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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 417-420  

Assessment of habits of tobacco use among dental and nondental students of Indian Population: A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Indira Gandhi Government Dental College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, BJS Dental College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Maharashtra, India
4 Deptartment of Prosthodontics, Dr D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India
5 Department of Public Health and Preventive Dentistry, V. Y. W. S Dental College and Hospital, Amravati, Maharashtra, India
6 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, V. Y. W. S Dental College and Hospital, Amravati, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission28-Sep-2020
Date of Decision28-Sep-2020
Date of Acceptance29-Sep-2020
Date of Web Publication05-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Iqbal Singh
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Indira Gandhi Government Dental College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_611_20

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   Abstract 


Background: Tobacco usage can be equated to an unending progressive pandemic which continues to spread globally at an alarming unhindered pace. Dental surgeons have a key role in initiating reduction and even cessation of tobacco habits. Hence, the present study was undertaken for analyzing the habits of tobacco use among dental and nondental students of Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 dental students and 500 nondental students were enrolled in the present study. Among dental students, only interns were enrolled across different dental colleges of India. A questionnaire was framed and was sent to all the students in the form of Google Forms. The questionnaire contained questions pertaining to the assessment of prevalence of tobacco use and type of tobacco use habit. All the results were recorded and analyzed. Results: Five hundred dental students and 500 nondental students were enrolled. Among the dental group, tobacco use habits were present in 23.8% of the students, whereas in the nondental group, tobacco use habits were present in 43.6% of the students. While comparing the prevalence of tobacco use habits among the dental and nondental groups, significant results were obtained. In the dental group, smoking habit and chewing habit were present in 44.54% and 32.77% of the students, respectively. In the nondental group, smoking habit and chewing habit were present in 52.29% and 29.82% of the students, respectively. While comparing the pattern of tobacco use among students of the two study groups, nonsignificant results were obtained. Conclusion: There is an urgent need of tobacco cessation programs in the community to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with it.

Keywords: Dental, pattern, tobacco


How to cite this article:
Singh I, Khurana J, Patil L, Jadhav MS, Chawla R, Patil PS. Assessment of habits of tobacco use among dental and nondental students of Indian Population: A cross-sectional study. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S1:417-20

How to cite this URL:
Singh I, Khurana J, Patil L, Jadhav MS, Chawla R, Patil PS. Assessment of habits of tobacco use among dental and nondental students of Indian Population: A cross-sectional study. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jun 19];13, Suppl S1:417-20. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/5/417/317583




   Introduction Top


By being the second leading cause of death globally, tobacco poses an alarming health hazard leading to global deaths beyond 5 million people. Tobacco usage can be equated to an unending progressive pandemic which continues to spread globally at an alarming unhindered pace. Based on the data collected since the middle of the nineteenth century, tobacco usage can now be attributed to more than 25 grave health conditions either directly or indirectly. As per the WHO, there would be more than 10 million tobacco-related deaths worldwide during the current decade if this trend of tobacco usage continues to grow in a similar fashion without putting any reversal methods to stop its spread. Eight to ten lakh deaths can be attributed to the tobacco consumption in India alone, mostly affecting the younger generation. Every cigarette smoked shortens 5½ min of your life as per estimated calculations.[1],[2],[3]

Dental surgeons have a key role in initiating reduction and even cessation of these habits by encouraging personal counseling, inducing a positive psychological response against tobacco, and eventually remodeling the patient's unhealthy lifestyles. On the flip side, a high prevalence of tobacco usage has been observed among the medical fraternity as well, further making the scenario even worse. However, on a positive side, it has been observed that the students and doctors from the dental fraternity show a much lesser predilection to fall prey to tobacco usage when compared to their medical counterparts.[4],[5],[6] Hence, the present study was undertaken for analyzing the habits of tobacco use among dental and nondental students of Indian population.


   Materials and Methods Top


The present study was planned with the aim of analyzing the habits of tobacco use among dental and nondental students of Indian population. A total of 500 dental students and 500 nondental students were enrolled in the present study. Written consent was obtained from all the students after explaining in detail the entire research protocol. Among dental students, only interns were enrolled across different dental colleges of India. A questionnaire was framed and was sent to all the students in the form of Google Forms. Students of similar age- and gender-matched data and who came for routine checkup were included in the nondental group. The questionnaire contained questions pertaining to the assessment of prevalence of tobacco use and type of tobacco use habit. For framing the questionnaire, data from previous literature were analyzed. Reviewing the data pool was done for assessing the relevance and clarity of the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained detailed data of the students in the following parts:

  • Demographic data of the students
  • Type and pattern of tobacco use
  • Explanations for use/nonuse of tobacco habits.


All the results were recorded in Microsoft Excel sheet and were assessed by SPSS software version 16.0 (IBM, Armonk, New York). Univariate and bivariate regression curves and Chi-square test were used for evaluation of level of significance.


   Results Top


In the present research, 500 dental students and 500 nondental students were enrolled. The mean age of the subjects of the dental and nondental students was found to be 23.7 years and 24.1 years, respectively. Among the dental group, 43.6% of the students were male, whereas the remaining 76.4% of the students were female [Graph 1]. Among the nondental group, 44.8% of the students were male while the remaining 75.4% of the students were female. Majority of the students of both the study groups were of urban residence. [Table 1] shows the prevalence of tobacco use habits. Among the dental group, tobacco use habits were present in 23.8% of the students, whereas in the nondental group, tobacco use habits were present in 43.6% of the students. While comparing the prevalence of tobacco use habits among the dental and nondental groups, significant results were obtained. [Table 2] shows the pattern of tobacco use habits. In the dental group, smoking habit and chewing habit were present in 44.54% and 32.77% of the students, respectively. In the nondental group, smoking habit and chewing habit were present in 52.29% and 29.82% of the students, respectively. While comparing the pattern of tobacco use among students of the two study groups, nonsignificant results were obtained. [Table 3] shows the tobacco use habits among students divided on the basis of gender. Although nonsignificant, a higher prevalence of tobacco use habit was seen in males among students of both the study groups. While analyzing statistically, nonsignificant results were obtained.
Table 1: Prevlance of tobacco use habits

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Table 2: Pattern of tobacco use habits

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Table 3: Tobacco use habits among subjects divided on the basis of gender

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   Discussion Top


Tobacco is a significant reason of elevated morbidity and mortality across the globe. Annually, tobacco products lead to death of a significant proportion of patients worldwide, and the numbers are increasing at an ever-increasing rate. One can significantly decrease the excessive prevalence of noncommunicable diseases like cancers by acting at the early stages and preventing the debut of tobacco consumption and also by inhibiting its subsequent usage among the youth. India is the epicenter of the world's largest population of young individuals. The onset of tobacco consumption in any form has been found to start during the adolescence and young years of every population. It has been found that maximum cases of tobacco consumption debut between the young age group of 15 and 24 years, with India being no exception.[7],[8],[9]

In the present research, 500 dental students and 500 nondental students were enrolled. Among the dental group, 43.6% of the students were male, whereas the remaining 76.4% of the students were female. Among the nondental group, 44.8% of the students were male, whereas the remaining 75.4% of the students were female. Majority of the students of both the study groups were of urban residence. Our results were in concordance with the results obtained by previous authors who also reported similar findings in their respective studies. Thomas J et al. assessed the prevalence and form of tobacco products used by dental students and also identified the causative factors which led to initiation of tobacco use. Dental students from two different dental colleges were made to respond to a 20-point questionnaire that dealt with their smoking habits and also inquired about their basic knowledge regarding the risk factors of tobacco usage. None of the students claimed to be smoking more than half a packet of cigarettes on a daily basis. It was observed that majority of the students who accepted smoking also had at least one family member also addicted to this adverse habit whereas majority of the students in whose families this habit was not prevalent also showed abstinence from tobacco smoking. Imparting education for cessation of this adverse habit was accepted to be the responsibility of dentist/doctors by almost 92.7% of the dental students.[10]

In the present study, among the dental group, tobacco use habits were present in 23.8% of the students, whereas in the nondental group, tobacco use habits were present in 43.6% of the students. While comparing the prevalence of tobacco use habits among the dental and nondental groups, significant results were obtained. Furthermore, while comparing the pattern of tobacco use among students of the two study groups, nonsignificant results were obtained. In another study conducted by AlSwuailem et al., the authors assessed the prevalence of cigarettes among King Saud University's dental students and delineated the probable risk factors for tobacco consumption. All the dental students were requested to be a part of this study (both genders) by sending them a self-addressed invitation letter. A questionnaire sent via E-mail was used to collect the needful data on the habit of smoking, concomitant risk factors, and various demographic details. Only 400 out of the 600 students registered with the university reciprocated resulting in a response percentage of 67%. There was a male predominance among the current smokers. Shisha was the most prevalent form of tobacco consumption, followed by those who smoked both shisha and cigarettes and finally those who only smoked cigarettes. There was a four times greater possibility for male students to adopt smoking if majority of their friends were into this habit whereas the chances were less for those students who only had a few friends smoking tobacco.[11]

In the present study, although nonsignificant, a higher prevalence of tobacco use habit was seen in males among students of both the study groups. While analyzing statistically, nonsignificant results were obtained. Chatterjee et al. assessed the pattern of tobacco consumption among the medical and nonmedical college students. A total of 515 students from two medical colleges and 349 candidates from two general colleges were randomly chosen. It was observed that, overall, the consumption of tobacco irrespective of the sex or the year of study of the student was lesser among the students of medical colleges, and a similar pattern was also observed with respect to smoking with fewer medical students indulging in this adverse habit. Majority of the students claimed that curiosity was the primary factor for the onset of tobacco consumption and as much as two-thirds wanted to get rid of it. Even though the prevalence of tobacco usage was lower among the medical students yet, the stressful medical environment appeared to fail in preventing this menace totally.[12]


   Conclusion Top


From the above results, the authors conclude that tobacco habits are significantly highly prevalent among nondental students in comparison to dental students. Furthermore, a significant proportion of dental students are also having tobacco use habits. Hence, there is an urgent need of tobacco cessation programs in the community to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with it.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

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Ball K. Smoking spells death for millions. World Health Forum 1986;7:211-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Older J. Anti smoking language that the young understand. World Health Forum 1986;7:74-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Why is Tobacco a Public Health Priority? Available from: http//www.who.int/tobacco/en. [Last accessed on 2007 Nov 19].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Sinha DN, Reddy KS, Rahman K, Warren CW, Jones NR, Asma S. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO framework convention on tobacco control: The case for India. Indian J Public Health 2006;50:76-89.  Back to cited text no. 4
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Mukherjee K, Hadaye RS. Gutkha consumption and its determinants among secondary school male students. Indian J Community Med 2006;31:177.  Back to cited text no. 5
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Ramakrishna GS, Sankara Sarma P, Thankappan KR. Tobacco use among medical students in Orissa. Natl Med J India 2005;18:285-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Shah VN, Verma PB, Tripathi CB. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding tobacco consumption among the college students of Bhavnagar city (Gujarat). Indian J Community Med 2005;30:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Tessier JF, Fréour P, Belougne D, Crofton J. Smoking habits and attitudes of medical students towards smoking and antismoking campaigns in nine Asian countries. The Tobacco and Health Committee of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases. Int J Epidemiol 1992;21:298-304.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Singh SK, Narang RK, Chandra S, Chaturvedi PK, Dubey AL. Smoking habits of the medical students. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1989;31:99-103.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Thomas J, Kumar RV, Akhil S, Saji AM, Iype AK, Antony D. Prevalence of smoking among dental students and gauging their knowledge about tobacco cessation methods: An original study. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:1562-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.
AlSwuailem AS, AlShehri MK, Al-Sadhan S. Smoking among dental students at King Saud University: Consumption patterns and risk factors. Saudi Dent J 2014;26:88-95.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Chatterjee T, Haldar D, Mallik S, Sarkar GN, Das S, Lahiri SK. A study on habits of tobacco use among medical and non-medical students of Kolkata. Lung India 2011;28:5-10.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  



 
 
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