Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 187--189

Assessment of pattern of oral prosthetic treatment and prevalence of oral diseases in edentulous patients in North Indian Population: A cross-sectional study


Ashish Kumar1, Ravinder S Saini2, Vikas Sharma3, Roshni U Rai4, Prahlad Gupta4, Preeti Sabharwal5,  
1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, BJS Dental College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 MDS, Prosthodontist, COAMS King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Health and Family Welfare, Himachal Pradesh, India
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Dasmesh Institute of Research and Dental Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India
5 Department of Prosthodontics, IDST, Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Vikas Sharma
Department of Health and Family Welfare, Himachal Pradesh
India

Abstract

Background: The present study was undertaken for assessing the pattern of oral prosthetic treatment and prevalence of dental diseases in edentulous patients in North Indian population. Materials and Methods: A survey was carried out in North Indian population, and screening of the edentulous patients was done. Five hundred edentulous patients were enrolled. Complete oral and general examination was carried out. Pro forma was framed, and clinical details were recorded. Using mouth mirror and explorer, complete oral examination was carried out. Demographic profile was also evaluated. Prosthetic rehabilitation pattern of all the participants was also recorded. Results: Complete removable denture and removable partial denture were method of rehabilitation in 28% and 31% of the participants. Dental implant-supported complete denture was used in 8% of the patients, whereas dental implant-supported overdenture was used in 33% of the participants. Ulcerative lesions were present in 5% of the patients, whereas oral leukoplakia was present in 4% of the patients. Oral lichen planus and torus were present in 2% and 1% of the patients. Conclusion: Majority of the geriatric patients prefer having removable denture. Furthermore, due to nutritional deficiency associated with geriatric age, oral leukoplakia and ulcerative lesions are more common in them.



How to cite this article:
Kumar A, Saini RS, Sharma V, Rai RU, Gupta P, Sabharwal P. Assessment of pattern of oral prosthetic treatment and prevalence of oral diseases in edentulous patients in North Indian Population: A cross-sectional study.J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13:187-189


How to cite this URL:
Kumar A, Saini RS, Sharma V, Rai RU, Gupta P, Sabharwal P. Assessment of pattern of oral prosthetic treatment and prevalence of oral diseases in edentulous patients in North Indian Population: A cross-sectional study. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 29 ];13:187-189
Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/5/187/317605


Full Text



 Introduction



One of the weakening and irremediable conditions of oral cavity is edentulism. It is concluding indicator of pathologic load for dental health. There are intra- and intercountry changes in the occurrence of edentulous state, and straight evaluation among variables within the nation is tough due to the result of number of variables such as education, financial conditions, and way of life.[1],[2],[3]

Over the past two decades, the worldwide load on disability has decreased on average. In comparison to rich areas where the occurrence of edentulism is on downfall, a combat to trend is noticed in poor areas where the rate of edentulism is rising, mainly as the impact of increments in periodontal diseases.[4],[5],[6] Hence, the present study was undertaken for assessing the pattern of oral prosthetic treatment and prevalence of dental diseases in edentulous patients in North Indian population.

 Materials and Methods



We aimed to assess the pattern of oral prosthetic treatment and prevalence of dental diseases in edentulous patients in North Indian population. A survey was carried out in the North Indian population, and screening of the edentulous patients was done. Five hundred edentulous patients were enrolled. Complete oral and general examination was carried out. Pro forma was framed, and clinical details were recorded. Using mouth mirror and explorer, complete oral examination was carried out. Patients with the presence of ay metabolic disorder were excluded from the study. Demographic profile was also evaluated. After carrying out oral examination, the presence of oral lesions, if any, was also recorded. Prosthetic rehabilitation pattern of all the patients was also recorded. The analysis was done by SPSS software (SPSS software version 20.0, IBM, Armonk, New York.

 Results



[Table 1] shows the pattern of oral prosthetic treatment. Out of 500 patients, complete removable denture and removable partial denture were method of rehabilitation in 28% and 31% of the patients as shown in [Table 1]. Dental implant-supported complete denture was used in 8% of the patients, whereas dental implant-supported overdenture was used in 33% of the patients. The mean age was 62.8 years, whereas the majority of the patients were of more than 50 years of age [Table 2]. Sixty-five percent of the patients were males. Ulcerative lesions were present in 5% of the patients, whereas oral leukoplakia was present in 4% of the patients as shown in [Table 3]. Oral lichen planus and torus were present in 2% and 1% of the patients.{Table 1}{Table 2}{Table 3}

 Discussion



The presence of edentulous space in permanent dentition affects directly the oral health status.[7],[8],[9] In the present research, out of 500 patients, complete removable denture and removable partial denture were method of rehabilitation in 28% and 31% of the patients. Dental implant-supported complete denture was used in 8% of the patients, whereas dental-implant supported overdenture was used in 33% of the patients. The prevalence of complete edentulism and partial edentulism among adults in relation to gender, age, and education level was investigated by Almusallam and AlRafee. A high percentage of missing teeth is normally found in adult patients and complete edentulism was found mostly in old or elderly people. The relationship between sociodemographic variables and partial edentulism was determined by Vadavadagi et al. Two hundred and eighty-eight individuals were partially edentulous showing an occurrence rate of 75%. Teeth of nearly 51% of study patients were lost because of periodontal disease. Among the study population, the occurrence of partial edentulism was high.[10],[11]

The mean age was 62.8 years, whereas the majority of the patients were of more than 50 years of age. Sixty-five percent of the patients were males. Ulcerative lesions were present in 5% of the patients, whereas oral leukoplakia was present in 4% of the patients. Oral lichen planus and torus were present in 2% and 1% of the patients. In a previous research commenced by Patel et al., authors analyzed the occurrence of dental pathologies and oral lesions in psychiatric patients. They also evaluated their oral health standard. In their study, fifty-seven males beyond age group of 45 years participated. Their observations were demonstrated that significant correlation exists in between status of oral health and severity of mental illness. Oral health of psychiatric illness patients was significantly worse in comparison to the general population. In another research carried out by Čelebić et al., authors evaluated the correlation between chewing function (a sort of self-perception) and quality of life in geriatric population. One out of three different types of treatment modalities were delivered to the patients: removable partial denture, complete denture, and implant-supported overdenture. Patients with the edentulous area in the anterior tooth region preferred removable partial denture, whereas implant-supported overdenture led to significant improvement in the chewing function.[11],[12],[13] Even though, chewing competency and dietary status signify when insufficient dentition edentulous state is amended with partial/complete dentures; masticatory function in these rehabilitation prostheses is less efficient in comparison to the original intact natural teeth. Hence, it is the foremost duty of the dentist to maintain the natural dentition by carrying out various prophylactic measures along with giving instructions for maintaining the overall oral and general health.[10],[11],[12]

 Conclusion



Majority of the geriatric patients prefer having removable denture. Furthermore, due to nutritional deficiency associated with geriatric age, oral leukoplakia and ulcerative lesions are more common in them.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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