Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1360--1364

Cephalometric evaluation based on Steiner's analysis on adults of Bihar


Mrigank Shekhar Jha 
 Department of Orthodontics, Sarjug Dental College and Hospital, Darbhanga, Bihar, India

Correspondence Address:
Mrigank Shekhar Jha
Braces And Faces Dental Clinic, Donar, Darbhanga- 846003, Bihar
India

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the mean cephalometric values for Steiner Analysis in bihar population. Objectives: To evaluate the cephalometric features of a bihar population and to present_an organized, comprehensive cephalometric norms for Steiner cephalometric analysis..To introduce mean values to assess skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationship using Steiner analysis for orthodontic diagnosis..To compare standards that will be derived with the earlier established norms for other population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics,Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences And Hospital,Patna(Bihar). The sample was collected from the out patient department of the same college. Source of the Data: The present analysis was made on lateral cephalograms of 60 subjects with well balanced and acceptable facial profile of Bihar population. The subjects were informed about the purpose of the study. Methods of Collection of Data: Subjects with age group of 18-26 years with dento-alveolar class I malocclusion and acceptable facial profile were selected by trained orthodontists, who belonged to the department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics,Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences And Hospital. Results and Conclusion: There was increase in SNA angle, SNB angle, SND angle,in Bihar population than Caucasians. Bihar population has proclined and forwardly placed upper and lower incisors, which was indicative of bimaxillary protrusion as compared to Caucasians. Bihar population had protrusive upper and lower lips as compared to Caucasians. Bihar population males had tendency towards horizontal growth pattern of the mandible than females. Bihar females had more proclined lower incisors than males



How to cite this article:
Jha MS. Cephalometric evaluation based on Steiner's analysis on adults of Bihar.J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13:1360-1364


How to cite this URL:
Jha MS. Cephalometric evaluation based on Steiner's analysis on adults of Bihar. J Pharm Bioall Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Sep 30 ];13:1360-1364
Available from: https://www.jpbsonline.org/text.asp?2021/13/6/1360/329996


Full Text



 Introduction



Measurements of dental and skeletal variations in different population groups are important. It could determine the priority and the need of orthodontic modalities according to the severity of malocclusion and the available sources. It could be used to estimate the need of treatment in population and an orientation toward possible limitations in carrying out orthodontic protocol.[1],[2],[3],[4]

The skeletal, dental as well as soft-tissue variations exist in different groups of population.[5],[6] The cephalometric parameters of hard and soft tissue of one population cannot be applied to another group. Hence, it becomes necessary to understand the cephalometric norms for different groups of population. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the cephalometric norms for Bihar population.

Aim

The aim of this study is to evaluate the mean cephalometric values for Steiner Analysis in Bihar population.,

Objectives

To evaluate the cephalometric features of a Bihar population and to present an organized, comprehensive cephalometric norms for Steiner cephalometric analysisTo introduce mean values to assess skeletal, dental, and soft tissue relationship using Steiner analysis for orthodontic diagnosisTo compare standards that will be derived with the earlier established norms for other population.

 Materials and Methods



The study was conducted in the Department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna (Bihar). The sample was collected from the outpatient department of the same college.

Source of the data

The present analysis was made on lateral cephalograms of 60 participants with well-balanced and acceptable facial profile of Bihar population. The participants were informed about the purpose of the study.

Methods of collection of data

Participants with age group of 18–26 years with dentoalveolar Class I malocclusion and acceptable facial profile were selected by trained orthodontists, who belonged to the Department of orthodontics and Dentofacial orthopedics, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital.

Following were the criteria for the selection of participants:

Participants should be of Bihar populationAcceptable and pleasing profilesClass I molar relationship on both the sides, with normal overjet and overbite with minimal crowding or spacingNo history of previous orthodontic treatmentNo missing teethAbsence of gross facial asymmetry or deformity.

The radiographic apparatus used was VATECH, PAX 400 X-ray machine from the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna.

All lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken in centric occlusion with lips in relax and the Frankfort horizontal plane oriented horizontally according to natural head position.

For the tracing purpose, a 75 pm lacquered polyester paper was used along with a sharp 0.03 mm lead pencil. A protractor and a plastic scale were used to measure the lines and angles. A single operator performed the tracings in a standardized manner to avoid errors due to intraoperation variations. To check the operator's reliability and reproducibility, all lateral cephalograms were retraced by another operator.

 Results



Various skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue parameters (Steiner) were checked to establish the cephalometric norms of Bihar population.

To check the operator's reliability and reproducibility, sixty lateral cephalograms were selected and retraced by another operator. Statistically, there was no significant difference found in mean, standard of deviation, “t” value, and “P” value. It indicated that there was no significant intraexaminer variability found.

Steiner analysis

Comparison of Bihar population and Caucasian population

[Table 1] and [Graph 1] depict the comparison of Steiner analysis parameters between Bihar population and Caucasian population.{Table 1}[INLINE:1]

There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) seen in SNA angle (83.1 ± 4.7), U1 to LI angle (121° ± 8°), and insignificant difference (P > 0.05) in SNB angle (81.0° ± 3.7°), SND angle (77° ± 3.6°), U1 to N-A angle (24.3° ± 7.1°), LI to N-B angle (30.3° ± 6°), and Go-Gn to SN (25.7° ± 6.3°).

Comparison of Bihar population (male) and Caucasian population

[Table 2] and [Graph 2] depict the comparison of Steiner analysis parameters between Bihar male and Caucasian population. There was highly significant difference seen in SNA angle (86.3° ± 5.3°), Go-Gn to SN (27.3° ± 5.3°), and LI to N-B (29.4 ± 5) in Bihar male than Caucasians (P < 0.01).{Table 2}[INLINE:2]

No significant difference was seen in SNB Angle (82.3° ± 3.2°), ANB angle (3.9° ± 2.7°), occlusal plane to S-N angle (14.92° ± 3.5°), and LI to N-A angle (22.2°± 5.4°), LI to N-A (4.7 ± 1.5), LI to N-B (5.9 ± 1.9) in Bihar male than Caucasians, (P > 0.05)

Comparison of Bihar population (female) and Caucasian population

[Table 3] and [Graph 3] show high significant difference seen in SNA angle (83.02° ± 4.5°), Go-Gn to SN (26.79° ± 6.1°), LI to N-B (30.5 ± 6.6), and 1°–1° (122.5 ± 8.1) in Bihar male than Caucasians (P < 0.04). No significant difference was seen in SNB Angle (80.3° ± 3.9°), ANB angle (3.8° ± 2.2°), Occlusal plane to S-N angle (15.79± 3.3°) and LI to N-A angle (25.2 ± 7.4°), LI to N-A (5 ± 1.8), LI to N-B (6 ± 1.8) in Bihar male than Caucasians, (p > 0.032){Table 3}[INLINE:3]

 Discussion



Understanding of facial balance, proportions, and beauty is made simpler by recent trends in diagnosis and treatment planning by means of a combination of clinical facial analysis and hard- and soft-tissue cephalometries. The number of cephalometric studies done in India is lesser.[7],[8] With the abovementioned background, this study was conducted to obtain Steiner Analysis cephalometric norms for Bihar population (India). The present study was focused on sixty samples of Bihar characterized by having normal occlusion and well-balanced faces. The adults were examined with age range of 18 to 26 years.

Steiner analysis

Comparison of Bihar population and Caucasian norms

SNA angle shows significant difference (P < 0.05); this finding is in well matched to study done on Chhattisgarh population by Saibel Farishta et al., 2011.[9] Interincisal (U1-L1) angle shows clinically significant difference (P < 0.05) in Bihar population (121° ±8°) with Caucasian norms (131° ±8°) which is well agreement with the finding done by Saibel Farishta et al., 2011. There was clinically insignificant difference (P > 0.05) in skeletal parameters SNB angle, ANB angle, and mandibular plane angle (Go-gn to SN) of Bihar population with Caucasian norms.

Comparison of Bihar (female) population and Caucasian

This study showed no significant differences in Steiner's (Skeletal and Dental) cephalometric parameters between Bihar (Female) and Caucasian population.

When skeletal cephalometric parameters were considered, there was no statistically significant difference was found for the angles such as SNB angle, ANB angle, SND angle, SN to Occl, 1-NA (A), and 1–NA (mm). Few parameters such as SNA angle and Go-gn to SN angle show little significant differences.

ANB angle showed no significant difference and this finding is in agreement with the findings of Rakesh Mohode et al., (2008)[10] 46 who had done study on Marathi population and also the findings observed by Harpreet Grewal et al. (1995) on Indo Aryans.[11] Occlusal plane to SN angle also showed no significant difference. The present study revealed that there was statistically significant increase in dental cephalometric parameters such as LI to N-B angle and LI to N-B distance.

The above finding is in agreement with the findings observed on Lucknow Hindus 5, Indo-Aryans 4, North and South Indians 3, and on Marathi 46, who have proclined as well as forwardly positioned upper and lower incisors.[10],[12],[13]

Comparison of Bihar (male) and Caucasian

This study showed no significant differences in Steiner's (skeletal and dental) cephalometric parameters between Bihar (Female) and Caucasian population.

When skeletal cephalometric parameters were considered, there was no statistically significant difference was found for the angles such as SNB angle, ANB angle, SND angle, SN to Occl, 1-NA (A), and 1–NA (mm). Few parameters such as SNA angle and Go-Gn to SN angle shows little significant differences.

ANB angle showed no significant difference, and this finding is in agreement with the findings of Rakesh Mohode et al. (2008),[10] who had done study on Marathi population and also the findings observed by Harpreet Grewal et al. (1995) on Indo Aryans.[11] Occlusal plane to SN angle also showed no significant difference. The present study revealed that there was statistically significant increase in dental cephalometric parameters such as LI to N-B angle and 1 to 1° angle.

The above finding is in agreement with the findings observed on Lucknow Hindus,[5] Indo-Aryans,[4] North and South Indians 3 and on Marathi, who have proclined as well as forwardly positioned upper and lower incisors.

 Conclusion



There was an increase in SNA angle, SNB angle, and SND angle, in Bihar population than CaucasiansBihar population has proclined and forwardly placed upper and lower incisors, which was indicative of bimaxillary protrusion as compared to CaucasiansBihar population had protrusive upper and lower lips as compared to CaucasiansBihar population males had tendency toward horizontal growth pattern of the mandible than femalesBihar females had more proclined lower incisors than males.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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