Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences Login  | Users Online: 7065  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
    Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission




 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1360-1364  

Cephalometric evaluation based on Steiner's analysis on adults of Bihar


Department of Orthodontics, Sarjug Dental College and Hospital, Darbhanga, Bihar, India

Date of Submission04-Mar-2021
Date of Decision02-Apr-2021
Date of Acceptance06-May-2021
Date of Web Publication10-Nov-2021

Correspondence Address:
Mrigank Shekhar Jha
Braces And Faces Dental Clinic, Donar, Darbhanga- 846003, Bihar
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_172_21

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Aim: To evaluate the mean cephalometric values for Steiner Analysis in bihar population. Objectives: To evaluate the cephalometric features of a bihar population and to present_an organized, comprehensive cephalometric norms for Steiner cephalometric analysis..To introduce mean values to assess skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationship using Steiner analysis for orthodontic diagnosis..To compare standards that will be derived with the earlier established norms for other population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics,Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences And Hospital,Patna(Bihar). The sample was collected from the out patient department of the same college. Source of the Data: The present analysis was made on lateral cephalograms of 60 subjects with well balanced and acceptable facial profile of Bihar population. The subjects were informed about the purpose of the study. Methods of Collection of Data: Subjects with age group of 18-26 years with dento-alveolar class I malocclusion and acceptable facial profile were selected by trained orthodontists, who belonged to the department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics,Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences And Hospital. Results and Conclusion: There was increase in SNA angle, SNB angle, SND angle,in Bihar population than Caucasians. Bihar population has proclined and forwardly placed upper and lower incisors, which was indicative of bimaxillary protrusion as compared to Caucasians. Bihar population had protrusive upper and lower lips as compared to Caucasians. Bihar population males had tendency towards horizontal growth pattern of the mandible than females. Bihar females had more proclined lower incisors than males

Keywords: Bihar population, cephalometric analysis, ethnic group, steiner


How to cite this article:
Jha MS. Cephalometric evaluation based on Steiner's analysis on adults of Bihar. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S2:1360-4

How to cite this URL:
Jha MS. Cephalometric evaluation based on Steiner's analysis on adults of Bihar. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 10];13, Suppl S2:1360-4. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/6/1360/329996




   Introduction Top


Measurements of dental and skeletal variations in different population groups are important. It could determine the priority and the need of orthodontic modalities according to the severity of malocclusion and the available sources. It could be used to estimate the need of treatment in population and an orientation toward possible limitations in carrying out orthodontic protocol.[1],[2],[3],[4]

The skeletal, dental as well as soft-tissue variations exist in different groups of population.[5],[6] The cephalometric parameters of hard and soft tissue of one population cannot be applied to another group. Hence, it becomes necessary to understand the cephalometric norms for different groups of population. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the cephalometric norms for Bihar population.

Aim

  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the mean cephalometric values for Steiner Analysis in Bihar population.,


Objectives

  • To evaluate the cephalometric features of a Bihar population and to present an organized, comprehensive cephalometric norms for Steiner cephalometric analysis
  • To introduce mean values to assess skeletal, dental, and soft tissue relationship using Steiner analysis for orthodontic diagnosis
  • To compare standards that will be derived with the earlier established norms for other population.



   Materials and Methods Top


The study was conducted in the Department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna (Bihar). The sample was collected from the outpatient department of the same college.

Source of the data

The present analysis was made on lateral cephalograms of 60 participants with well-balanced and acceptable facial profile of Bihar population. The participants were informed about the purpose of the study.

Methods of collection of data

Participants with age group of 18–26 years with dentoalveolar Class I malocclusion and acceptable facial profile were selected by trained orthodontists, who belonged to the Department of orthodontics and Dentofacial orthopedics, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital.

Following were the criteria for the selection of participants:

  1. Participants should be of Bihar population
  2. Acceptable and pleasing profiles
  3. Class I molar relationship on both the sides, with normal overjet and overbite with minimal crowding or spacing
  4. No history of previous orthodontic treatment
  5. No missing teeth
  6. Absence of gross facial asymmetry or deformity.


The radiographic apparatus used was VATECH, PAX 400 X-ray machine from the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna.

All lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken in centric occlusion with lips in relax and the Frankfort horizontal plane oriented horizontally according to natural head position.

For the tracing purpose, a 75 pm lacquered polyester paper was used along with a sharp 0.03 mm lead pencil. A protractor and a plastic scale were used to measure the lines and angles. A single operator performed the tracings in a standardized manner to avoid errors due to intraoperation variations. To check the operator's reliability and reproducibility, all lateral cephalograms were retraced by another operator.


   Results Top


Various skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue parameters (Steiner) were checked to establish the cephalometric norms of Bihar population.

To check the operator's reliability and reproducibility, sixty lateral cephalograms were selected and retraced by another operator. Statistically, there was no significant difference found in mean, standard of deviation, “t” value, and “P” value. It indicated that there was no significant intraexaminer variability found.

Steiner analysis

Comparison of Bihar population and Caucasian population

[Table 1] and [Graph 1] depict the comparison of Steiner analysis parameters between Bihar population and Caucasian population.
Table 1: Comparative Statistical Analysis of cephalometric norms and present study (Bihar Population)

Click here to view



There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) seen in SNA angle (83.1 ± 4.7), U1 to LI angle (121° ± 8°), and insignificant difference (P > 0.05) in SNB angle (81.0° ± 3.7°), SND angle (77° ± 3.6°), U1 to N-A angle (24.3° ± 7.1°), LI to N-B angle (30.3° ± 6°), and Go-Gn to SN (25.7° ± 6.3°).

Comparison of Bihar population (male) and Caucasian population

[Table 2] and [Graph 2] depict the comparison of Steiner analysis parameters between Bihar male and Caucasian population. There was highly significant difference seen in SNA angle (86.3° ± 5.3°), Go-Gn to SN (27.3° ± 5.3°), and LI to N-B (29.4 ± 5) in Bihar male than Caucasians (P < 0.01).
Table 2: Comparative Statistical Analysis of cephalometric norms and Male subject (Bihar Population)

Click here to view



No significant difference was seen in SNB Angle (82.3° ± 3.2°), ANB angle (3.9° ± 2.7°), occlusal plane to S-N angle (14.92° ± 3.5°), and LI to N-A angle (22.2°± 5.4°), LI to N-A (4.7 ± 1.5), LI to N-B (5.9 ± 1.9) in Bihar male than Caucasians, (P > 0.05)

Comparison of Bihar population (female) and Caucasian population

[Table 3] and [Graph 3] show high significant difference seen in SNA angle (83.02° ± 4.5°), Go-Gn to SN (26.79° ± 6.1°), LI to N-B (30.5 ± 6.6), and 1°–1° (122.5 ± 8.1) in Bihar male than Caucasians (P < 0.04). No significant difference was seen in SNB Angle (80.3° ± 3.9°), ANB angle (3.8° ± 2.2°), Occlusal plane to S-N angle (15.79± 3.3°) and LI to N-A angle (25.2 ± 7.4°), LI to N-A (5 ± 1.8), LI to N-B (6 ± 1.8) in Bihar male than Caucasians, (p > 0.032)
Table 3: Comparative Statistical Analysis of cephalometric norms and Female subject (Bihar Population)

Click here to view




   Discussion Top


Understanding of facial balance, proportions, and beauty is made simpler by recent trends in diagnosis and treatment planning by means of a combination of clinical facial analysis and hard- and soft-tissue cephalometries. The number of cephalometric studies done in India is lesser.[7],[8] With the abovementioned background, this study was conducted to obtain Steiner Analysis cephalometric norms for Bihar population (India). The present study was focused on sixty samples of Bihar characterized by having normal occlusion and well-balanced faces. The adults were examined with age range of 18 to 26 years.

Steiner analysis

Comparison of Bihar population and Caucasian norms

SNA angle shows significant difference (P < 0.05); this finding is in well matched to study done on Chhattisgarh population by Saibel Farishta et al., 2011.[9] Interincisal (U1-L1) angle shows clinically significant difference (P < 0.05) in Bihar population (121° ±8°) with Caucasian norms (131° ±8°) which is well agreement with the finding done by Saibel Farishta et al., 2011. There was clinically insignificant difference (P > 0.05) in skeletal parameters SNB angle, ANB angle, and mandibular plane angle (Go-gn to SN) of Bihar population with Caucasian norms.

Comparison of Bihar (female) population and Caucasian

This study showed no significant differences in Steiner's (Skeletal and Dental) cephalometric parameters between Bihar (Female) and Caucasian population.

When skeletal cephalometric parameters were considered, there was no statistically significant difference was found for the angles such as SNB angle, ANB angle, SND angle, SN to Occl, 1-NA (A), and 1–NA (mm). Few parameters such as SNA angle and Go-gn to SN angle show little significant differences.

ANB angle showed no significant difference and this finding is in agreement with the findings of Rakesh Mohode et al., (2008)[10] 46 who had done study on Marathi population and also the findings observed by Harpreet Grewal et al. (1995) on Indo Aryans.[11] Occlusal plane to SN angle also showed no significant difference. The present study revealed that there was statistically significant increase in dental cephalometric parameters such as LI to N-B angle and LI to N-B distance.

The above finding is in agreement with the findings observed on Lucknow Hindus 5, Indo-Aryans 4, North and South Indians 3, and on Marathi 46, who have proclined as well as forwardly positioned upper and lower incisors.[10],[12],[13]

Comparison of Bihar (male) and Caucasian

This study showed no significant differences in Steiner's (skeletal and dental) cephalometric parameters between Bihar (Female) and Caucasian population.

When skeletal cephalometric parameters were considered, there was no statistically significant difference was found for the angles such as SNB angle, ANB angle, SND angle, SN to Occl, 1-NA (A), and 1–NA (mm). Few parameters such as SNA angle and Go-Gn to SN angle shows little significant differences.

ANB angle showed no significant difference, and this finding is in agreement with the findings of Rakesh Mohode et al. (2008),[10] who had done study on Marathi population and also the findings observed by Harpreet Grewal et al. (1995) on Indo Aryans.[11] Occlusal plane to SN angle also showed no significant difference. The present study revealed that there was statistically significant increase in dental cephalometric parameters such as LI to N-B angle and 1 to 1° angle.

The above finding is in agreement with the findings observed on Lucknow Hindus,[5] Indo-Aryans,[4] North and South Indians 3 and on Marathi, who have proclined as well as forwardly positioned upper and lower incisors.


   Conclusion Top


  • There was an increase in SNA angle, SNB angle, and SND angle, in Bihar population than Caucasians
  • Bihar population has proclined and forwardly placed upper and lower incisors, which was indicative of bimaxillary protrusion as compared to Caucasians
  • Bihar population had protrusive upper and lower lips as compared to Caucasians
  • Bihar population males had tendency toward horizontal growth pattern of the mandible than females
  • Bihar females had more proclined lower incisors than males.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Showfety KJ, Wig PS, Matteson S. A simple method of taking natural head position. Am J Orthod 1983;83(6):495-500.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Holdaway RA. A soft tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning part I. Am J Orthod 1983;84(1):1-28.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Haung WJ, Taylo RW, Dasanayake AP. Determining the cephalometric norms for Caucasians and African Americans in Birmingham. Angle Orthod 1998;68(6):503-12.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Bacon W, Girardin P, Turlot JC. A comparison of cephalometric norms for the African Bantu and a Caucasoid population. Eur J Orthod 1983;(5):233-40.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Seddon RP. A cephalometric study of the Romano-British. Eur J Orthod 1984;(6):303-12.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Cooke MS, Wei SH. Cephalometric standards for the Southern Chinese. Eur J Orthod 1988;(10):264-72.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sherman SL, Woods M, Nanda RS. The longitudinal effects of growth on the Wits appraisal. Am J Orthod 1988;93:429-36.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Al-Jasser NM. Cephalometric evaluation of craniofacial variation in normal Saudi population according to Steiner analysis. Saudi Med J 2000;21(8):746-50.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Farishta S, Varma DP, Reddy KS, Chandra S, Nanda Z. Cephalometric Evaluation-based on Steiner's Analysis on Young Adults of Chhattisgarh, India. J Contemporary Dent Pract 2011;12:174-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Mohode R, Betigiri A. An establishment of skeletal and soft tissue norms for Indian Marathi population and relating it with the perception of balanced profiles by lay person. J Ind Orthod 2008;42:33-40.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Grewal H, Sidhu SS, Kharbanda OP. Cephalometric appraisal of the craniofacial pattern in Indo-Aryans. J Ind Orthod 1995;26: 43-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Nanda R, Nanda RS. Cephalometric study of the dentofacial complex of North Indians. Angle Orthod 1969;39:22-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Valiathan M, Valiathan A, Ravinder V. Jaraback cephalometric analysis reborn. J Ind Orthod 2001;34:66-76.  Back to cited text no. 13
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed258    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded44    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal