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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 275-276  

Sleep disorders among dental students: An original research


1 Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of OMFS and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Prosthodontics Crown and Bridge, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Bagadpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
5 Consultant Prosthodontist and Implantologist, Rajpura, Patiala, Punjab, India
6 Department of Prosthodontics, Mahatma Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Affiliated to Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India

Date of Submission21-Nov-2021
Date of Decision30-Nov-2021
Date of Acceptance30-Dec-2021
Date of Web Publication13-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Nag Bhushan Mandal
Department of Prosthodontics Crown and Bridge, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna, Bihar
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_729_21

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   Abstract 


Introduction: With the increased stress among the students, their sleep patterns have been derailed from the routine. Hence, in our study, we aimed to appraise among the dental students the occurrence of sleep disorders. Materials and Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey study among 1115 dental students of 1–4 years. The survey was based on SLEEP-50 that had 50 questions that were given scores from 1 to 4 based on the response. The scores were analyzed for the statistical connotation, keeping P < 0.05 as significant. Results: We observed that 352 students suffered from sleep disorders. The sex ratio of male:female was 25:75. No significant age variation was seen. For the various disorders, insomnia (25%), nightmares (13%), and sleepwalk (8%), circadian rhythm disorders (34%), obstructive sleep apnea (26%), and narcolepsy (30%) were noted with significant variation. The habit of alcohol was seen in 17% of students. Conclusions: The sleep disorders were prevalent among the dental students due to the great amount of stress caused in the study. They should be educated about the stress management methods and importance of sleep.

Keywords: Dental students, sleep disorders, stress


How to cite this article:
Dewan H, Abdul NS, Mandal NB, Nasar A, Mogla S, Loganathan J, Dutta P. Sleep disorders among dental students: An original research. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2022;14, Suppl S1:275-6

How to cite this URL:
Dewan H, Abdul NS, Mandal NB, Nasar A, Mogla S, Loganathan J, Dutta P. Sleep disorders among dental students: An original research. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 8];14, Suppl S1:275-6. Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2022/14/5/275/350525




   Introduction Top


The sleep allows the mind and the body to relieve its stress and hence recuperate with the upcoming events. The sleep is an important aspect of the healthy body. Nevertheless, with the increased amount of stress that everyone has to face daily, the toll is being taken up on the sleep pattern.[1],[2],[3] Among those who are under high pressure, the dental college students occupy a great share as they have to study and practice the new knowledge that has been imparted to them. Hence, they experience a lot of pressure that puts them at the risk of sleep deprivation. There are many forms of sleep disorders that may point to the organic or the external cause. Previous studies have concluded the cause and effects of the sleep deprivations among the general public and the students.[4],[5],[6] However, there is a paucity of literature about sleep disorders among the dental students. Hence, in our study, we aimed to appraise among the dental students the occurrence of sleep disorders.


   Materials and Methods Top


We conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 1115 dental students who were selected from different colleges. The ethics approval was taken for this study. We selected the students from 1–4 years who were willing to participate in the survey. A 50 self-administered question-based SLEEP-50 survey was used in our study.[1] The scores were given as “1 - 'not at all,' 2 - 'somewhat,' 3 - 'rather much,' or 4 - 'very much' true.” The survey included disorders such as “insomnia, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), circadian rhythm disorders (CRDs), sleepwalking, and nightmares.” The obtained scores were tabulated and analyzed for statistical connotation, keeping P < 0.05 as significant.


   Results Top


We observed that among the 1115 students who participated in the survey, 352 students had sleep disorders. The male-to-female ratio was 25:75 that was not statistically significant (0.64). There was no significant difference between the ages of the students (P = 0.524) [Table 1]. We witnessed that among the various sleep disorders, the following were noted – insomnia (25%), nightmares (13%) and sleepwalk (8%), CRDs (34%), OSA (26%), and narcolepsy (30%). For the sleep practices, we observed that no pleasure (7%), feel sad (9%), smoking (5%), alcohol (17%), late to bedroom (8%), and noisy (11%) were seen in the students that showed statistically significant variation [Table 2].
Table 1: Demographics of the students

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Table 2: Various sleep disorders and practices of the students

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   Discussion Top


The optimal sleep is the essential component of healthy life. In the previous studies, the sleep deprivation of the university students has been elaborated.[2],[3],[4],[5] The students have to face various pressures of the academic and the other career aspects that cause the stress built up. The dental students have to endure the same pressures. Hence, in our study, we evaluated the dental students for the occurrence of sleep disorders. We noticed that over a third of the students exhibited disorders such as narcolepsy, OSA, CRDs, and insomnia that showed significant variation. These outcomes are in unison with the study of Smith.[4] In the study of Carney et al.,[5] insomnia was seen as the major cause. For the sleep practices, we observed that no pleasure (7%), feel sad (9%), smoking (5%), alcohol (17%), late to bedroom (8%), and noisy (11%) were seen in the students. In the study of Levin R,[6] noise was reported as a hindrance for the sleep. The sleep disorders had a proportional relation with the academic performance also.],[4],[5],[6],[7] The sleep of 6–8 h is advised for a healthy mind. Hence, the students have to be educated about the sleep and the methods to cope with stress. Since our study was a self-administered questionnaire study of about 50 questions, there were some inherent limitations such as the students may have felt fatigue to answer or biased in their opinion.


   Conclusions Top


The sleep disorders were prevalent among the dental students due to the great amount of stress caused in the study. They should be educated about the stress management methods and importance of sleep.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Spoormaker VI, Verbeek I, van den Bout J, Klip EC. Initial validation of the SLEEP-50 questionnaire. Behav Sleep Med 2005;3:227-46.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Pace-Schott EF, Hutcherson CA, Bemporad B, Morgan A, Kumar A, Hobson JA, et al. Failure to find executive function deficits following one night's total sleep deprivation in university students under naturalistic conditions. Behav Sleep Med 2009;7:136-63.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Chokroverty SS. Overview of sleep and sleep disorders. Indian J Med Res 2010;131:126-40.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
4.
Smith C. Sleep states and memory processes in humans: Procedural versus declarative memory systems. Sleep Med Rev 2001;5:491-506.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Carney CE, Edinger JD, Meyer B, Lindman L, Istre T. Daily activities and sleep quality in college students. Chronobiol Int 2006;23:623-37.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Levin R, Fireman G. Nightmare prevalence, nightmare distress, and self-reported psychological disturbance. Sleep 2002;25:205-12.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Tsai LL, Li SP. Sleep education in college: A preliminary study. Percept Mot Skills 2004;99:837-48.  Back to cited text no. 7
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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