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   2014| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 4, 2014

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Use of rodents as models of human diseases
Thierry F Vandamme
January-March 2014, 6(1):2-9
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124301  PMID:24459397
Advances in molecular biology have significantly increased the understanding of the biology of different diseases. However, these discoveries have not yet been fully translated into improved treatments for patients with diseases such as cancers. One of the factors limiting the translation of knowledge from preclinical studies to the clinic has been the limitations of in vivo diseases models. In this brief review, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of rodent models that have been developed to simulate human pathologies, focusing in models that employ xenografts and genetic modification. Within the framework of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, we will review some of the current genetic strategies for modeling diseases in the mouse and the preclinical studies that have already been undertaken. We will also discuss how recent improvements in imaging technologies may increase the information derived from using these GEMs during early assessments of potential therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that one of the values of using a mouse model is the very rapid turnover rate of the animal, going through the process of birth to death in a very short timeframe relative to that of larger mammalian species.
  6,344 174 23
Buparvaquone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery in theleriosis
Maheshkumar P Soni, Nilakash Shelkar, Rajiv V Gaikwad, Geeta R Vanage, Abdul Samad, Padma V Devarajan
January-March 2014, 6(1):22-30
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124309  PMID:24459400
Background: Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative, has been investigated for the treatment of many infections and is recommended as the gold standard for the treatment of theileriosis. Theileriosis, an intramacrophage infection is localized mainly in reticuloendotheileial system (RES) organs. The present study investigates development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of BPQ for targeted delivery to the RES. Materials and Methods: BPQ SLN was prepared using melt method by adding a molten mixture into aqueous Lutrol F68 solution (80°C). Larger batches were prepared up to 6 g of BPQ with GMS: BPQ, 2:1. SLN of designed size were obtained using ultraturrax and high pressure homogenizer. A freeze and thaw study was used to optimize type and concentration of cryoprotectant with Sf: Mean particle size, Si: Initial particle size <1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study was performed on optimized formulation. Formulation was investigated for in vitro serum stability, hemolysis and cell uptake study. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study was performed in Holtzman rat. Results: Based on solubility in lipid; glyceryl monostearate (GMS) was selected for preparation of BPQ SLN. Batches of BPQ SLN were optimized for average particle size and entrapment efficiency at <100 mg solid content. A combination of Solutol HS-15 and Lutrol F68 at 2% w/v and greater enabled the desired Sf/Si < 1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed decrease in crystallinity of BPQ in BPQ SLN while, scanning electron microscope revealed spherical morphology. BPQ SLN revealed good stability at 4°C and 25°C. Low hemolytic potential (<8%) and in vitro serum stability up to 5 h was observed. Cytotoxicity of SLN to the U937 cell was low. The macrophage cell line revealed high (52%) uptake of BPQ SLN in 1 h suggesting the potential to RES uptake. SLN revealed longer circulation and biodistrbution study confirmed high RES uptake (75%) in RES organs like liver lung spleen etc. Conclusion: The high RES uptake suggests BPQ SLN as a promising approach for targeted and improved delivery in theileriosis.
  4,071 205 7
Neuroprotective and nootropic activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn.(Fabaceae) leaves on diabetes induced cognitive decline in experimental animals
Karuna A Talpate, Uma A Bhosale, Mandar R Zambare, Rahul S Somani
January-March 2014, 6(1):48-55
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124317  PMID:24459404
Purpose: Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea (EECT) was evaluated in diabetes-induced cognitive decline rat model for its nootropic and neuroprotective activity. Materials and Methods: Effect on spatial working memory, spatial reference memory and spatial working-reference memory was evaluated by Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Neuroprotective effects of EECT was studied by assaying acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide (NO), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the brain of diabetic rats. Results: The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) was found to cause significant increase in spatial working memory ( P < 0.05), spatial reference memory ( P < 0.001) and spatial working-reference ( P < 0.001) in retention trials on Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Whereas significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity ( P < 0.05), lipid peroxide ( P < 0.001), total NO ( P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD, CAT and GSH levels was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions: The present data indicates that Clitorea ternatea tenders protection against diabetes induced cognitive decline and merits the need for further studies to elucidate its mode of action.
  3,768 197 2
A cyclodextrin formulation to improve use of the anesthetic tribromoethanol (Avertin ® )
Arlene McDowell, Jessica A Fothergill, Azeem Khan, Natalie J Medlicott
January-March 2014, 6(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124303  PMID:24459399
Objective: Efficacy and safety concerns have been raised in the literature with the use of tribromoethanol (TBE) (Avertin ® ) for anesthesia in rats and mice when administered by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Despite the controversy, it remains in common usage as an anesthetic agent in laboratory rodents for short-term surgical procedures. Cyclodextrins have been shown to improve drug solubility and were investigated here as an improved anesthetic formulation for mice. Materials and Methods: The phase solubility of TBE with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was estimated. The efficacy of two anesthetic regimens was compared in this study; the conventional TBE formulation solubilized in tert-amyl alcohol and a HP-β-CD formulation containing TBE. Mice (n = 6) were administered the formulations by IP injection and the pharmacodynamic parameters of time to induction of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia and recovery time were measured using a combined reflex score (CRS). Results and Discussion: Phase solubility studies showed a linear increase in the solubility of TBE with increasing HP-β-CD concentration and suggested >1:1 binding of the drug in the cyclodextrin complex. At a dose of 260 mg/kg the standard TBE formulation appeared to produce deeper anesthesia than the cyclodextrin formulation, with a minimum average CRS of 1.8 compared with 5.2. No post-mortem pathology was observed in mice that received either the conventional or cyclodextrin formulation. Conclusion: The cyclodextrin TBE formulation did not conclusively provide an improved anesthetic response at a dose of 260 mg/kg compared with the conventional formulation. The improved solubility of TBE with HP-β-CD and the reduced variability in anesthetic response warrants the further investigation of this formulation. This study has also identified the value of using the anticholinergic atropine in association with TBE for anesthesia.
  2,993 125 2
Thermal latency studies in opiate-treated mice
Noam Schildhaus, Eliana Trink, Chirs Polson, Louis DeTolla, Betty M Tyler, George I Jallo, Sino Tok, Michael Guarnieri
January-March 2014, 6(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124316  PMID:24459403
Background: The change in the reaction time of a tail or paw exposed to a thermal stimulus is a measure of nociceptive activity in laboratory animals. Tail-flick and plantar thermal sensitivity (Hargreaves) tests are non-invasive, minimize stress, and can be used to screen animals for phenotype and drug activity. Objective: Hargreaves testing has been widely used in rats. We investigated its use to measure the activity of opiate analgesia in mice. Methods: Mice were used in thermal stimulus studies at 1-5 hours and 1-5 days to test acute and extended release preparations of buprenorphine. Results: Hargreaves testing had limited value at 1-5 hours because mice can have an obtunded response to opiate therapy. Tail-flick studies with restrained mice are not affected by the initial locomotor stimulation. Discussion: The present report describes a simple restraint system for mice. The utility of the system is demonstrated by examining the efficacy of acute and extended release buprenorphine injections in Balb/c and Swiss mice. Conclusion: Standardized tail-flick testing provides a sensitive robust method to monitor opiate activity in mice.
  2,583 69 3
Subcutaneous implants for long-acting drug therapy in laboratory animals may generate unintended drug reservoirs
Michael Guarnieri, Betty M Tyler, Louis DeTolla, Ming Zhao, Barry Kobrin
January-March 2014, 6(1):38-42
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124315  PMID:24459402
Background: Long-acting therapy in laboratory animals offers advantages over the current practice of 2-3 daily drug injections. Yet little is known about the disintegration of biodegradable drug implants in rodents. Objective: Compare bioavailability of buprenorphine with the biodegradation of lipid-encapsulated subcutaneous drug pellets. Methods: Pharmacokinetic and histopathology studies were conducted in BALB/c female mice implanted with cholesterol-buprenorphine drug pellets. Results: Drug levels are below the level of detection (0.5 ng/mL plasma) within 4-5 days of implant. However, necroscopy revealed that interstitial tissues begin to seal implants within a week. Visual inspection of the implant site revealed no evidence of inflammation or edema associated with the cholesterol-drug residue. Chemical analyses demonstrated that the residues contained 10-13% of the initial opiate dose for at least two weeks post implant. Discussion: The results demonstrate that biodegradable scaffolds can become sequestered in the subcutaneous space. Conclusion: Drug implants can retain significant and unintended reservoirs of drugs.
  2,351 70 3
Farmed deer: A veterinary model for chronic mycobacterial diseases that is accessible, appropriate and cost-effective
Frank Griffin
January-March 2014, 6(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124302  PMID:24459398
Although most studies in immunology have used inbred mice as the experimental model to study fundamental immune mechanisms they have been proven to be limited in their ability to chart complex functional immune pathways, such as are seen in outbred populations of humans or animals. Translation of the findings from inbred mouse studies into practical solutions in therapeutics or the clinic has been remarkably unproductive compared with many other areas of clinical practice in human and veterinary medicine. Access to an unlimited array of mouse strains and an increasing number of genetically modified strains continues to sustain their paramount position in immunology research. Since the mouse studies have provided little more than the dictionary and glossary of immunology, another approach will be required to write the classic exposition of functional immunity. Domestic animals such as ruminants and swine present worthwhile alternatives as models for immunological research into infectious diseases, which may be more informative and cost effective. The original constraint on large animal research through a lack of reagents has been superseded by new molecular technologies and robotics that allow research to progress from gene discovery to systems biology, seamlessly. The current review attempts to highlight how exotic animals such as deer can leverage off the knowledge of ruminant genomics to provide cost-effective models for research into complex, chronic infections. The unique opportunity they provide relates to their diversity and polymorphic genotypes and the integrity of their phenotype for a range of infectious diseases.
  2,277 77 1
New oral anthelmintic intraruminal delivery device for cattle
Thierry F Vandamme
January-March 2014, 6(1):31-37
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124311  PMID:24459401
Background: The purpose of this work was to develop a new oral drug delivery system intended for cattle and that enables delayed and pulsed release of an anthelmintic agent. Materials: This new tailored dosage form, also called reticulo-rumen device (RRD) has been evaluated on grazing calves by means of measurements of milliunits of tyrosine concentration, number of eggs per gram of feces, mean number of infective larvae on cattle pasture and increase in mean weight of cattle. Methods: The in vivo evaluation was carried out during two grazing seasons on different groups of dairy cattle. During the first grazing season, Group 1 was designated as an untreated control group. The remaining two were assigned to different treatments as follows: Group 2, early season suppression with a marketed intraruminal slow release bolus (Chronomintic ® , Virbac) administered immediately prior to turn-out and Group 3, mid-season suppression with a new RRD administered immediately prior to turn out. When the cattle were turned out at the start of the second grazing season, they were not given any anthelmintic treatment and were divided into two different groups, corresponding to the previous groups that received an anthelmintic treatment during the first grazing season, on that pasture that they had occupied as separate groups in the previous year. Furthermore, during the second season, samples of feces, blood and herbage were collected every month. Results and Conclusion: During the first grazing season, the results indicated that the fecal egg counts and the number of infective larvae in herbage samples were slightly lower for the group receiving the new RRDs. Regular weighing of the cattle receiving the new RRDs revealed no significant difference with cattle receiving marketed RRDs. Conversely, during the second grazing season, the results for the mean weights of the cattle demonstrated that the weights of animals having been administered new RRDs during the first grazing season were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those in the second group treated with a Chronomintic ® during the first grazing season. A difference in mean weight of 26 kg was observed between these two groups.
  2,210 65 -
Veterinary drug delivery
Arlene McDowell, Michael J Rathbone
January-March 2014, 6(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.124299  PMID:24459396
  1,845 75 -