Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   2012| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 9, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Current approaches toward production of secondary plant metabolites
Md. Sarfaraj Hussain, Sheeba Fareed, Saba Ansari, Md. Akhlaquer Rahman, Iffat Zareen Ahmad, Mohd. Saeed
January-March 2012, 4(1):10-20
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92725  
Plants are the tremendous source for the discovery of new products with medicinal importance in drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs, which are currently used in one or more countries in the world. Secondary metabolites are economically important as drugs, flavor and fragrances, dye and pigments, pesticides, and food additives. Many of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The evolving commercial importance of secondary metabolites has in recent years resulted in a great interest in secondary metabolism, particularly in the possibility of altering the production of bioactive plant metabolites by means of tissue culture technology. Plant cell and tissue culture technologies can be established routinely under sterile conditions from explants, such as plant leaves, stems, roots, and meristems for both the ways for multiplication and extraction of secondary metabolites. In vitro production of secondary metabolite in plant cell suspension cultures has been reported from various medicinal plants, and bioreactors are the key step for their commercial production. Based on this lime light, the present review is aimed to cover phytotherapeutic application and recent advancement for the production of some important plant pharmaceuticals.
  24,452 2,148 72
A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential
Vasim Khan, Abul Kalam Najmi, Mohd. Akhtar , Mohd. Aqil , Mohd. Mujeeb , KK Pillai
January-March 2012, 4(1):27-42
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92727  
Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.
  13,773 835 28
Status of surfactants as penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery
Iti Som, Kashish Bhatia, Mohd. Yasir
January-March 2012, 4(1):2-9
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92724  
Surfactants are found in many existing therapeutic, cosmetic, and agro-chemical preparations. In recent years, surfactants have been employed to enhance the permeation rates of several drugs via transdermal route. The application of transdermal route to a wider range of drugs is limited due to significant barrier to penetration across the skin which is associated with the outermost stratum corneum layer. Surfactants have effects on the permeability characteristics of several biological membranes including skin. They have the potential to solubilize lipids within the stratum corneum. The penetration of the surfactant molecule into the lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum is strongly dependent on the partitioning behavior and solubility of surfactant. Surfactants ranging from hydrophobic agents such as oleic acid to hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate have been tested as permeation enhancer to improve drug delivery. This article reviews the status of surfactants as permeation enhancer in transdermal drug delivery of various drugs.
  10,175 302 33
Application of microarray in breast cancer: An overview
Rajnish Kumar, Anju Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Tiwari
January-March 2012, 4(1):21-26
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92726  
There are more than 1.15 million cases of breast cancer diagnosed worldwide annually. At present, only small numbers of accurate prognostic and predictive factors are used clinically for managing the patients with breast cancer. DNA microarrays have the potential to assess the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. Recent preliminary researches indicate that gene expression profiling based on DNA microarray can offer potential and independent prognostic information in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. In this paper, an overview upon the applications of microarray techniques in breast cancer is presented.
  5,871 158 13
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Structure-based design, synthesis, molecular docking, and biological activities of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl) propanoic acid derivatives as dual mechanism drugs
Musa A Ahmed, Faizul Azam, Abir M Rghigh, Abdul Gbaj, Abdulmottaleb E Zetrini
January-March 2012, 4(1):43-50
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92728  
Purpose: 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl)propanohydroxamic acid (2) and 2-{3-[(hydroxyimino)(phenyl)methyl]phenyl}propanoic acid (3) were synthesized from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketoprofen as dual-mechanism drugs. Materials and Methods: Structures of the synthesized compounds were established by IR, 1 H NMR, and mass spectroscopy. Both compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw edema model and in vitro antitumor activity against 60 human tumor cell lines. Flexible ligand docking studies were performed with different matrix metalloproteinases and cyclooxygenases to gain an insight into the structural preferences for their inhibition. Results: Compound (2) proved out to be more potent than ketoprofen in rat paw edema model. Both compounds showed moderate anticancer activity ranging from 1% to 23% inhibition of growth in 38 cell lines of 8 tumor subpanels at 10 μM concentration in a single dose experiment. Hydroxamic acid analogue was found to be more potent than ketoximic analogue in terms of its antitumor activity. Conclusion: Analysis of docking results together with experimental findings provide a good explanation for the biological activities associated with synthesized compounds which may be fruitful in designing dual-target-directed drugs that may inhibit cyclooxygenases and MMPs for the treatment of cancer.
  4,448 188 1
LETTERS
Pharm D: A new concept in India
Prasanna R Deshpande, KK Ahsan Farooq, Dijo M John, E Jagadeswara Rao
January-March 2012, 4(1):84-86
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92746  PMID:22368406
  3,561 216 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ameliorating effects of two extracts of Nigella sativa in middle cerebral artery occluded rat
Mohammad Akhtar, Aliyu Muhammad Maikiyo, Razia Khanam, Mohd Mujeeb , Mohd Aqil , Abul Kalam Najmi
January-March 2012, 4(1):70-75
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92740  
Purpose: Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Nigella sativa (400 mg/kg, orally) for 7 days were administered and evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats. Materials and Methods: Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. After 24 h of ischemia, grip strength, locomotor activity tests were performed in the surgically operated animals. After behavioral tests, animals were immediately sacrificed. Infarct volumes followed by the estimation of markers of oxidative stress in the brains were measured. Results: Locomotor activity and grip strength of animals were improved in both aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts pretreated rats. Infarct volume was also reduced in both extracts pretreated rats as compared with MCAO rats. An elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a reduction in glutathione and antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were observed following MCAO. Pretreatment of Nigella sativa extracts showed the reduction in TBARS, elevation in glutathione, SOD and catalase levels as compared with MCAO rats. Conclusion: The present study observed the neuroprotective effects of both the extracts of Nigella sativa in cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective effects could be due to its antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory properties.
  2,826 89 12
In silico study of fucoxanthin as a tumor cytotoxic agent
Hedi I Januar, Ariyanti S Dewi, Endar Marraskuranto, Thamrin Wikanta
January-March 2012, 4(1):56-59
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92733  
Background: Fucoxanthin is a potential tumor cytotoxic compound. However, mechanisms underlying the activities are unclear. Aim: This in silico study aimed to predict the main mechanism of fucoxanthin; whether with its binding to p53 gene, CDK2, or tubulin. Materials and Methods: In silico was studied by using Autodock-Vina's algorithms. The mechanisms being analyzed by comparison of fucoxanthin and native ligands binding energies in p53 gene (1RV1), CDK2 (1AQ1), and three binding sites of tubulin (1JFF-paclitaxel, 1SA0-colchicine, and 1Z2B-vinblastine site). Results: Autodock-Vina's algorithms were valid, as re-docking the native ligands to their receptors showed a RSMD value less than 2 A with binding energies of -11.5 (1RV1), -14.4 (1AQ1), -15.4 (1JFF), -9.2 (1SA0), and -9.7 (1Z2B) kcal/mol. Docking of fucoxanthin to subjected receptors were -6.2 (1RV1), -9.3 (1AQ1), -8.1 (1JFF), -9.2 (1SA0), and -7.2 (1Z2B) kcal/mol. Virtual analysis of fucoxanthin and tubulin binding structure showed the carboxyl moiety in fucoxanthin make a hydrogen bound with 355Val (2.61 A) and 354Ala (2.79 A) at tubulin. Conclusion: The results showed that binding energy of fucoxanthin could only reach the same level as with colchicine ligand in tubulin. Therefore, it may predict that the most probable fucoxanthin main mechanism is to bind tubulin, which causes microtubules depolimerization and cell cycle arrest.
  2,706 150 9
Cardiac antiapoptotic and proproliferative effect of recombinant human erythropoietin in a moderate stage of chronic renal failure in the rat
M Teixeira, P Rodrigues-Santos, P Garrido, E Costa, B Parada, J Sereno, R Alves, L Belo, F Teixeira, A Santos-Silva, F Reis
January-March 2012, 4(1):76-83
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92743  PMID:22368404
Objective: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy under circumstances of moderate chronic renal failure (CRF), with yet lower kidney and heart lesion, may have a protective cardiac effect beyond the correction of anemia, whose mechanism deserves better elucidation, namely by clarifying the impact on gene expression profile of markers of apoptosis, inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and lesion/stress in the heart. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were studied over a period of 15 weeks (n=7 each): control-without surgery and without drug treatment; rhEPO-treated with 50 IU/kg/week of rhEPO-beta; CRF-submitted to partial nephrectomy (3/4); CRF + rhEPO-CRF with rhEPO treatment after the 3rd week of surgery. The heart was collected in order to evaluate the gene expression, by real-time qPCR, of markers of apoptotic machinery, inflammation/immunology, proliferation/angiogenesis, and lesion/stress. Results: The main findings obtained were (a) CRF rats have demonstrated overexpression of EPO-R in the heart without changes on EPO expression, together with overexpression of Bax/Bcl2 ratio, PCNA, and IL-2; (b) rhEPO therapy on the heart of the rats with CRF induced by partial 3/4 nephrectomy promoted nonhematopoietic protection, demonstrated by the apoptosis prevention, viewed by the Bax/Bcl2 balance, by the promotion of proliferation, due to PCNA increment, and by the immunomodulatory action, expressed by a trend to prevent the IL-2 increment. Conclusion: In this model of moderate CRF, rhEPO treatment showed important cardiac nonhematopoietic effects, expressed mainly by the antiapoptotic and the proproliferative action, suggesting that early rhEPO therapy in moderate stages of CRF might have further therapeutic benefits.
  2,615 56 10
Protective effect of Emilia sonchifolia (L.) against high protein diet induced oxidative stress in pancreas of Wistar rats
Dominic Sophia, Paramasivam Ragavendran, Chinthamony Arul Raj, Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan
January-March 2012, 4(1):60-65
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92735  
Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the oxidative damage, the biochemical and histopathological changes in the pancreas of the Wistar rats which was fed high protein diet and the recovery after the oral administration of the n-hexane extract of the herb, Emilia sonchifolia. Materials and Methods: The rats fed with high protein diet for a period of 30 days and treated with n-hexane extract of Emilia sonchifolia (250 mg/kg body weight). Body weight, pancreatic weight, serum amylase, lipase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea, uric acid, creatinine, DNA and RNA content of the pancreas, pancreatic enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and vitamin C were evaluated. Results and Discussion: At the end of the study the rats gained less body weight and showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum levels of amylase, lipase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea, uric acid, creatinine, tissue DNA, and RNA content and showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the pancreatic antioxidants. Treatment with the n-hexane extract ameliorated the damage caused by high protein diet. This was also evidenced by histopathological studies. Conclusion: From the results, it was suggested that the n-hexane extract of Emilia sonchifolia has an effective medicinal property and can act as a pancreato-protective herb.
  2,373 116 1
Antiplasmodial activity of bacilosarcin A isolated from the octocoral-associated bacterium Bacillus sp. collected in Panama
Cristopher A Boya, Liuris Herrera, Hector M Guzman, Marcelino Gutierrez
January-March 2012, 4(1):66-69
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92739  
Aim: This study was designed for isolating and characterizing antiplasmodial compounds from marine octocoral-associated bacteria. Materials and Methods: The organic extract of the Bacillus sp. was subjected to purification using several chromatography techniques guided by bioassays to yield three isocoumarin derivatives (1-3). Chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of HRMS spectra and NMR spectroscopy. The antiplasmodial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain W2. Results: Isolated compounds were identified as bacilosarcin A (1), AI77-F (2), and AI77-H (3). Bacilosarcin A (1) displayed a low micromolar activity (IC 50 = 2.2 μM) against P. falciparum while compounds 2 and 3 showed no activity. Conclusions: Bacilosarcin A was found to be responsible for the antiplasmodial activity observed in the crude extract obtained from the Bacillus sp.
  2,411 67 7
Clinico-pathological correlates of incidentally revealed thyroid swelling in Bihar, India
Arup Sengupta, Ranabir Pal, Sumit Kar, Forhad Akhtar Zaman, Mausumi Basu, Shrayan Pal
January-March 2012, 4(1):51-55
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92730  
Background: Global prevalence of thyroid cancer has been on the rise in recent decades. Objectives: To study the clinical presentations to reach an agreement for diagnosis and optimal management of incidentally revealed thyroid swellings for early diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 178 cases of incidentally detected thyroid swelling attending a tertiary care teaching institute of Kishanganj Bihar. All the cases were subjected to a thorough clinical examination followed by evidence-based interventions. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done in all the cases preoperatively as out-patients basis and histopathologically confirmed postoperatively. Results: The highest incidence of thyroid swelling (75.84%) was found in the age group of 20-40 years; a female preponderance was noted in the ratio 4:1. The duration of swelling ranged from six months to three years. Difficulty in swallowing and breathing was complained by 23 (12.9%) and 18 (10.1%) of the patients respectively. Typically the swellings were located in the right lobe. Commonly the subjects in our study were in euthyroid state (90%) and were with firm swellings (66.7%). Follicular and anaplastic carcinoma was important postoperative cytological findings. Majority of surgical intervention was hemithyroidectomy (55.06%). Conclusion: Incidentally revealed thyroid swelling was quite high in eastern India for which we need a consensus line of intervention.
  2,119 104 -
EDITORIAL
Journal of Pharmacy and BioAllied Sciences Vol 4 Issue 1
Himanshu Gupta, Shivangi Goel
January-March 2012, 4(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92723  
  1,874 90 -
LETTERS
Stem cells: Challenges in endodontics
BS Deepak, DB Nandini
January-March 2012, 4(1):84-84
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.92744  PMID:22368405
  1,389 89 1
ERRATUM
Erratum

January-March 2012, 4(1):65-65
  1,020 36 -
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