Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences Login  | Users Online: 3484  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 
    Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Past Issues | Instructions | Online submission




 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1569-1572  

Assessment of correlation of serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and lipid profile in diabetics


1 Department of Biochemistry, KGMU, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Career Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission30-Mar-2021
Date of Decision31-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance01-Apr-2021
Date of Web Publication10-Nov-2021

Correspondence Address:
Beena Singh
Department of Biochemistry, Career Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_290_21

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Background: This study aimed to measure the level of serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs CRP), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), lipid profile, and their association in diabetics. Methodology: One hundred and fifty diabetic patients were classified into three groups of 50 each. Group I were newly diagnosed with <5 years of diabetes, Group II were those having 5–10 years of diabetes, and Group III were diabetics with more than 10 years of diabetes. Lipid profile, hs-CRP level, and ACR were measured. Results: There was a correlation between hS CRP and ACR and triglyceride in Group I, hS CRP with ACR and triglyceride in Group I. In group II hS CRP showed significant correlation with ACR whereas in Group III significant correlation was observed with ACR, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol. Conclusion: The level of hS CRP and ACR was found to be higher in patients with a longer duration of diabetes.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, diabetes, lipid


How to cite this article:
Kumari S, Singh B. Assessment of correlation of serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and lipid profile in diabetics. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13, Suppl S2:1569-72

How to cite this URL:
Kumari S, Singh B. Assessment of correlation of serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and lipid profile in diabetics. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 8];13, Suppl S2:1569-72. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/6/1569/330073




   Introduction Top


Diabetes is one of the systemic disorders characterized by the state of hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both.[1] It is affecting almost every organ and system of the body. It is the reason for high morbidity and mortality among developed as well as developing countries such as India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan.[2] There is no permanent treatment for this condition of the body; thus, an effective management strategy is essential to prevent complications. Its effect on the renal system, eyes, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and urinary system is demanding extra care. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus are more prone to have kidney failure as compared to those without it.[3]

Microalbuminuria is the state of low level of albumin in the blood usually ranges from 30 to 300 mg/day. This abnormal and low level of albumin is the early sign of nephropathy, a complication of diabetes mellitus.[4] According to the American Diabetic Association, microalbuminuria can only be confirmed after collecting a urine sample for 24 h. This is the gold standard test for microalbuminuria. The National Kidney Foundation recommended measuring of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) a more reliable and effective method for microalbuminuria. All diabetic patients are advised of these tests. The classification of chronic kidney disease also considers urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio a useful test for confirming kidney disease.[5]

The level of C-reactive protein (CRP) is increased in various infectious, inflammatory, and traumatic conditions. Thus, high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) is a potent marker of inflammation. Its level is also elevated in association with ACR.[6] This study aimed to measure the level of serum hs CRP, urinary ACR, lipid profile, and their association in diabetics.


   Methodology Top


This comparative study was conducted among 150 diabetic patients of either gender after they agreed to participate in the study. The study lasted for 4 months. The enrollment of patients and risk assessment were mentioned and discussed. After satisfying the committee, the study proceeded.

The inclusion criteria were confirmed diabetic patients within age range 25–65 years of either gender. The exclusion criteria were patients with a history of cardiac or renal ailment and endocrinopathies, patients on long-standing use of cyclosporine, beta-lactamases, and thiazides, and pregnant ladies.

All patients underwent a thorough systemic examination. Based on the duration of diabetes, patients were classified into three groups of 50 each. Group I were newly diagnosed with <5 years of diabetes, Group II were those having 5–10 years of diabetes, and Group III were diabetics with more than 10 years of diabetes history. Five milliliter of venous blood was collected from peripheral veins and assessment of fasting blood glucose, random blood glucose, and glycosylated blood hemoglobin A1c level was estimated. Lipid profile such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) level was measured. Patients also underwent measurement of serum hs-CRP level. Urine sample was collected from all patients and urine albumin and creatinine level was measured using semi-automated analyzer or automated analyzer. Data of the study were clubbed together and sent to a statistician for checking significance of the values obtained from patients. ANOVA and post hoc analysis test were employed and the level of significance was set below 0.05.


   Results Top


[Table 1] and [Graph 1] show that there were 30 males and 20 females in Group I, 22 males and 28 females in Group II, and 24 males and 26 females in Group III.
Table 1: Gender-based patient distribution

Click here to view



[Table 2] and [Graph 2] show that mean hS CRP in Group I was 0.03 ± 0.02 mg/dl, in Group II, it was 0.07 ± 0.09 mg/dl, and in Group III, it was 0.12 ± 0.17 mg/dl. ACR was 102.4 ± 13.2 in Group I, in Group II, it was 116.4 ± 15.8, and in Group III, it was 129.5 ± 12.5. TG level was 221.4 ± 25.8 mg/dl in Group I, 250.2 ± 26.2 mg/dl in Group II, and 261.3 ± 27.8 mg/dl in Group III. The mean cholesterol level in Group I was 210.5 ± 35.2 mg/dl in Group I, 225.4 ± 30.4 mg/dl in Group II, and 232.1 ± 27.1 mg/dl in Group III. LDL level was 132.5 ± 30.4 in Group I, 140.2 ± 31.6 in Group II, and 145.2 ± 37.5 in Group III. HDL level was 48.2 ± 4.5 in Group I, 49.1 ± 4.6 in Group II, and 50.1 ± 4.9 in Group III. ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference between all groups (P < 0.05).
Table 2: Assessment of parameters in all groups

Click here to view



[Table 3] shows that there was significant correlation between hS CRP with ACR and triglyceride in Group I. In group II hS CRP showed significant correlation with ACR whereas in Group III significant correlation was observed with ACR, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol.
Table 3: Assessment of Pearson correlation coefficient between high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and lipid profile

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Diabetes is the state of increased blood glucose level. It is characterized by complications such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic foot ulcer, and diabetic neuropathy. Microalbuminuria is regarded as an early stage of diabetic nephropathy and is also labeled as an interpreter of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients.[7] The occurrence of microalbuminuria depends on the duration of diabetes. It is evident that microalbuminuria mostly occurs after 5 years of diabetes. It is also found in studies that urinary protein excretion of more than 300 mg/day often develops after 10–15 years.[8],[9] End-stage renal disease is usually seen after 10–15 years in more than 50% of type 1 diabetic patients.[10] This study aimed to measure the level of serum hs CRP, urinary ACR, lipid profile, and their association in diabetics.

In the present study, there were 150 diabetic patients. Group I were newly diagnosed with <5 years of diabetes, Group II were patients with 5–10 years of diabetes, and Group III patients were >10 years of diabetes. Acharjya et al.[11] in their study on 120 diabetic subjects aged 30–60 years were randomly divided into three groups as newly diagnosed, with 5–10 years of diabetes and >10 years of diabetes. The results showed that the mean values of hs-CRP were 0.04, 0.08, and 0.10 in Group I, II, and III, respectively. ACR value was found to be 100.29, 117.65, and 128.80 in Groups I, II, and III respectively. It is found that both hs-CRP and ACR increased significantly and statistically with a duration of diabetes in all three groups unlike the parameters of lipid profile. Hs-CRP, ACR, cholesterol, and LDL revealed a significant correlation between each other (P < 0.05).

We observed that mean hS CRP in Group I was 0.03 ± 0.02 mg/dl, in Group II, it was 0.07 ± 0.09 mg/dl, and in Group III, it was 0.12 ± 0.17 mg/dl. ACR was 102.4 ± 13.2 in Group I, in Group II, it was 116.4 ± 15.8, and in Group III, it was 129.5 ± 12.5. Shin et al.[12] found that there is an independent association of ACR with hsCRP. The results revealed that ACR level positively correlated with the hsCRP levels in type 2 diabetics.

In this study, the level of TG level was 221.4 ± 25.8 mg/dl in Group I, 250.2 ± 26.2 mg/dl in Group II, and 261.3 ± 27.8 mg/dl in Group III. The mean cholesterol level in Group I was 210.5 ± 35.2 mg/dl, 225.4 ± 30.4 mg/dl in Group II, and 232.1 ± 27.1 mg/dl in Group III. LDL level was 132.5 ± 30.4 in Group I, 140.2 ± 31.6 in Group II, and 145.2 ± 37.5 in Group III. HDL level was 48.2 ± 4.5 in Group I, 49.1 ± 4.6 in Group II, and 50.1 ± 4.9 in Group III. ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference between all groups (P < 0.05). Varghese et al.[13] assessed the prevalence and risk factors for microalbuminuria in 1425 south type 2 diabetics. The results showed that there was a 36.3% prevalence of microalbuminuria among patients. The prevalence of microalbuminuria enhanced with the increase in duration of diabetes. It was observed that age, diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, and duration of diabetes were associated with microalbuminuria.

Asegaonkar et al.[14] determined the role of hs-CRP as an independent cardiovascular risk marker in 60 type 2 diabetes patients with normal lipid profile. The mean values of hs-CRP were 0.7 ± 0.2 in low-risk, 1.75 ± 0.7 in moderate-risk, and 5.8 ± 1.4 in high-risk CRP-level patients. Relative risk was 4.75 with an odds ratio of 10.23. The authors concluded that hs-CRP is an independent cardiac risk predictor even with a normal lipid profile.

The shortcoming of the study is the small sample size.


   Conclusion Top


The authors found a correlation of hS CRP, ACR, and lipid profile in diabetics. The level of hS CRP and ACR was found to be higher in patients with a longer duration of diabetes.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Joshi SR, Parikh RM. India – Diabetes capital of the world: Now heading towards hypertension. J Assoc Physicians India 2007;55:323-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Mogensen CE, Christensen CK, Vittinghus E. The stages in diabetic renal disease. With emphasis on the stage of incipient diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes 1983;32 Suppl 2:64-78.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Damsgaard EM, Frøland A, Jørgensen OD, Mogensen CE. Microalbuminuria as predictor of increased mortality in elderly people. BMJ 1990;300:297-300.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Viberti G, Keen H. The patterns of proteinuria in diabetes mellitus. Relevance to pathogenesis and prevention of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes 1984;33:686-92.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Haffner SM, Stern MP, Gruber MK, Hazuda HP, Mitchell BD, Patterson JK. Microalbuminuria. Potential marker for increased cardiovascular risk factors in nondiabetic subjects? Arteriosclerosis 1990;10:727-31.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kamath DY, Xavier D, Sigamani A, Pais P. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and cardiovascular disease: An Indian perspective. Indian J Med Res 2015;142:261-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
7.
Libby P, Ridker PM. Inflammation and atherosclerosis: Role of C-reactive protein in risk assessment. Am J Med 2004;116:9-16.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Khan MI, Usman K, Ashfaq F, Himanshu D, Ali W, Idris MZ. Association of Hs-CRP and HbA1C with Microalbuminuria in Type-2 Diabetic patients in North India. Biomed Res 2012;23:380-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Patil A, Ganu J. High sensitive C-reactive protein and microalbumin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Asian Pac J Health Sci 2014;1:319-21.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Alzaid AA, Sobki S, De Silva V. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in Saudi Arabians with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A clinic-based study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1994;26:115-20.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Acharjya D, Bhattacharyya S, Banerjee U, Saha M, Ghosh A. Association of serum Hs-CRP with urinary albumin creatinine ratio and lipid profile in diabetic individuals attending a tertiary care hospital in the sub-Himalayan belt. Indian J Med Biochem 2019;23:247-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Shin DI, Seung KB, Yoon HE, Hwang BH, Seo SM, Shin SJ, et al. Microalbuminuria is independently associated with arterial stiffness and vascular inflammation but not with carotid intima-media thickness in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes or essential hypertension. J Korean Med Sci 2013;28:252-60.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Varghese A, Deepa R, Rema M, Mohan V. Prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus at a diabetes centre in southern India. Postgrad Med J 2001;77:399-402.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Asegaonkar SB, Marathe A, Tekade ML, Cherekar L, Bavikar J, Bardapurkar J, et al. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein: A novel cardiovascular risk predictor in type 2 diabetics with normal lipid profile. J Diabetes Complications 2011;25:368-70.  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Methodology
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed202    
    Printed10    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded35    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal