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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 391-394  

Assessment of knowledge about ergonomics and determining musculoskeletal disorders in dentists: An original research


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Prosthodontics, Shree Bankey Bihari Dental College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Prosthodontics, Hi-Tech Dental College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
5 Department of Prosthodontics, Rayat Bahra Dental College and Hospital, Mohali, Punjab, India

Date of Submission26-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance13-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication05-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Gaurav Mishra
Department of Public Health Dentistry, King Georgefs Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_591_20

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   Abstract 


Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are commonly occurring disorders nowadays. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining MSDs in dentists and to assess knowledge about ergonomics. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire study was conducted among 460 dental professionals of different age groups. Parameters such as posture of dentists, working alone or with an assistant, and number of breaks were recorded. Type of MSDs and the type and effectiveness were recorded. Results: BDS students were seventy, interns were 112, general dentists were 186, and specialists were 92. Year of practice was <5 years in 215, 5–10 years in 70, 10–20 years in 35, and >20 years in 140 students. Fourteen percent of students, 18% interns, 45% general practitioners, and 32% of specialists had a prevalence of MSD. Most common MSDs in students were upper back pain seen in 6%, in interns were upper back pain seen in 8%, in general practitioners were shoulder pain seen in 21%, and in specialists were hand/wrist pain seen in 10%. Forty-five percent of students, 67% interns, 72% general dentists, and 80% of specialists had idea about ergonomics. Seventy-four percent of students, 80% of interns, 83% of general dentists, and 87% of specialists think that ergonomics may improve performance. Sitting position was preferred seen in 53% of students, 58% of interns, 65% general dentists, and 60% of specialists. Forty-five percent of students, 47% of interns, 56% of general dentists, and 52% of specialists perform physical activity during work. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Seventy-nine percent of students, 83% of interns, 86% of general dentists, and 88% of specialists show prolong sitting or standing. Conclusion: Authors found that all prefer to apply ergonomic in clinical practice. There is a lack of knowledge among BDS students and interns about ergonomics.

Keywords: Dental professionals, ergonomic, knowledge


How to cite this article:
Kumar M, Mishra G, Vaibhav R, Priyadarshini S, Turagam N. Assessment of knowledge about ergonomics and determining musculoskeletal disorders in dentists: An original research. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S1:391-4

How to cite this URL:
Kumar M, Mishra G, Vaibhav R, Priyadarshini S, Turagam N. Assessment of knowledge about ergonomics and determining musculoskeletal disorders in dentists: An original research. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jun 23];13, Suppl S1:391-4. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/5/391/317567




   Introduction Top


Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are commonly occurring disorders nowadays. It is more related to the type of work person is performing.[1] Personals have a wide range of occupations and occurrence of MSDs is greatly affected by workload.[2] It is considered to be work-related disability.[3],[4]

Ergonomics is related to the formation and designing of various aids which help in relieving symptoms of MSDs.[5] Dentists are also prone to MSDs owing to their sitting position, hand posture, and long procedures.[6] The frequent use of hand or rotary files in limited area of the oral cavity restricts free movement of the hand. The uncomfortable posture makes dental professionals to be at risk.[7] Dentists face strain over the muscles of the neck, shoulder, and back and joints. All these can lead to neck pain, shoulder pain, headache, and backache. Prolong sitting in one posture adds to the development of MSDs.[8]

Thus, there is a great scope of ergonomics, especially in dental profession where chances of MSDs are more.[9] Appropriate ergonomic design is necessary to evade rhythmic sprain injuries, which can proceed to long-term disability. A stress-free environment, wide ranges of access increase the efficacy of dentists.[10] Considering this, the present study was conducted with the aim of determining MSDs in dentists and to assess knowledge about ergonomics.


   Materials and Methods Top


This questionnaire study was conducted among 460 dental professionals of different age groups which comprised both males and females after explaining them about the study. Approval of the study was also obtained before taking up the study.

Particulars of subjects such as name, age, gender, duration of work, and type of clinic were recorded. The implementation of ergonomics was also recorded in case history file. Working conditions such as posture of dentists, working alone or with an assistant, and number of breaks were recorded. Type of MSDs and the type and effectiveness were recorded. The response was entered in case history proforma. Results thus found were further assessed statistically using SPSS version 20.0 (IBM United States Software). The level of significance was set below 0.05.


   Results Top


[Graph 1] shows that 14% of students, 18% of interns, 45% of general practitioners, and 32% of specialists had a prevalence of MSD.



[Graph 2] shows that the most common MSDs in students was upper back pain seen in 6%, in interns was upper back pain seen in 8%, in general practitioners was shoulder pain seen in 21%, and in specialists was hand/wrist pain seen in 10%.



[Graph 3] shows that 72% of students, 81% of interns, 84% of general dentists, and 86% of specialists show strenuous shoulder/arm movement, 54% of students, 70% of interns, 65% of general dentists, and 62% of specialists show frequent use of vibrating tools, 70% of students 74% of interns, 78% of general dentists, and 77% of specialists show inconvenient working postures and 79% of students 83% of interns, 86% of general dentists, and 88% of specialists show prolong sitting or standing. The difference was nonsignificant (P > 0.05).



[Graph 4] shows that prophylactic methods used by students were analgesics by 80%, steroids by 4%, physiotherapy by 2%, and physical activity by 14%, interns use analgesics by 76%, steroids by 6%, physiotherapy by 10%, and physical activity by 8%, general dentists use analgesics by 72%, steroids by 20%, physiotherapy by 2%, and physical activity by 6% and specialists use analgesic by 45%, steroids by 22%, physiotherapy by 8%, and physical activity by 25%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).




   Discussion Top


It is evident that the mismatch between physical capacity of person and physical requirements of the job can lead to work-related MSDs.[11] A study conducted by OSHA found that there were >647,000 American workers in the year 1996 who suffered work-related injuries which resulted from overexertion or repetitive motion leading to loss of 34% workdays and approximately >$60 billion direct and indirect costs in 1995.[12] The present study was conducted to determining MSDs in dentists and to assess knowledge about ergonomics.

We found that age group 20–25 years had 145 subjects, 26–30 years had 108, 31–35 years had 105, 36–40 years had 72, and >40 years had 30 subjects. There were 255 males and 205 females. BDS students were 70, interns were 112, general dentists were 186, and specialists were 92. Year of practice was <5 years in 215, 5–10 years in 70, 10–20 years in 35, and >20 years in 140 subjects. We found that 14% of students, 18% interns, 45% general practitioners, and 32% of specialists had a prevalence of MSD [Table 1]. Alyahya et al.[13] found a significant difference among specialists, general practitioners, and BDS students. Lower back pain was highly seen among all and workload was the main reason for MSDs in all. Authors concluded that most of dentists appear to work in conditions that aggravate disorders of the musculoskeletal system. All dental professionals preferred to implicate principles of ergonomics in clinics. BDS students need to be taught about ergonomics.
Table 1: Demographic profile

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We observed that idea about ergonomics was seen in 45% of BDS students, 67% of interns, 72% of general dentists, and 80% of specialists. Application of ergonomics in dental practice was seen in 12% of students, 53% of interns, 64% of general dentists, and 55% of specialists. We found that 70% of students, 90% of interns, 91% of general dentists, and 95% of specialists think that ergonomics is useful. About 72% of students, 75% of interns, 82% of general dentists, and 76% of specialists had idea about work-related risk factors. Sixty-five percent of students, 84% of interns, 90% of general dentists, and 92% of specialists had exhaustion after clinical work. Seventy-four percent of students, 80% of interns, 83% of general dentists, and 87% of specialists think that ergonomics may improve performance [Table 2].
Table 2: Awareness regarding ergonomics

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We found that the most common MSDs in students was upper back pain seen in 6%, in interns was upper back pain seen in 8%, in general practitioners was shoulder pain seen in 21% and in specialists was hand/wrist pain seen in 10%. Al Wazzan et al.[14] suggested that MSDs are affected by the number of years of practice. They reported equal occurrence of MSDs in young as well as in older dentists. We found that the most common preferred posture was sitting seen in 53% of students, 58% of interns, 65% of general dentists, and 60% of specialists. 52% of students, 76% of interns, 87% of general dentists, and 94% of specialists work with the help of assistant. Maximum students (51%) work <5 h, interns (55%) 5–10 h, general dentists (48%) 5–10 h, and specialists (52%) 10 h. Ninety-two percent of students and 66% interns treat 1–4 patients/day, 42% general dentists treat 5–8 patients, and 56% specialists treat 9–12 patients/day [Table 3].
Table 3: Working conditions

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Ratzon et al.[15] found that low back pain was seen in those dentists who prefer to work in a sitting posture as compared to those who use both sitting and standing position. We observed that 72% of students, 81% of interns, 84% of general dentists, and 86% of specialists show strenuous shoulder/arm movement, 54% of students, 70% of interns, 65% of general dentists, and 62% of specialists show frequent use of vibrating tools, 70% of students 74% of interns, 78% of general dentists, and 77% of specialists show inconvenient working postures and 79% of students 83% of interns, 86% of general dentists, and 88% of specialists show prolong sitting or standing. We found that the most common prophylactic method used by students was analgesics by 80%, interns (76%), general dentists (72%), and specialists (45%). The shortcoming of the study is small sample size.


   Conclusion Top


Authors found that all prefer to apply ergonomic in clinical practice. There is a lack of knowledge among BDS students and interns about ergonomics.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Andersson GB. Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet 1999;354:581-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Mangharam J, McGlothan J. Ergonomics and dentistry: A literature review. In: Murphy DC, editor. Ergonomics and the Dental Care Worker. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1998. p. 25-75.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hamann C, Werner RA, Franzblau A, Rodgers PA, Siew C, Gruninger S. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome and median mononeuropathy among dentists. J Am Dent Assoc 2001;132:163-70.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Murphy DC. Ergonomics and dentistry. N Y State Dent J 1997;63:30-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Rucker LM, Sunell S. Ergonomic risk factors associated with clinical dentistry. J Calif Dent Assoc 2002;30:139-48.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Alexopoulos EC, Stathi IC, Charizani F. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2004;5:16.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Chaikumarn M. Working conditions and dentists' attitude towards proprioceptive derivation. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2004;10:137-46.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kerosuo E, Kerosuo H, Kanerva L. Self-reported health complaints among general dental practitioners, orthodontists, and office employees. Acta Odontol Scand 2000;58:207-12.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Rising DW, Bennett BC, Hursh K, Plesh O. Reports of body pain in a dental student population. J Am Dent Assoc 2005;136:81-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Rabiei M, Shakiba M, Shahreza HD, et al. Musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. Int J Occup Hyg 2012;4:36-40.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Muralidharan D, Fareed N, Shanthi M. Musculoskeletal disorders among dental practitioners: Does it affect practice? Epidemiol Res Int 2013;2013:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Preventing Work-related musculoskeletal disorders.Ergonomic Fact Sheet. Occupational Safety and Health Administration; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Alyahya F, Algarzaie K, Alsubeh Y, Khounganian R. Awareness of ergonomics & work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals and students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Phys Ther Sci 2018;30:770-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Al Wazzan KA, Almas K, Al Shethri SE, Al-Qahtani MQ. Back & neck problems among dentists and dental auxiliaries. J Contemp Dent Pract 2001;2:17-30.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Ratzon NZ, Yaros T, Mizlik A, Kanner T. Musculoskeletal symptoms among dentists in relation to work posture. Work 2000;15:153-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
    



 
 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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