Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences Login  | Users Online: 2689  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
    Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission




 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1115-1118  

Effect of the use of die lubricant on the marginal fit of wax patterns


1 Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, S.M.B.T. Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Igatpuri, Ghoti Nashik, Maharashtra, India
2 Professor and Head of the Department of Prosthodontics, A.C.P.M. Dental College, Dhule, Maharashtra, India
3 Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, S.M.B.T. Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Igatpuri, Ghoti Nashik, Maharashtra, India
4 Private Practitoner, Private Practice, Nashik, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission14-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance18-Apr-2021
Date of Web Publication10-Nov-2021

Correspondence Address:
Ajinkya Wagh
A-103, Ashtavinayak Tower, Thatte Nagar, Gangapur Road, Nashik - 422 005, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_173_21

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of die lubricant on the fit of wax patterns. An ivorine tooth was prepared to receive full-coverage metal-ceramic restoration with 360° shoulder finish line. The tooth was duplicated 40 times using additional silicone. The impression was poured with Type IV dental stone. These 40 dies were divided into 2 groups 20 each. Group A: The patterns were fabricated with the use of die lubricant. Group B: The patterns were fabricated without the use of die lubricant. Later, these patterns were sequentially checked for the marginal fit on the stereomicroscope. The readings from the stereomicroscope were tabulated; independent Student's t-test was used to compare the marginal fit between Group A and Group B. The mean gap on all four tooth surfaces in Group A (with use of die lubricant) was more compared to Group B (without use of die lubricant). Conclusion: Die lubricant definitely has their effect on fit of the wax pattern which later might be duplicated in the casting.

Keywords: Die lubricant, marginal fit, wax pattern


How to cite this article:
Wagh A, Gandhewar M, Pawar P, Chavan A, Kharwade S, Mendhe A, Singh D. Effect of the use of die lubricant on the marginal fit of wax patterns. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S2:1115-8

How to cite this URL:
Wagh A, Gandhewar M, Pawar P, Chavan A, Kharwade S, Mendhe A, Singh D. Effect of the use of die lubricant on the marginal fit of wax patterns. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 16];13, Suppl S2:1115-8. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/6/1115/329997




   Introduction Top


It is the natures rule that we constantly evolve, and become a better version of what we are today.

Prosthodontics is not an exception to this rule, in which we strive to give the patient a prosthesis which is as close to the nature as possible. In doing so, we evaluate the prosthesis on many grounds such as mechanical, esthetic, and longevity.

Marginal fit of a restoration is one of the important parameters of a restoration from the success point of view.

The minimization of crown and fixed partial denture marginal gaps is an important goal in prosthodontics. Smaller marginal gaps produce less gingival irritation[1],[2] and cement washout,[3],[4] improving the clinical outcome and longevity of the restoration. The absolute value of the vertical marginal gap deemed to be clinically acceptable has been debated in the literature with proposed values ranging from 39 to 120 μm.[5] A definitive value has not been identified as the benchmark for clinical acceptability because clinical identification and quantification of the gap can be difficult[6] depending on location[5] and instrumentation used.[7],[8]

Appropriate marginal fit is required for successful restoration. Despite the technological advancements in terms of the improvement of casting techniques, die fabrication,[9] waxing pattern[10] and coping fabrication,[11],[12],[13],[14] a discrepancy remains between the restoration's margin and the cervical edge of the prepared tooth. This discrepancy will be taken up by cement which are used for luting, this cement has variable degradation rate in oral cavity. This degradation eventually will result in the formation of gap between the restoration and the tooth surface which will lead to accumulation of plaque that will harbor microbes which might lead to an eventful sequence of caries or poor periodontal health. To avoid this, the marginal fit should always be in the prescribed value of 120 μ.

It is the natures rule that we constantly evolve, and become a better version of what we are today. Die lubricants are applied uniformly all over the prepared die surface. Therefore, they are bound to have their effect on the marginal fit of the restoration. Our aim for this study is to evaluate the effect of application of wax separators on the marginal fit of wax patterns.

The null hypothesis for our study was that there is no effect of die lubricant on the fit of wax patterns.


   Materials and Methods Top


An ivorine tooth was mounted and prepared with diamond points to receive a full-coverage metal-ceramic preparation. A 360° shoulder finish line was obtained.

The ivorine tooth was later duplicated 40 times with additional silicone. The impression of the tooth was later poured into Type IV dental stone to obtain 40 identical dies.

The 40 dies then were randomly divided into two groups:

  • Group A: Wax patterns were fabricated with the use of die lubricant
  • Group B: Wax patterns were fabricated without the use of die lubricant.


A total of 40 dies were used in the study. Die hardener was sequentially applied on all the dies.

Later, all the dies were coated with two layers of die spacer which was applied 1 mm away from the finish line. Pico-Fit (Renfert, Hilzingen, Germany) die spacer system was used in the study [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Die lubricant

Click here to view


The dies in the Group A were then coated with the die lubricant, pico-sep (Renfert, Hilzingen, Germany) system was used in the study [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Application of Die Lubricant

Click here to view


All the patterns for coping were fabricated for Group A and B [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Group A and Group B (wax patterns)

Click here to view


The patterns were later removed and placed back on the die once. Later, the patterns were checked for the marginal under a stereomicroscope for the marginal fit [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Wax pattern under stereomicroscope

Click here to view



   Results Top


Gap on surfaces with the use of die lubricant on buccal surface ranged between 78.1 and 315 μ with a mean of 159.1 μ. On distal surface, gap ranged between 59.4 and 294.4 μ having a mean of 127.6 μ. Lingual tooth surface had gap between 65.3 and 241.4 μ with a mean of 140.5 μ. While on the mesial surface, the gap was within 54.5–176.8 μ having a mean of 132.7 μ.

95% CI of mean indicates that statistically, that there is a 95% chance of the mean will be lying within the range of lower and upper limit [Table 1]
Table 1: Descriptive findings of gap (μ) in Group A (n=20) at tooth surfaces

Click here to view


With the use of die lubricant, the 95% confidence limit of a mean gap on the buccal surface was 130.2 to 187.9 μ; on the Distal surface, it was 101 to 154.2 μ; on the lingual surface, it was 121.4 to 159.6 μ; and on the mesial surface, the gap was 115.5 to 149.9 μ [Table 2].
Table 2: Descriptive findings of gap (μ) in Group B (n=20) at tooth surfaces

Click here to view


In Group B, the gap on tooth surfaces without use of die lubricant on the buccal surface was within 9.8–195 μ range with a mean gap of 45.6 μ. On the distal surface, the gap was within 9.8–88.4 μ having a mean of 37.7 μ. On the lingual tooth surface, the gap ranged between 9.8 and 72.8 μ with 32 μ mean. On the mesial surface, the gap was within 9.8–83.8 μ having a mean gap of 37.1 μ.

Without the use of die lubricant, the 95% confidence limit of the mean gap on buccal tooth surface was 26.2–65.1 μ; on the distal tooth surface, it was 28.1–47.2 μ; on the lingual surface, it was 24–40 μ; and on a mesial tooth surface, the gap was 26.7–47.6 μ.

The mean gap on all four tooth surfaces in Group A (with use of die lubricant) was more compared to Group B (without use of die lubricant).

The mean gap in Group A was more than Group B with a mean difference of 113.4 μ on buccal surface, 90 μ on the distal tooth surface, 108.5 μ on lingual, and 95.5 μ on the mesial surface [Table 3].
Table 3: Comparison of gap (μ) in between Group A and Group B - independent sample test

Click here to view


There was a statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001) difference of mean gap between Group A and Group B on all four tooth surfaces, being greater in Group A than Group B.

95% CI of the mean difference on the gap in between Group A and Group B ranged within 79.8–147.1 μ on the buccal tooth surface, 62.6–117.3 μ on the distal tooth surface, 88.5–128.6 μ on the lingual surface, and 76.1–115 μ on the mesial surface.

On statistical comparison of the mean gap on tooth surfaces in between with die lubricant (Group A) and without die lubricant (Group B):

  1. There is a mean difference with a gap in Group A more than Group B, which is statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001)
  2. 95% times (cases) the greater mean difference of gap of Group A will be lying within the lower and upper limit.



   Discussion Top


The result of the study indicates that there was a statistically significant difference between marginal fit of patterns fabricated with die lubricant and without die lubricant. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis which states that there is no difference between Group A and Group B.

Conventional casting procedure has a number of steps which are very critical, if not handled properly they can lead to the introduction of discrepancies which are later duplicated in the final restoration.

Since the time of its introduction, the lost-wax technique has been a very technique sensitive procedure. None of the steps should be fallen short of perfection to get the best result.

In the study, we have fabricated the patterns and tried to check for the fit immediately. However as we have used pattern wax for the fabrication of wax patterns, they are bound to introduce some discrepancies due to the release of internal stress.

Some of the readings can be attributed to such discrepancies. Inlay pattern wax is used to fabricate wax patterns on the die. Inlay pattern wax when used with adherence to the principles of pattern fabrication can be the pattern material of choice to produce a casting with minimal marginal and internal discrepancy which is user-friendly and cost-effective.[15]

With the introduction of newer technology, we have tried to overcome the short comings of the previous techniques. Introduction of CAD/CAM in mid-1980's was one of the pioneer step in dentistry. CAD/CAM has simplified a number of steps for fabrication of a restoration, and we are able to consistently produce restoration of better quality every single time.

Studies done by Tamac et al.,[16] Han et al.,[17] Kokubo et al.,[18] Yuksel and Zaimoglu,[19] and Beuer et al.[20] have consistently shown that it is possible to fabricate restoration by CAD/CAM which have a marginal fit well below the acceptable value of 120 μ.


   Conclusion Top


Thus, we can conclude that die lubricants definitely have their effect on fit of the wax patterns; with the introduction of new technology, we can overcome these shortcomings.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Felton DA, Kanoy BE, Bayne SC, Wirthman GP. Effect of in vivo crown margin discrepancies on periodontal health. J Prosthet Dent 1991;65:357-64.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sorensen SE, Larsen IB, Jörgensen KD. Gingival and alveolar bone reaction to marginal fit of subgingival crown margins. Scand J Dent Res 1986;94:109-14.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Gavelis JR, Morency JD, Riley ED, Sozio RB. The effect of various finish line preparations on the marginal seal and occlusal seat of full crown preparations. J Prosthet Dent 1981;45:138-45.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Jacobs MS, Windeler AS. An investigation of dental luting cement solubility as a function of the marginal gap. J Prosthet Dent 1991;65:436-42.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Christensen GJ. Marginal fit of gold inlay castings. J Prosthet Dent 1966;16:297-305.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Hunter AJ, Hunter AR. Gingival margins for crowns: A review and discussion. Part II: Discrepancies and configurations. J Prosthet Dent 1990;64:636-42.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Baldissara P, Baldissara S, Scotti R. Reliability of tactile perception using sharp and dull explorers in marginal opening identification. Int J Prosthodont 1998;11:591-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Jahangiri L, Wahlers C, Hittelman E, Matheson P. Assessment of sensitivity and specificity of clinical evaluation of cast restoration marginal accuracy compared to stereomicroscopy. J Prosthet Dent 2005;93:138-42.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Lombard's P, Carbineer A, Malarkey ME, Toothier RW. Dimensional accuracy of castings with ringlets and metal ring investment systems. J Prosthet Dent 2000;84:27-31.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Limkangwalmongkol P, Chiche GJ, Blatz MB. Precision of fit of two margin designs for metal-ceramic crowns. J Prosthodont 2007;16:233-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Fragoso WS, Henriques GE, Contreras EF, Mesquita MF. The influence of mold temperature on the fit of cast crowns with commercially pure titanium. Braz Oral Res 2005;19:139-43.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Wolf BH, Walter MH, Boening KW, Schmidt AE. Margin quality of titanium and high-gold inlays and onlays – A clinical study. Dent Mater 1998;14:370-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Al Wazzan KA, Al-Nazzawi AA. Marginal and internal adaptation of commercially pure titanium and titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy cast restorations. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:19-26.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Milan FM, Consani S, Correr Sobrinho L, Sinhoreti MA, Sousa-Neto MD, Knowles JC. Influence of casting methods on marginal and internal discrepancies of complete cast crowns. Braz Dent J 2004;15:127-32.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Shaikh SA, Chandra PK, Lekha K, Rao M, Taneja P. A comparitive evaluation of marginal and internal adaptation of complete cast coping fabricated using different pattern material – An in vitro study. Ann Dent Spec 2014;2:118-23.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Tamac E, Toksavul S, Toman M. Clinical marginal and internal adaptationof CAD/CAM milling, laser sintering, and cast metal ceramic crowns. J Prosthet Dent 2014;112:909-13.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Han HS, Yang HS, Lim HP, Park YJ. Marginal accuracy and internal fit of machine-milled and cast titanium crowns. J Prosthet Dent 2011;106:191-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Kokubo Y, Nagayama Y, Tsumita M. Clinical marginal and internal gaps of In Ceram crowns fabricated using the GN-I system. J Oral Rehabil 2005;32:753-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Yuksel E, Zaimoglu A. Influence of marginal fit and cement types on microleakage of all-ceramic crown systems. Braz Oral Res 2011;25:261-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Beuer F, Edelhoff D, Gernet W, Naumann M. Effect of preparation angles on the precision of zirconia crown copings fabricated by CAD/CAM system. Dent Mater J 2008;27:814-20.  Back to cited text no. 20
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed294    
    Printed8    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded49    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal