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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 333-335  

Assessment of prevalence of dental caries among school-going children: A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Indira Gandhi Government Dental College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, BJS Dental College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Shaheed Kartar Singh Sarabha Dental College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
4 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Children Dental College, Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
5 Department of orthodontics, Maharaja Ganga Singh Dental College and Research Centre, Sriganganagar, Rajasthan, India
6 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, RKDF Dental College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission23-Sep-2020
Date of Decision28-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance05-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication05-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Iqbal Singh
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Indira Gandhi Government Dental College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_575_20

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   Abstract 


Background: The background of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries among school-going children. Materials and Methods: Six thousand eight hundred and ninety school-going children was enrolled. General clinical examination was carried out. Mouth mirror, probe, and explorer were used for carrying out the clinical examination. Over a time span of 6 months, the entire study was completed. All the examiners who performed clinical examination underwent a single-day training program for detecting dental caries. All the participants were seated on straight wooden chairs and were examined clinically. The prevalence of caries was recorded. Results: The prevalence was 26.02%. Among these children with dental caries, 50.25% of the children belonged to the age group of 13–15 years, while the remaining 49.75% of the children belonged to the age group of 9–12 years. Prevalence of dental caries was significantly higher in females (71.11%) in comparison to males. Furthermore, dental caries was significantly more prevalent among participants with toothbrushing frequency of less than once a day (51.20%). Conclusion: There is an imperative need for intimating health check-up camps among school-going children.

Keywords: Caries, dental, school children


How to cite this article:
Singh I, Kaur K, Narang S, Yadav S, Kaur S, Singh NV. Assessment of prevalence of dental caries among school-going children: A cross-sectional study. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S1:333-5

How to cite this URL:
Singh I, Kaur K, Narang S, Yadav S, Kaur S, Singh NV. Assessment of prevalence of dental caries among school-going children: A cross-sectional study. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 26];13, Suppl S1:333-5. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/5/333/317719




   Introduction Top


Historically, the diagnosis of bacterial etiology in caries development can be attributed to W. D. Miller in 1883. Despite centuries of evolution and breakthrough advancements in the medical facilities and armamentarium, a reduction in the occurrence and also in the prevention of dental caries has yet to be achieved by humankind.[1]

An upward drift in the dental caries is witnessed recently in the majority of the developing nation's world over. An increase in sugar intake and decreased fluoride exposure may be largely responsible for this. Thus, there has been a decrease in the emphasis on the fact that caries is youngster's pathology, and we are yet to achieve a significant reduction in the caries disease process.[2],[3]

The recent trends in India indicate a rise in the health problems of oral region with the most predominant being dental caries, which has been showing a uniform upward surge over the last half of the previous century not only in the prevalence but also in the disease severity. Dental caries attacks the teeth of children of all ages requiring either restorative therapy or even pulp therapy. Apart from the mentally exhaustive and demanding nature of these treatments from a child's perspective, they are also not very economically viable. Hence, prevention of caries seems to be the most ideal and financially appropriate measure to be adopted. Thus, the collection of data regarding the prevalence of caries and the subsequent therapy requirements seems to be all the more important in chalking out a preventive course of action for this disease.[3],[4],[5] The present study was undertaken for assessing the prevalence of dental caries among school-going children.


   Materials and Methods Top


The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence of dental caries among school-going children of the known population. Only children between the age group of 9 and 15 years were included in the present study. A total of 6890 school-going children was enrolled. Complete demographic and clinical details of all the participants were obtained and were recorded in separate Pro forma. General clinical examination of all the patients was carried out. Mouth mirror, probe, and explorer were used for carrying out the clinical examination. Over a time span of 6 months, the entire study was completed. All the examiners who performed clinical examination underwent a single-day training program for detecting dental caries. All the participants were seated on straight wooden chairs and were examined clinically. The examination was done under natural daylight using the WHO criteria.[6] All the results were recorded in Microsoft Excel Sheet and were analyzed by SPSS software version 16.0 (IBM, Armonk, New York). Chi-square test was used for the evaluation of the level of significance.


   Results Top


In the present study, analysis, a total of 6890 school-going children was done. Among these participants, dental caries was found to be present in 26.02% of the children (1793 children). Hence, the overall prevalence of dental caries among school going children was 26.02% as shown in [Table 1]. Among these children with dental caries, 50.25% of the children belonged to the age group of 13–15 years, while the remaining 49.75% of the children belonged to the age group of 9–12 years as shown in [Table 2]. Prevalence of dental caries was significantly higher in females (71.11%) in comparison to males. Furthermore, dental caries was significantly more prevalent among participants with tooth brushing frequency of less than once a day (51.20%). It was also observed that dental caries was significantly more prevalent among children with the presence of plaque accumulation.
Table 1: Prevalence of dental caries

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Table 2: Characteristics of children with dental caries

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   Discussion Top


One of the important ingredients of general health is sound oral health, and dental caries has a detrimental effect on an individual's eating and speaking abilities. Dental caries, which develops over certain duration of time leading to tooth demineralization, is basically caused by microbes when multiple factors such as diet, host, and microbial flora interact with each other under optimum conditions. The evolution of dental caries can be linked to progressive human civilizations, and recently, it has come under increased focus due to its high morbidity potential. The experience of dental caries varies from country to country and also among the different regions of the same country. The expression of dental caries not only differs with age, sex, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, ethnic beliefs, general medical condition of individuals, and overall oral hygiene but also has a variable frequency and distribution on different teeth and also their surfaces. Apart from putting a financial stress, it also leads to severe discomfort and pain. Health professionals have long been trying to find out ways to prevent the occurrence of dental caries. Scientists all over the world are carrying out research activities to identify the best possible means to diagnose, treat, and also to prevent the occurrence of dental caries. Of late, the emphasis on the prevention of disease and conservation of tooth structure has replaced the old surgical means for treating dental caries.[7],[8],[9],[10]

Six thousand eight hundred and ninety school children were assessed. The prevalence of carious lesions was 26.02%. Our results were in concordance with the results obtained by previous authors, who also reported similar findings. A higher caries prevalence rate was observed in girls by Misra and Shee and Saimbi et al. No significant difference in the prevalence was observed by Shetty and Tandon and Addo-Yobo et al. A variable distribution of age groups and the geographical locations may be responsible for the differences observed in different surveys and studies.[11],[12],[13],[14] Karunakaran et al. assessed 850 children. Four calibrated examiners per school were given the responsibility to calculate the decay, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) index of each child in their own respective schools. Their demographic details were also recorded. It was observed in the study that almost 65.88% of the school children had dental caries (560 out of 850). 2.86 came out to be the mean dmft score. Incidence of dental caries has been reported to be higher among boys.[15]

In the present study, dental caries was significantly more prevalent among participants with tooth brushing frequency of less than once a day (51.20%). It was also observed that dental caries was significantly more prevalent among children with the presence of plaque accumulation. Hiremath et al. carried out a cross-sectional study, in which 6–11 years school-going children. The gross caries prevalence came out to be 78.9%. Mean dmft and mean DMFT came out to be 2.97 ± 2.62 and 0.17 ± 0.53, respectively.[16] Untreated oral diseases often lead to loss of valuable school time in children due to the development of grave general health problems, excruciating pain, and eating difficulties. The pertinent use of fluorides has been responsible for a decline in cases of dental caries in the advanced nations. Whereas on the one hand, high level of caries protection can be achieved with pertinent and judicious use of fluoride therapy, inappropriate and injudicious usage may inadvertently result in chronic fluoride toxicity, which may ultimately lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis.[17],[18],[19]


   Conclusion Top


A significant proportion of school-going children is affected by dental caries. Hence; there is an urgent need of intimating oral health checkup camps among school-going children to control the disease at an early age.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Raajendran R, Shivapathasundharam B, Raghu AR. Dental caries. In: Shafer G, Hine L, Levy H, editors. Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology. 6th ed. Noida, India: Elsevier; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Petersen PE, Bourgeois D, Ogawa H, Estupinan-Day S, Ndiaye C. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83:661-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Damle SC, Patel AR. Caries prevalence and treatment need amongst children of Dharavi, Bombay, India. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994;22:62-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Shourie KL. Dental caries in Indian children. Indian J Med Res 1941;29:709-21.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Antia FE. The dental caries experience of school going children in the city of Bombay. J Indian Dent Assoc 1962;39:325.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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World Health Organisation. Oral Health Survey, Basis Methods. 4th ed. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bagramian RA, Garcia-Godoy F, Volpe AR. The global increase in dental caries. A pending public health crisis. Am J Dent 2009;22:3-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Meyer-Lueckel H, Paris S, Shirkhani B, Hopfenmuller W, Kielbassa AM. Caries and fluorosis in 6- and 9-year-old children residing in three communities in Iran. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2006;34:63-70.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Moses J, Rangeeth BN, Gurunathan D. Prevalence of dental caries, socio-economic status and treatment needs among 5-15 year old school going children of Chidambaram. J Clin Diagn Res 2011;5:146-51.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Dash JK, Sahoo PK, Bhuyan SK, Sahoo SK. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among children of Cuttack (Orissa). J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2002;20:139-43.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.
Misra FM, Shee BK. Prevalence of dental caries in school going children in an urban area of South Orissa. J Indian Dent Assoc 1979;51:267-70.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Saimbi CS, Mehrotra AK, Mehrotra KK, Kharbanda OP. Incidence of dental caries in individual teeth. J Indian Dent Assoc 1983;55:23-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Shetty NS, Tandon S. Prevalence of dental caries as related to risk factors in school children of South Kanara. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1988;6:30-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
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14.
Addo-Yobo C, Williams SA, Curzon ME. Dental caries experience in Ghana among 12-year old urban and rural school children. Caries Res 1991;25:311-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Karunakaran R, Somasundaram S, Gawthaman M, Vinodh S, Manikandan S, Gokulnathan S. Prevalence of dental caries among school-going children in Namakkal district: A cross-sectional study. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2014;6:S160-1.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Hiremath A, Murugaboopathy V, Ankola AV, Hebbal M, Mohandoss S, Pastay P. Prevalence of dental caries among primary school children of India A cross-sectional study. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:ZC47-50.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Das UM, Beena JP, Azher U. Oral health status of 6 and 12-year-old school going children in Bangalore city: An epidemological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009;27:06-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
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18.
Singhal DK, Acharya S, Thakur AS. Dental caries experience among pre-school children of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India. J Oral Health Community Dent 2015;8:05-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Shekar C, Cheluvaiah MB, Namile D. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15-year-old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Public Health 2012;56:122-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
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