Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences Login  | Users Online: 7397  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
    Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission

Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1215-1223

The association between chronic heroin smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugore 11800, Penang, Malaysia
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugore 11800; Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Jln Tun Hamdan Sheikh Tahir, 13200 Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia
3 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugore 11800, Penang, Malaysia; Chest Department, Penang General Hospital, Georgetown 10990, Penang, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Amer Hayat Khan
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugore 11800, Penang
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_353_21

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: Little is known about the correlation between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heroin smoking. Heroin smoking is a recent underinvestigated problem. The goal of this study is to study the impact of heroin smoking among COPD patients. Methods: This is a descriptive clinical study. A combination of self-reporting questionnaires and data extraction tools were used to collect information during baseline tests, interviews, and follow-ups. Patients' medical, clinical, and socioeconomic history were recorded. Participants were recruited using random sampling from multiple centers. Results: Out of 1034 COPD patients, heroin smokers represented the vast majority of addiction cases (n = 133). Heroin smokers were leaner than non-addicts (19.78 ± 4.07 and 24.01 ± 5.6, respectively). The most common type of comorbidities among heroin smokers was emphysema (27%). Both the forced expiratory volume (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio and FEV1% predicted were lower among heroin smokers than non-addicts (52.79 ± 12.71 and 48.54 ± 14.38, respectively). The majority of heroin smokers (55%) had advanced COPD, and at least 15% of heroin smokers suffered from frequent respiratory failure. The mean ± SD for COPD onset age among heroin smokers was 44.23 ± 5.72, and it showed a statistically significant correlation (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Heroin smoking might be linked to the onset of COPD. Heroin smokers showed a significantrespiratory impairment compared to tobacco smokers of the same age group.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded52    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal