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   2010| April-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 2, 2010

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Cyclodextrins in delivery systems: Applications
Gaurav Tiwari, Ruchi Tiwari, Awani K Rai
April-June 2010, 2(2):72-79
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67003  PMID:21814436
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic central cavity. CD molecules are relatively large with a number of hydrogen donors and acceptors and, thus in general, they do not permeate lipophilic membranes. In the pharmaceutical industry, CDs have mainly been used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. CDs are used in pharmaceutical applications for numerous purposes, including improving the bioavailability of drugs. Current CD-based therapeutics is described and possible future applications are discussed. CD-containing polymers are reviewed and their use in drug delivery is presented. Of specific interest is the use of CD-containing polymers to provide unique capabilities for the delivery of nucleic acids. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that CDs can be used to improve drug delivery from almost any type of drug formulation. Currently, there are approximately 30 different pharmaceutical products worldwide containing drug/CD complexes in the market.
  98 16,750 688
Structural modifications of quinoline-based antimalarial agents: Recent developments
Sandhya Bawa, Suresh Kumar, Sushma Drabu, Rajiv Kumar
April-June 2010, 2(2):64-71
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67002  PMID:21814435
Antimalarial drugs constitute a major part of antiprotozoal drugs and have been in practice for a long time. Antimalarial agents generally belong to the class of quinoline which acts by interfering with heme metabolism. The recent increase in development of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and failure of vaccination program against malaria have fuelled the drug discovery program against this old and widespread disease. Quinoline and its related derivative comprise a class of heterocycles, which has been exploited immensely than any other nucleus for the development of potent antimalarial agents. Various chemical modifications of quinoline have been attempted to achieve analogs with potent antimalarial properties against sensitive as well as resistant strains of Plasmodium sp., together with minimal potential undesirable side effects. This review outlines essentially some of the recent chemical modifications undertaken for the development of potent antimalarial agents based on quinoline.
  27 11,576 601
Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in radiation research: Current status and perspectives
Sudha Rana, Raman Chawla, Raj Kumar, Shefali Singh, Antoaneta Zheleva, Yanka Dimitrova, Veselina Gadjeva, Rajesh Arora, Sarwat Sultana, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
April-June 2010, 2(2):80-87
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67006  PMID:21814437
Exposure to radiation leads to a number of health-related malfunctions. Ionizing radiation is more harmful than non-ionizing radiation, as it causes both direct and indirect effects. Irradiation with ionizing radiation results in free radical-induced oxidative stress. Free radical-mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in a plethora of diseased states, including cancer, arthritis, aging, Parkinson's disease, and so on. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has various applications to measure free radicals, in radiation research. Free radicals disintegrate immediately in aqueous environment. Free radicals can be detected indirectly by the EPR spin trapping technique in which these forms stabilize the radical adduct and produce characteristic EPR spectra for specific radicals. Ionizing radiation-induced free radicals in calcified tissues, for example, teeth, bone, and fingernail, can be detected directly by EPR spectroscopy, due to their extended stability. Various applications of EPR in radiation research studies are discussed in this review.
  7 4,673 148
Khamiras, a natural cardiac tonic: An overview
Sayeed Ahmad, Shabana Rehman, Aftab M Ahmad, Khalid M Siddiqui, Seemin Shaukat, Masood Shah Khan, YT Kamal, Tamanna Jahangir
April-June 2010, 2(2):93-99
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67009  PMID:21814439
The Unani system of Medicine (Unanipathy), which originated in Greece, is based on the principles proposed by Galen, a Greek practitioner. Since then, many Arab and Persian scholars have contributed to the system. Among them Ibn-e-Sina, an Arab philosopher and Physicist who wrote 'Kitab-al-shifa' are worth mentioning. This system has an extensive and inspiring record in India. It was introduced in India around the tenth century A.D with the spread of Islamic civilization. At present, Unanipathy has become an important part of the Indian system of Medicine. Unani medicines have been used since ancient times, as medicines for the treatment of various ailments. In spite of the great advances observed in modern medicine in recent decades, Unani drugs still make an important contribution to healthcare. The Unani system of medicine is matchless in treating chronic diseases like arthritis, asthma, mental, cardiac, and digestive disorders, urinary infections, and sexual diseases. The medicines administered go well with the temperament of the patient, thus speeding up the process of recovery and also reducing the risk of drug reaction. The Unani system of medicine recognizes the influence of the surroundings and ecological conditions on the state of health of human beings. The system aims at restoring the equilibrium of various elements and faculties of the human body. It has laid down six essential prerequisites for the prevention of diseases and places great emphasis, on the one hand, on the maintenance of proper ecological balance, and on the other, on keeping water, food, and air free from pollution. These essentials, known as 'Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya', are air, food, and drink, bodily movement and repose, psychic movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, and excretion and retention. The Unani system is a secular system in temperament and is popular among the masses. In Unani medicine, although the general preference is for single drugs, compound formulations are also used in the treatment of various complex and chronic disorders. In the light of the present knowledge, this review is a small effort to discuss the efficacious nature of 'Khamira', a semi-solid preparation, which is traditionally used for cardiac ailments, such as, palpitations, weakness of the heart, and so on. On the basis of their constituents these are named as, Khamira Aabresham, Khamira Gaozaban, Khamira Marwareed, and so on. Khameeras are also used as general tonics for other vital organs like the liver and brain. In view of the increasing number of cardiac diseases, a thorough evaluation of this ancient work on Khamira is of special significance.
  7 11,195 299
Determination of gallic acid in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. dried fruit powder by HPTLC
Laxman Sawant, Nancy Pandita, Bala Prabhakar
April-June 2010, 2(2):105-108
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67012  PMID:21814441
Objective : Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.), an euphorbiaceous plant, is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of India, China and Indonesia. The fruits possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. In the current article a new, simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid in dried fruit powder of Phyllanthus emblica. Materials and Methods : The quantitative determination of gallic acid was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The linear ascending development was carried out in a twin trough glass chamber saturated with a mobile phase consisting of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid: methanol (3:3:0.8:0.2) at room temperature (25 ± 2°C). Camag TLC scanner III was used for spectrodensitometric scanning and analysis, in the absorbance mode, at 278 nm. Results : The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2 = 0.99977 in the concentration range of 40 - 240 ng spot−1, with respect to the peak area. According to the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), the method was validated for precision, accuracy, and recovery. Conclusion : Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method was reproducible and selective for the estimation of gallic acid.
  6 7,302 455
Bromocriptine mesylate: Food and Drug Administration approved new approach in therapy of non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control
Yogendra Keche
April-June 2010, 2(2):148-150
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67000  PMID:21814451
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved bromocriptine mesylate, a quick release formulation, 0.8 mg tablets, as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bromocriptine products were previously approved by the FDA for the treatment of pituitary tumors and Parkinson's disease. Bromocriptine is thought to act on circadian neuronal activities within the hypothalamus to reset abnormally elevated hypothalamic drive for increased plasma glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in fasting and postprandial states in insulin-resistant patients. Adverse events most commonly reported in clinical trials of bromocriptine included nausea, fatigue, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. These events lasted a median of 14 days and were more likely to occur during initial titration of the drug. Due to novel mechanism of action, single daily dose, and lower incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction and vascular events, bromocriptine may act as landmark in treatment of type 2 diabetes.
  6 4,045 145
Chitosan superporous hydrogel composite-based floating drug delivery system: A newer formulation approach
Hitesh Chavda, Chhaganbhai Patel
April-June 2010, 2(2):124-131
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67010  PMID:21814446
Objective: In this study efforts have been made to design a drug delivery system based on a superporous hydrogel composite, for floating and sustained delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization studies were performed by the measurement of apparent density, porosity, swelling studies, mechanical strength studies, and scanning electron microscopy studies. The prepared formulation was evaluated for buoyant behavior, in vitro drug release, kinetics of drug release, and stability. The release profile of Ranitidine hydrochloride was investigated by changing the release retardant polymer in the formulation. To ascertain the kinetics of drug release, the drug release profiles were fitted to mathematical models that included zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull, and Hopfenberg models. Results: Scanning electron microscopy images clearly indicated the formation of interconnected pores and capillary channels, and cross-linked Chitosan molecules were observed around the peripheries of the pores. The prepared drug delivery system floated and delivered the Ranitidine hydrochloride for about 17 hours. The in vitro drug release from the proposed system was best explained by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The values of the diffusion exponent in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model ranged between 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.66 ± 0.02, which appeared to indicate a coupling of the diffusion and erosion mechanisms, anomalous non-Fickian transport. Conclusion: It was concluded that the proposed floating drug delivery system, based on the superporous hydrogel composite containing Chitosan as a composite material, is promising for stomach-specific delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride.
  5 6,977 546
The role of assay methods in characterizing the quality of bulk pharmaceuticals
Wieslawa Misiuk
April-June 2010, 2(2):88-92
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67007  PMID:21814438
This study presents the role of assay methods in characterizing the quality of bulk substances in pharmaceutical analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the most remarkable development and the technique has become very significant in the quality control of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations, even at the pharmacopoeial level. Development of HPLC and other chtromatographic techniques, coupled with mass spectrometry, is also useful in the determination of drugs and their metabolites in biological samples. The role of electrophoretic, spectroscopic, and other methods in pharmaceutical analysis are discussed here. There are separate sections devoted to microscopy techniques that are useful in the pharmaceutical field, as also the regulatory aspects of drug analysis, with emphasis on questions related to validation.
  2 3,696 174
Current scenario of attitude and knowledge of physicians about rational prescription: A novel cross-sectional study
Rajiv Mahajan, Navyug R Singh, Jaswinder Singh, Alok Dixit, Amit Jain, Ashwani Gupta
April-June 2010, 2(2):132-136
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67008  PMID:21814447
Background: In the last 30 years concepts in pharmacology have moved from Essential Medicines (EM) to P-drugs via the Rational Use of Medicines (RUM), but no structured study has evaluated the level of understanding among the working clinicians about these concepts. Aim: The present study was designed to assess the attitude and knowledge of clinical practitioners about the concepts of RUM, EM, P-drugs, and sources of drug-information, across North India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in and around the teaching hospitals attached to Medical Colleges, enrolling 504 clinicians from six centers across North India to fill-up a questionnaire containing 25 questions. Statistical Analysis: The results were compiled using percentages and averages. Univariate analysis, which explores each variable in a data set separately, was carried out by using the Fisher's exact test. Results: Only one-fourth of the participants claimed that they always prescribed Essential Medicine; no one could correctly count the number of drugs / drug combinations in the Indian Essential Drug list; only 15.1% of the clinicians wrote the generic names of drugs on the prescription slip; about one-third of clinicians were not fully aware about the adverse effects, drug interactions, and contraindications of the drugs they prescribed; about 83% of physicians admitted to relying on information from Medical Representatives and an interest in research activities seemed to be lost. Conclusion: Results show a sorry state of affairs among clinicians, as far as the level of understanding about EM, P-drugs, and RUM is concerned, and it points toward arranging more continuing medical education (CME) for clinicians with regard to these concepts.
  2 3,223 138
Synthesis, spectral characterization, and pharmacological screening of some 4-[{1-(aryl)methylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl)-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives
Anees A Siddiqui, Ravinesh Mishra, Rajiv Kumar, Mohd Rashid, Somila Khaidem
April-June 2010, 2(2):109-112
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67014  PMID:21814442
Background : Pain is an unpleasant and subjective sensation that results from a harmful sensorial stimulation, which alerts the body about current or potential damage to its tissues and organs. Fever is a complex physiological response triggered by infections or aseptic stimuli. Elevation in body temperature occurs when the concentration of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) increases within parts of the brain. Triazole derivatives have been found to possess various pharmacological and biological activities, such as, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, antipyretic, and antifungal. Materials and Methods : Various 4-[{1-(aryl)methylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl)-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized by a sequence of reactions starting from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. The synthesized compounds were screened for in-vivo analgesic by the tail-flick method and anti-pyretic activities at a dose of 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Fever was induced by subcutaneously injecting 20 ml/kg of 20% aqueous suspension of Brewer's yeast in normal saline. Results and Discussion : The analgesic screening results revealed that the compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited excellent analgesic activity at 60 and 90 minutes compared to the standard drug (Analgin). Results revealed that the compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f significantly decreased the temperature of pyretic (P<0.001) rats at one, three and six hours after compound administration as compared to Aspirin (standard drug). Conclusion : Compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited significant analgesic activity comparable with the standard drug analgin, using the tail flick model. Compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f showed significant anti-pyretic activities comparable with the standard drug aspirin using the yeast-induced pyrexia model.
  2 3,224 185
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences
Sandhya Bawa
April-June 2010, 2(2):63-63
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.66999  PMID:21814434
  1 2,290 123
Release behavior of different physicochemical properties drug models from the ethylcellulose microcapsules
Ghulam Murtaza, Mahmood Ahmad, Shujaat Ali Khan
April-June 2010, 2(2):153-153
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.66996  PMID:21814454
  1 2,040 89
Synergistic activity of Fagonia arabica and Heteropneustes fossilis extracts against myocardial, cerebral infarction, and embolism disorder in mice
Atul Kaushik, Rakesh Das
April-June 2010, 2(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67011  PMID:21814440
Objective : Extract of Fagonia arabica, (family Zygophyllaceae) has thrombolytic activity against the clotted blood in blood vessels and the extract of Heteropneustes fossilis shows the cardiotonic activity. Therefore, combinatory pharmacology shows the synergistic activity in tied mice for a long duration. Materials and Methods : The cardiotonic activity of Heteropneustes fossilis fish extract was examined on a frog intact heart and then pharmacologically performed on 20 mice without plant extract as well as with a combination of plant extract, which gave a remarkable synergistic activity in an in-vivo experiment on mice kept tied for the duration of 12, 18, and 24 hours and injected within one minute after untying. Result and Discusion : The plant extract was compared with streptokinase as well as a non-thrombolytic agent (control). A study showed a percentage of clot lysis, which was 65.5% for plant extract, but streptokinase had 71%. The study was done in 11 healthy volunteers representing a mean value and SD of 65% ± 2.01% and 71.67% ± 0.71% of the plant extract and streptokinase, respectively, in contrast to the non-thrombolytic (control), that is, 0.86% ± 0.08%. Conclusion : Injection of plant and fish extract acts both synergistically in the blood clotted mice and in mice suffering from myocardial or cerebral infarction and embolized mice.
  1 3,448 156
Comparative bioavailability studies of citric acid and malonic acid based aspirin effervescent tablets
Anju Gauniya, Sanjita Das, Subrata Mallick, SP Basu
April-June 2010, 2(2):118-120
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67015  PMID:21814444
Purpose: The present investigation is aimed at comparing the pharmacokinetic profile (Bioavailability) of aspirin in tablet formulations, which were prepared by using different effervescent excipients such as citric acid and malonic acid. Materials and Methods: The relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of citric acid based aspirin effervescent tablet (Product A) and malonic acid based aspirin effervescent tablet (Product B) formulations were evaluated for an in-vitro dissolution study and in-vivo bioavailability study, in 10 normal healthy rabbits. The study utilized a randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period between doses. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours following a 100 mg/kg dose. Plasma samples were assayed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. T max , C max , AUC 0-24 , AUC 0- ∞, MRT, K a, and relative bioavailability were estimated using the traditional pharmacokinetic methods and were compared by using the paired t-test. Result: In the present study, Products A and B showed their T max , C max , AUC 0-24 , AUC 0- ∞, MRT, and K a values as 2.5 h, 2589 ± 54.79 ng/ml, 9623 ± 112.87 ng.h/ml, 9586 ± 126.22 ng.h/ml, 3.6 ± 0.10 h, and 0.3698 ± 0.003 h -1 for Product A and 3.0 h, 2054 ± 55.79 ng/ml, 9637 ± 132.87 ng.h/ml, 9870 ± 129.22 ng.h/ml, 4.76 ± 0.10 h, and 0.3812 ± 0.002 h -1 for Product B, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the paired t-test of pharmacokinetics data showed that there was no significant difference between Products A and B. From both the in vitro dissolution studies and in vivo bioavailability studies it was concluded that products A and B had similar bioavailability.
  1 4,209 189
Spectrophotometric estimation of betahistine hydrochloride in tablet formulations
Amit Kumar, Sanju Nanda, Rajiv Chomwal
April-June 2010, 2(2):121-123
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67013  PMID:21814445
Aim: The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Betahistine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: For method I and II, in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml) in double distilled water were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 15-90 μg/ml and 10-80 μg/ml respectively of betahistine hydrochloride. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of methyl orange for method I and 5 ml of bromo phenol blue for method II) reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 421.6 nm and 412 nm for method I and II respectively. Results: The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion: Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of betahistine hydrochloride from tablet formulations.
  1 3,811 155
Microsatellites in varied arenas of research
KS Remya, Sigimol Joseph, PK Lakshmi, S Akhila
April-June 2010, 2(2):141-143
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67004  PMID:21814449
Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) or short-tandem repeats (STRs), represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.
  1 2,772 62
Effect of soybean supplementation on the memory of alprazolam-induced amnesic mice
Nitin Bansal, Milind Parle
April-June 2010, 2(2):144-147
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67001  PMID:21814450
Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Leguminoseae), is known as golden bean. It contains vegetable protein, oligosaccharide, dietary fiber, vitamins, isoflavones and minerals. Earlier studies have demonstrated a cholesterol lowering, skin protective, antitumour, antidiabetic and antioxidative potential of soybean. Soy isoflavones are also utilized as estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of soybean on memory of mice when consumed along with diet. Soybean was administered chronically for 60 consecutive days as three soybean diets viz. Soy2, Soy5, Soy10. These diet contains soybean in normal diet at concentration of 2%, 5%, 10% w/w respectively. Passive avoidance paradigm and elevated plus maze served as exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Alprazolam (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.) induced amnesia served as interoceptive behavioral model. The administration of soybean significantly reversed alprazolam-induced amnesia in a dose-dependent manner as indicated by the increased step down latency of mice using passive avoidance paradigm and increased transfer latency using elevated plus maze. Theses results suggest that consumption of soybean in diet may not only improve memory but also reverse the memory deficits, owing to its multifarious activities. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this nutrient in the management of Alzheimer's disease.
  1 3,541 129
Attitude of doctors towards physical characteristics of solid oral dosage forms
AA Hasamnis, SS Patil, BK Mohanty, Kyaw Thu, Arun Kumar
April-June 2010, 2(2):151-151
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.66998  PMID:21814452
  - 2,301 58
To study the effect of 'Isabgol' on absorption of 'Aspirin'
Muhammad Shahid, Afshan Siddiq, Haris Mazhar, Sadia Ghousia Baig
April-June 2010, 2(2):152-152
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.66997  PMID:21814453
  - 2,322 70
Substance use among adolescent high school students in India: A survey of knowledge, attitude, and opinion
Dechenla Tsering, Ranabir Pal, Aparajita Dasgupta
April-June 2010, 2(2):137-140
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67005  PMID:21814448
Background: Is knowledge regarding the consequences of substance use among adolescents enough to prevent them from initiating and continuing its use, is a question that needs to be clarified further? Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding harm of use and to obtain information about attitudes among high school students. Also, to discover the opinion of substance use held by users. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross-sectional study conducted in two high schools of West Bengal, India, among 416 students, in classes VIII, IX, and X, with no interventions. Primary outcome measurements were substance use: knowledge regarding harm, attitude, and opinion. Following this proportions and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of 416 students, 52 (12.5%) used or abused any one of the substances irrespective of time and frequency in lifetime; 26 (15.1 %) were among the urban students and 26 (10.7 %) were among their rural counterparts. More than two-thirds (73.07%) of the respondents expressed a desire to quit substance use and 57.69% had tried to stop. 'Easy availability' and 'relief from tension' were the most frequent reasons for continuation of substance use. Level of knowledge on harmfulness of substance use among students was very high (urban - -84.6% and rural - 61.5%) and they stated media as the most frequent source of information. Users were successful in influencing their peers into taking up this habit (urban - 15.4% and rural - 26.9%). Conclusions: Inspite of being aware of the harmful effects of substance use, adolescents take up this habit. This requires comprehensive prevention and control programs in schools and the community, targeted toward adolescents and their parents and other family members. Effective measures are required to encourage shaping the attitude of school children toward self-confidence and adequacy, as also to prevent risk behavior among adolescents.
  - 7,802 458
Assessment of lithium ingestion on cognition and some subset of motor skill
PD Shallie, HB Akpan, AK Adefule, D Fakoya, TR Fagbohun
April-June 2010, 2(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.67016  PMID:21814443
Background : Patients taking lithium often report of difficulties in concentration, memory, learning, and attention. Laboratory tests of cognitive functions in healthy volunteers on chronic lithium demonstrate that disruptions in memory-learning processes are apparent at the time of memory retrieval. Aim : This study has attempted to evaluate the impact of lithium ingestion on cognition and some subset of sensory skill, by examining comparatively how lithium or a lithium / saline supplement either harms or helps the brain. Materials and Methods : Wistar Rats (male and female) were housed in individual improvised cages. The rats were acclimatized for two weeks after which they were randomly grouped into three, namely, control, lithium-treated, and lithium with saline-treated groups, and treated for four weeks. The lithium-treated group received 40 mM lithium bicarbonate per kg of feed for the first one week, and the dosage was increased to 60mM per kg of feed for the rest of the three weeks. The lithium-saline group received saline solution in addition to lithium. The control group was given normal feed and water liberally for the period of the experiment. The rats were subjected to a cognitive test using the Barnes maze, assessments of negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance, and some neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and glutamate). The data were analyzed by Microsoft excel 2007. Results : This study shows that lithium ingestion is characterized by a significant ( P ≤ 0.05) decline in learning and memory as compared to the control. While the lithium-saline-treated animals exhibit enhanced cognitive ability. The subset of sensory activity was assessed; negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance were grossly compromised, thus lithium carbonate appeared to have definite negative effects on the psychsensory speed. Conclusion : In conclusion lithium should be co-administered with saline to counter the detrimental effects of lithium noticed in this study, which include impairment of tasks on psychomotor speed and cognition.
  - 2,948 47