|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 1115-1118
Effect of the use of die lubricant on the marginal fit of wax patterns
Ajinkya Wagh1, Mahesh Gandhewar2, Pankaj Pawar3, Ashada Chavan3, Snehal Kharwade3, Anjali Mendhe3, Devina Singh4
1 Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, S.M.B.T. Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Igatpuri, Ghoti Nashik, Maharashtra, India
2 Professor and Head of the Department of Prosthodontics, A.C.P.M. Dental College, Dhule, Maharashtra, India
3 Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, S.M.B.T. Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Igatpuri, Ghoti Nashik, Maharashtra, India
4 Private Practitoner, Private Practice, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||14-Mar-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||18-Apr-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||10-Nov-2021|
A-103, Ashtavinayak Tower, Thatte Nagar, Gangapur Road, Nashik - 422 005, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of die lubricant on the fit of wax patterns. An ivorine tooth was prepared to receive full-coverage metal-ceramic restoration with 360° shoulder finish line. The tooth was duplicated 40 times using additional silicone. The impression was poured with Type IV dental stone. These 40 dies were divided into 2 groups 20 each. Group A: The patterns were fabricated with the use of die lubricant. Group B: The patterns were fabricated without the use of die lubricant. Later, these patterns were sequentially checked for the marginal fit on the stereomicroscope. The readings from the stereomicroscope were tabulated; independent Student's t-test was used to compare the marginal fit between Group A and Group B. The mean gap on all four tooth surfaces in Group A (with use of die lubricant) was more compared to Group B (without use of die lubricant). Conclusion: Die lubricant definitely has their effect on fit of the wax pattern which later might be duplicated in the casting.
Keywords: Die lubricant, marginal fit, wax pattern
|How to cite this article:|
Wagh A, Gandhewar M, Pawar P, Chavan A, Kharwade S, Mendhe A, Singh D. Effect of the use of die lubricant on the marginal fit of wax patterns. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S2:1115-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Wagh A, Gandhewar M, Pawar P, Chavan A, Kharwade S, Mendhe A, Singh D. Effect of the use of die lubricant on the marginal fit of wax patterns. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 18];13, Suppl S2:1115-8. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/6/1115/329997
| Introduction|| |
It is the natures rule that we constantly evolve, and become a better version of what we are today.
Prosthodontics is not an exception to this rule, in which we strive to give the patient a prosthesis which is as close to the nature as possible. In doing so, we evaluate the prosthesis on many grounds such as mechanical, esthetic, and longevity.
Marginal fit of a restoration is one of the important parameters of a restoration from the success point of view.
The minimization of crown and fixed partial denture marginal gaps is an important goal in prosthodontics. Smaller marginal gaps produce less gingival irritation, and cement washout,, improving the clinical outcome and longevity of the restoration. The absolute value of the vertical marginal gap deemed to be clinically acceptable has been debated in the literature with proposed values ranging from 39 to 120 μm. A definitive value has not been identified as the benchmark for clinical acceptability because clinical identification and quantification of the gap can be difficult depending on location and instrumentation used.,
Appropriate marginal fit is required for successful restoration. Despite the technological advancements in terms of the improvement of casting techniques, die fabrication, waxing pattern and coping fabrication,,,, a discrepancy remains between the restoration's margin and the cervical edge of the prepared tooth. This discrepancy will be taken up by cement which are used for luting, this cement has variable degradation rate in oral cavity. This degradation eventually will result in the formation of gap between the restoration and the tooth surface which will lead to accumulation of plaque that will harbor microbes which might lead to an eventful sequence of caries or poor periodontal health. To avoid this, the marginal fit should always be in the prescribed value of 120 μ.
It is the natures rule that we constantly evolve, and become a better version of what we are today. Die lubricants are applied uniformly all over the prepared die surface. Therefore, they are bound to have their effect on the marginal fit of the restoration. Our aim for this study is to evaluate the effect of application of wax separators on the marginal fit of wax patterns.
The null hypothesis for our study was that there is no effect of die lubricant on the fit of wax patterns.
| Materials and Methods|| |
An ivorine tooth was mounted and prepared with diamond points to receive a full-coverage metal-ceramic preparation. A 360° shoulder finish line was obtained.
The ivorine tooth was later duplicated 40 times with additional silicone. The impression of the tooth was later poured into Type IV dental stone to obtain 40 identical dies.
The 40 dies then were randomly divided into two groups:
- Group A: Wax patterns were fabricated with the use of die lubricant
- Group B: Wax patterns were fabricated without the use of die lubricant.
A total of 40 dies were used in the study. Die hardener was sequentially applied on all the dies.
Later, all the dies were coated with two layers of die spacer which was applied 1 mm away from the finish line. Pico-Fit (Renfert, Hilzingen, Germany) die spacer system was used in the study [Figure 1].
The dies in the Group A were then coated with the die lubricant, pico-sep (Renfert, Hilzingen, Germany) system was used in the study [Figure 2].
All the patterns for coping were fabricated for Group A and B [Figure 3].
The patterns were later removed and placed back on the die once. Later, the patterns were checked for the marginal under a stereomicroscope for the marginal fit [Figure 4].
| Results|| |
Gap on surfaces with the use of die lubricant on buccal surface ranged between 78.1 and 315 μ with a mean of 159.1 μ. On distal surface, gap ranged between 59.4 and 294.4 μ having a mean of 127.6 μ. Lingual tooth surface had gap between 65.3 and 241.4 μ with a mean of 140.5 μ. While on the mesial surface, the gap was within 54.5–176.8 μ having a mean of 132.7 μ.
95% CI of mean indicates that statistically, that there is a 95% chance of the mean will be lying within the range of lower and upper limit [Table 1]
|Table 1: Descriptive findings of gap (μ) in Group A (n=20) at tooth surfaces|
Click here to view
With the use of die lubricant, the 95% confidence limit of a mean gap on the buccal surface was 130.2 to 187.9 μ; on the Distal surface, it was 101 to 154.2 μ; on the lingual surface, it was 121.4 to 159.6 μ; and on the mesial surface, the gap was 115.5 to 149.9 μ [Table 2].
|Table 2: Descriptive findings of gap (μ) in Group B (n=20) at tooth surfaces|
Click here to view
In Group B, the gap on tooth surfaces without use of die lubricant on the buccal surface was within 9.8–195 μ range with a mean gap of 45.6 μ. On the distal surface, the gap was within 9.8–88.4 μ having a mean of 37.7 μ. On the lingual tooth surface, the gap ranged between 9.8 and 72.8 μ with 32 μ mean. On the mesial surface, the gap was within 9.8–83.8 μ having a mean gap of 37.1 μ.
Without the use of die lubricant, the 95% confidence limit of the mean gap on buccal tooth surface was 26.2–65.1 μ; on the distal tooth surface, it was 28.1–47.2 μ; on the lingual surface, it was 24–40 μ; and on a mesial tooth surface, the gap was 26.7–47.6 μ.
The mean gap on all four tooth surfaces in Group A (with use of die lubricant) was more compared to Group B (without use of die lubricant).
The mean gap in Group A was more than Group B with a mean difference of 113.4 μ on buccal surface, 90 μ on the distal tooth surface, 108.5 μ on lingual, and 95.5 μ on the mesial surface [Table 3].
|Table 3: Comparison of gap (μ) in between Group A and Group B - independent sample test|
Click here to view
There was a statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001) difference of mean gap between Group A and Group B on all four tooth surfaces, being greater in Group A than Group B.
95% CI of the mean difference on the gap in between Group A and Group B ranged within 79.8–147.1 μ on the buccal tooth surface, 62.6–117.3 μ on the distal tooth surface, 88.5–128.6 μ on the lingual surface, and 76.1–115 μ on the mesial surface.
On statistical comparison of the mean gap on tooth surfaces in between with die lubricant (Group A) and without die lubricant (Group B):
- There is a mean difference with a gap in Group A more than Group B, which is statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001)
- 95% times (cases) the greater mean difference of gap of Group A will be lying within the lower and upper limit.
| Discussion|| |
The result of the study indicates that there was a statistically significant difference between marginal fit of patterns fabricated with die lubricant and without die lubricant. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis which states that there is no difference between Group A and Group B.
Conventional casting procedure has a number of steps which are very critical, if not handled properly they can lead to the introduction of discrepancies which are later duplicated in the final restoration.
Since the time of its introduction, the lost-wax technique has been a very technique sensitive procedure. None of the steps should be fallen short of perfection to get the best result.
In the study, we have fabricated the patterns and tried to check for the fit immediately. However as we have used pattern wax for the fabrication of wax patterns, they are bound to introduce some discrepancies due to the release of internal stress.
Some of the readings can be attributed to such discrepancies. Inlay pattern wax is used to fabricate wax patterns on the die. Inlay pattern wax when used with adherence to the principles of pattern fabrication can be the pattern material of choice to produce a casting with minimal marginal and internal discrepancy which is user-friendly and cost-effective.
With the introduction of newer technology, we have tried to overcome the short comings of the previous techniques. Introduction of CAD/CAM in mid-1980's was one of the pioneer step in dentistry. CAD/CAM has simplified a number of steps for fabrication of a restoration, and we are able to consistently produce restoration of better quality every single time.
Studies done by Tamac et al., Han et al., Kokubo et al., Yuksel and Zaimoglu, and Beuer et al. have consistently shown that it is possible to fabricate restoration by CAD/CAM which have a marginal fit well below the acceptable value of 120 μ.
| Conclusion|| |
Thus, we can conclude that die lubricants definitely have their effect on fit of the wax patterns; with the introduction of new technology, we can overcome these shortcomings.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Felton DA, Kanoy BE, Bayne SC, Wirthman GP. Effect of in vivo
crown margin discrepancies on periodontal health. J Prosthet Dent 1991;65:357-64.
Sorensen SE, Larsen IB, Jörgensen KD. Gingival and alveolar bone reaction to marginal fit of subgingival crown margins. Scand J Dent Res 1986;94:109-14.
Gavelis JR, Morency JD, Riley ED, Sozio RB. The effect of various finish line preparations on the marginal seal and occlusal seat of full crown preparations. J Prosthet Dent 1981;45:138-45.
Jacobs MS, Windeler AS. An investigation of dental luting cement solubility as a function of the marginal gap. J Prosthet Dent 1991;65:436-42.
Christensen GJ. Marginal fit of gold inlay castings. J Prosthet Dent 1966;16:297-305.
Hunter AJ, Hunter AR. Gingival margins for crowns: A review and discussion. Part II: Discrepancies and configurations. J Prosthet Dent 1990;64:636-42.
Baldissara P, Baldissara S, Scotti R. Reliability of tactile perception using sharp and dull explorers in marginal opening identification. Int J Prosthodont 1998;11:591-4.
Jahangiri L, Wahlers C, Hittelman E, Matheson P. Assessment of sensitivity and specificity of clinical evaluation of cast restoration marginal accuracy compared to stereomicroscopy. J Prosthet Dent 2005;93:138-42.
Lombard's P, Carbineer A, Malarkey ME, Toothier RW. Dimensional accuracy of castings with ringlets and metal ring investment systems. J Prosthet Dent 2000;84:27-31.
Limkangwalmongkol P, Chiche GJ, Blatz MB. Precision of fit of two margin designs for metal-ceramic crowns. J Prosthodont 2007;16:233-7.
Fragoso WS, Henriques GE, Contreras EF, Mesquita MF. The influence of mold temperature on the fit of cast crowns with commercially pure titanium. Braz Oral Res 2005;19:139-43.
Wolf BH, Walter MH, Boening KW, Schmidt AE. Margin quality of titanium and high-gold inlays and onlays – A clinical study. Dent Mater 1998;14:370-4.
Al Wazzan KA, Al-Nazzawi AA. Marginal and internal adaptation of commercially pure titanium and titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy cast restorations. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8:19-26.
Milan FM, Consani S, Correr Sobrinho L, Sinhoreti MA, Sousa-Neto MD, Knowles JC. Influence of casting methods on marginal and internal discrepancies of complete cast crowns. Braz Dent J 2004;15:127-32.
Shaikh SA, Chandra PK, Lekha K, Rao M, Taneja P. A comparitive evaluation of marginal and internal adaptation of complete cast coping fabricated using different pattern material – An in vitro
study. Ann Dent Spec 2014;2:118-23.
Tamac E, Toksavul S, Toman M. Clinical marginal and internal adaptationof CAD/CAM milling, laser sintering, and cast metal ceramic crowns. J Prosthet Dent 2014;112:909-13.
Han HS, Yang HS, Lim HP, Park YJ. Marginal accuracy and internal fit of machine-milled and cast titanium crowns. J Prosthet Dent 2011;106:191-7.
Kokubo Y, Nagayama Y, Tsumita M. Clinical marginal and internal gaps of In Ceram crowns fabricated using the GN-I system. J Oral Rehabil 2005;32:753-8.
Yuksel E, Zaimoglu A. Influence of marginal fit and cement types on microleakage of all-ceramic crown systems. Braz Oral Res 2011;25:261-6.
Beuer F, Edelhoff D, Gernet W, Naumann M. Effect of preparation angles on the precision of zirconia crown copings fabricated by CAD/CAM system. Dent Mater J 2008;27:814-20.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]