awareness among the public about the serious health hazards that can develop due to self-medication. The search of the literature revealed limited studies and data available related to this subject in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Hence, the study was designed to assess the knowledge and practice of self-medication for oral health issues among people in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia and to compare demographic factors with self-medication practices for oral diseases.
| Methodology|| |
A descriptive, cross-sectional study was designed to assess the self-medication practices, its awareness for oral health problems among the general public in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional review board, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University. Participants who voluntarily gave Informed consent were included and those participants who denied were excluded.
To obtain the information regarding the practice of self-medication, a specially designed questionnaire was developed consisting of three parts. The first part consisted of demographic details. Second part practices of self-medication for oral disease. Third part about knowledge of self-medication practices.
The sample size is calculated using the relation n = z2PQ/d2
Where the level of precision is d = 3%,
Prevalence of practice of self-medication among people to be at 25% from previous studies = 1.96 × 1.96 × 25 × 75/3 × 3
n = 7203/9
Substituting the values in the above-mentioned formula, the sample size was 800.
The collected data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 23 (IBM Corp., Armonk, N.Y., USA). Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used to check the association between the variables.
The questionnaire was distributed through Google forms and it was in Arabic and English languages. The link of the questionnaire was sent through social media, i.e., WhatsApp, snap chat and people are requested to send the link to their friends and relatives a total of 802 questionnaires were considered for statistical analysis.
All data were analyzed at 95% confidence interval Chi-square test was used to check statistical significance difference. SPSS version 23 was used for statistical analysis.
| Results|| |
[Table 1] shows the study subjects according to age group, gender, and educational status. There were a total of 802 subjects out of which 37.7% belonging to above 40 years of age 52.6% were females and majority (72.3%) were holding a degree graduation.
|Table 1: Study population according to age group, gender, and educational status|
Click here to view
[Figure 1] shows that 50.4% of study participants had practice of self-medication for oral health problems.
[Table 2] shows a comparison of self-medication practices among study subjects. The practice of self-medication practice was more among females (57.7%) than males which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). According to the age group, 42.1% aged above 40 years were having self-medication practices and only 15.1% of study subjects belonging to 18–22 years were having self-medication practices the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05). According to educational qualification, there was a statistically significant difference among self-medication practice which was more prevalent with subjects holding graduation degree (67.8%) followed by those having education up to secondary school (23.3%) and least among subjects having a postgraduation (8.9%).
|Table 2: Comparison of self-medication practices according to demographic factors|
Click here to view
[Table 3] shows responses to various questions related to self-medication among study participants. 47% of the study participants have answered that they use the same medicines as other members of the family. 81.7% of the study participants have told they will continue the medication till the condition subsides. Among the oral health-related problems triggering self-medication, it is the toothache (62.4%) for which majority of the participants practice self-medication and the least being the loose tooth (2.2%). The main reason for this was lack of time (44.6%) and least as traditional belief (9.2%). Majority of study participants (64.6%) are of the view that they have got temporary relief from the problem after self-medication. 17.1% of the study subjects are unsure about their effects after self-medication.
|Table 3: Responses to various questions related to self-medication among study participants|
Click here to view
[Table 4] shows knowledge on self-medication practices among study participants. 68.8% of study participants responded as pain killer as the type of self-medication used most commonly followed by homemade remedies (17.6%) and only 2.2% of subjects have told as antibiotics. The major source of getting medication being the pharmacy (67.3%). Majority of subjects 87.6% do check the expiry before using the self-medication. Relatives being a major source for self-medication (42.6%), almost 52.2% of study participants were aware of its harmful effects.
|Table 4: Knowledge on self-medication practices among study participants|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
In this present cross-sectional study, we investigated oral disease-related self-drug administration practices and knowledge among the general public in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of this practice was 50.4% in the present study. Data from Studies around the world report the prevalence range of 80%–90%,,,,, whereas in some studies, the prevalence rate of 30% has been reported; the reasons for such differences could be the cultural belief, education status, socioeconomic conditions, etc.
In this study the prevalence rate was highest among subjects aged 40 years and above this result is in accordance with a Jordanian study where authors reported the highest prevalence among the 36–55 years age group.
In the present study female subjects were having more self-medication practices than compared to male subjects similar to the study reported by Afolabi and fear of dentistry could be a reason for this.
47% of subjects utilized the same medications as their family members, which is almost similar to the reports of other studies.,, easy availability in the house and prescriptions written for similar symptoms could be some of the reasons for utilizing the same kind of self medications.
Many authors have reported that toothache is the main reason,,,, for people to take self-medication; this finding is similar in our study also where 62.4% of the study participants stated toothache as the reason. Tooth pain affects sleep impairs work performance, can be the reason for difficulty in eating, etc., so it ultimately calls for immediate remedies to achieve a temporary relief from pain.
Authors from various studies,,,, have reported that painkillers were the drug used most frequently the second one being antibiotics; the use of painkillers was in agreement with the results of our study. Studies conducted by Agbor and Azodo, Gutema et al. and Sultane et al. showed that the participants preferred antibiotics over other aids which is in contrast to the present study observation where only 2.2% of subjects practiced the use of antibiotics. The practice of consuming unprescribed antibiotics needs to be curbed as its consequence of antibiotic resistance is on a rise than other drugs.
Pharmacy is the source of getting medicines without a certified doctor's prescription observed in this study (67.3%). This was in agreement with other studies.,,,,, 87.6% of the study subjects had a habit of checking the expiry date of the medicines and this finding was similar to studies by Giriraju, Komalraj et al. The common guiding source of knowledge about self-medication for the participants was their relatives (42.6%) followed by having personal knowledge (24.5%). This was similar to the findings of Giriraju and Agbor and Azodo.
52.2% of the participants knew about harmful effects of self-medication 30.4% were not having any idea. Harmful effects of self-medication can be antibiotic resistance, skin problem, hypersensitivity, and allergy. It is the responsibility of pharmacists and the manufacturers of over-the-counter drugs to make people understand the side effects associated with medicating themselves and to take professional advice before the consumption of any drugs.
| Conclusion|| |
Self-medication practices are an alarming concept. 50.4% of people in Riyadh region had a practice of self-medication. Pain killer was the most common drug; toothache being the triggering factor, lack of time was the main reason for such practices. The pharmacy counter is the main source for self-medication. Hence, education is necessary for the general public regarding its consequences, adverse effects, and take professional advice before the consumption of any drug.
We would like to acknowledge Deanship of Scientific Research, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj KSA for supporting this research and all the study participants for helping to provide information and sparing their time.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Bown D, Kisuule G, Ogasawara H, Siregar C, Williams G. WHO guidelines for the regulatory assessment of medicinal products for use in self medication. WHO Drug Inform 2000;14:18-26.
Awad A, Eltayeb I, Matowe L, Thalib L. Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in the community of Khartoum State, Sudan. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2005;8:326-31.
Kalra DD, Kini PV, Kalra RD, Jathanna VR. Assessment of self-medication among dental students in Pune city, Maharashtra: A cross-sectional survey. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2015;13:318-23. [Full text]
Giriraju A. Perception about self-medication practices for oral health problems among the general population of Davangere city, Karnataka, India. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2014;12:219-25. [Full text]
Osemene KP, Lamikanra A. A study of the prevalence of self-medication practice among university students in Southwestern Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res 2012;11:683-89.
James H, Handu SS, Al Khaja KA, Otoom S, Sequeira RP. Evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among first-year medical students. Med Princ Pract 2006;15:270-5.
Aldeeri A, Alzaid H, Alshunaiber R, Meaigel S, Shaheen NA, Adlan A. Patterns of self-medication behavior for oral health problems among adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Pharmacy (Basel) 2018:1(6);15.
Omitola OG, Arigbede AO. Prevalence and pattern of pain presentation among patients attending a tertiary dental center in a southern region of Nigeria. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2010;4:42-6.
Baptist J, Sharma SM, Hegde N. Self-medication practices for managing tooth pain amongst patients attending oral surgery clinics. Oral Surgery 2013;5:163-7.
Shah AK, Rathore RS, Datir NP. Assessment of self-medication among dental students: An institution based survey in a dental college at Vadodara, Gujarat. Health Agenda 2015;3:88-92.
Verma RK, Mohan L, Pandey M. Evaluation of self-medication among professional students in North India: Proper statutory drug control must be implemented. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2010;3:60-4.
Anyanechi C, Saheeb B. Toothache and self-medication practices: A study of patients attending a Niger delta tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014;4:884-8. [Full text]
Azhar MI, Gunasekaran K, Kadirvelu A, Gurtu S, Sadasivan S, Kshatriya BM. Self-medication: Awareness and attitude among Malaysian urban population. Int J Collab Res Internal Med Public Health 2013;5:436-43.
Mumtaz Y, Jahangeer SM, Mujtaba T, Zafar S, Adnan S. Self-medication among university students of Karachi. J Liaquat Univ Med Health Sci 2011;10:102-5.
Simon AK, Rao A, Rajesh G, Shenoy R, Pai MB. Trends in self-medication for dental conditions among patients attending oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India. Indian J Pharmacol 2015;47:524-9.
] [Full text]
Afolabi AO. Factors influencing the pattern of self-medication in anadult Nigerian population. Ann Afr Med 2008;7:120-7.
] [Full text]
KomalRaj MR, Bhat PK, Aruna CN. Self-medication practices for oral health problems among dental patients in Bangalore: A cross-sectional study. IOSR J Pharm 2015;10:68-75.
Sultane P, Chhabra S, Bhat N, Choudhary S, Todkar M, Singh P, et al
. Perception about self-medication practices for oral health problems among patients attending dental hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Int J Oral Care Res 2017;5:47-52.
Agbor MA, Azodo CC. Self medication for oral health problems in Cameroon. Int Dent J 2011;61:204-9.
Baig QA, Muzaffar D, Afaq A, Bilal S, Iqbal N. Prevalence of self-medication among dental patients. Pak Oral Dent J 2012;32:292-5.
Mythri H. Research on self medication; a hype or hope? A literature review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:28-31.
Gutema GB, Gadisa DA, Kidanemariam ZA, BerheDF, Berhe AH, Hadera MG, et al
. Self-Medication practices among health sciences students: The case of Mekelle University. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:183-9.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]