Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences
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   2022| January-March  | Volume 14 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 19, 2022

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Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants against uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Razan Salman Marouf, Joseph Arsene M. Mbarga, Andrey V Ermolaev, Irina V Podoprigora, Irina P Smirnova, Natalia V Yashina, Anna V Zhigunova, Aliya V Martynenkova
January-March 2022, 14(1):1-12
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) being the most prevalent causative agent in both complicated and uncomplicated UTIs. Antibiotic resistance among UPEC has been already demonstrated against a wide variety of antibiotics and the situation is continuing to deteriorate increasing the rate of recurrence and the difficulty of treatment and prophylaxis. Recently, a big attention has been paid to non-antibiotic approaches as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Among many strategies, phytotherapy has gained a special attention worldwide. Herbal remedies have been used in traditional medicine since ancient times and they are well known for their effectiveness in treating many health conditions including UTIs. Researches are conducted continuously to validate the use of many medicinal plants against UPEC, investigate their mechanisms of action, and determine their active constituents. Our extensive review of the recent literature revealed that many phytochemicals are shown to target and inhibit a wide variety of bioprocesses in UPEC, such as adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, and quorum sensing. Such natural approaches are very promising in confronting the antibiotic resistance of UPEC and can be further used to develop plant-based strategies and pharmaceutical products to treat and prevent UTIs caused by UPEC.
  1,256 417 -
Exploring community pharmacist's knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the provision of pharmaceutical care. A prospective cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia
Abubakar Siddique, Ejaz Ahmed, Mohammed Al Zoghabi, Emad Alsaif, Faisal Alhawshani
January-March 2022, 14(1):13-18
Background: Pharmaceutical care (PC) is the new way of practicing the pharmacist's rule; practicing the PC will improve the quality of life of the patient by providing advices and counseling such as following up the patient after taking the medicines. Objective: Evaluating the knowledge, attitude, practice, and perceived barriers of community pharmacists in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, toward the provision of PC. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of a questionnaire was conducted to gather data from pharmacy professionals working in community pharmacies in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia between September 2019 and May 2020. A sample of 130 pharmacists were given the questionnaire by the investigator. Results: The respondents showed a positive knowledge as 60% think that the medications should be dispensed to patients only, and 95.4% of the respondents are willing to counsel and offer advice to the patients. For attitude, there was also a positive response as 92.3% agreed that primary responsibility of community pharmacists is for providing PC. For practicing, a positive response was also found as 94.6% of the respondents do collect medication history from the patient, while 68.5% of the respondents follow up the patient's progress and assured that desired outcomes have been achieved. For barriers, lack of space and privacy were the most agreed barriers by the respondents with 63%. Conclusions: Community pharmacists have shown good knowledge, attitude, and practice in relation to the provision of PC in our study and major barrier we found in our study that lack of privacy in the pharmacy in which the patients will not be willing to express or explain their health or drug-related problems comfortably.
  1,047 180 -
Trends in practices of self-medication with antibiotics among medical undergraduates in India
Nusrat Nabi, Zenis Baluja, Shoma Mukherjee, Sunil Kohli
January-March 2022, 14(1):19-24
Background: Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) without the consultation of a professional is a serious health concern and can lead to serious health hazard. This study was designed to evaluate the trends in SMA behavior and risk factors in medical undergraduates to further explore the association between SMA practices and adverse drug events (ADEs). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was carried out among 360 volunteering medical undergraduates at a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. Results: 67.78% of students (244/360) gave a history of SMA practice with females dominating (54.09%). Out of 244 students giving a positive history of SMA, 182 (74.59%) experienced ADE, reflecting a strong positive association between the two. Convenience (86.07%) was observed to be the main reason of practicing SMA in this study. Over-the-counter sale of prescription-only drugs, namely antibiotics by the community pharmacies, is as high as 90.16%, leading to the main source of acquiring antibiotics for self-medication. Fever (47.54%) and respiratory infections (39.34%) emerged as the major indications for SMA. Extended-spectrum penicillins (60.66%) were the most commonly used class of antibiotics for SMA. Conclusion: Our findings endorse high SMA prevalence among Indian medical students. Strict regulations on antibiotic sales and public education reinforced by strong antibiotic stewardship program at all levels are highly recommended.
  830 146 -
The mystery of mucormycosis in COVID-19: A multifactorial menace or an enigmatic delta variant associated phenomenon? An exploratory study from a tertiary care centre in North India with a brief literature review
Deepjyoti Kalita, Mohit Bhatia, Udayakumar Sasi Rekha, Arpana Singh
January-March 2022, 14(1):46-51
Background: There was a global surge in cases of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients during the second wave of the pandemic in 2021, reported especially from India. Various predisposing factors such as diabetes mellitus, rampant use of corticosteroids, and COVID-19 per se may be responsible for this spike. Some public health experts have postulated that the epidemiological link between the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 and mucormycosis should be explored. Material and Methods: A retrospective exploratory study was conducted, in which data of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 with mucormycosis and/or aspergillosis co-infections were collected after obtaining approval from the institute's ethics committee. These patients were admitted to the Mucor wards of our hospital. The positive COVID-19 status of these patients was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The residual SARS-CoV-2 RNA containing elutes of these patients were stored at −80°C in deep freezers and subjected to whole-genome sequencing in June 2021 at the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), New Delhi, India as part of the Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Consortia (INSACOG) program. Concomitant fungal infections in these patients were diagnosed by KOH wet mount and fungal culture as per standard guidelines. Descriptive statistics in the form of percentages and median were used to report the findings. Results: Periorbital swelling and ocular pain (14/15; 93.33%), followed by facial swelling (11/15; 73.33%) and nasal obstruction (9/15; 60%), were the most common clinical features observed in these patients. Rhizopus arrhizus was the most common causative fungal agent (12/15; 80%). The majority of the patients (9/13; 69.23%) were infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: COVID-associated mucormycosis seems to be multifactorial in origin. Although there may be a possible association between mucormycosis and the Delta variant, more studies should be conducted to explore this seemingly reasonable proposition.
  812 143 -
Detection of astaxanthin at different regions of the brain in rats treated with astaxanthin nanoemulsion
Mazzura Wan Chik, Meor Mohd Redzuan Meor Mohd Affandi, Gurmeet Kaur Surindar Singh
January-March 2022, 14(1):25-30
Context: Astaxanthin (Ast), a compound used widely as a dietary supplement, has high antioxidant properties but poor oral bioavailability. To benefit from its nutritional values in cognitive function, Ast was formulated into a nanoemulsion which may improve its penetration through the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Aim: The present study aims to quantitate the Ast nanoemulsion in different regions of the brain tissue using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. Materials and Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with Ast nanoemulsion formulation daily (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg body weight, bw) for 28 days before brain tissues were harvested, extracted, and quantified. A simple, sensitive, and reliable method using high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolent detector was developed and validated to quantify Ast in the brain. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the ToolPak Data Analysis in Excel for t-test and analysis of variance single factor with Tukey post hoc analysis. Results: The calibration curve demonstrated a linear regression with an r2 of 0.9998 and absolute recovery ranging from 97.8% to 109.6%. The hippocampus of the 160 mg/kg bw treatment group showed a significantly higher concentration of Ast (77.9 ± 17.3 μg/g) compared to the cortex (22.3 ± 4.2 μg/g) and cerebellum (33.1 ± 5.4 μg/g). Ast was detected in the cerebellum of the 80 mg/kg bw (29.4 ± 7.8 μg/g) treatment group with the amount not being significantly different to the 160 mg/kg bw (33.1 ± 5.4 μg/g) treatment group. Conclusions: It was evident that the Ast nanoemulsion formulated was able to cross the BBB and may provide protective benefits.
  784 134 -
Comparative evaluation of two automated ID/AST systems and mikrolatest kit in assessing the In Vitro colistin susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae isolates: A single-center exploratory study from North India
Mohit Bhatia, Ravi Indrapal Singh, Diksha Rani, U Sasi Rekha, Ranjana Rohilla, Balram Ji Omar, Pratima Gupta
January-March 2022, 14(1):52-55
Aims: To generate preliminary data about comparative evaluation of two automated ID/AST systems and Mikrolatest kit in determining in vitro colistin susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae spp. Materials and methods: Twenty-three carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and two carbapenem-sensitive multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates obtained from various clinical samples of inpatients were included in the study. Species-level identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of test isolates was performed using BD phoenix and MicroScan WalkAway 96 Plus automated systems. Identity was reconfirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Additional colistin susceptibility testing was performed using Mikrolatest MIC colistin susceptibility testing kit (reference method). Results: Results showed that 16% isolates (27.3% [3/11] K. pneumoniae and 7.1% [1/14] E. coli) exhibited in vitro colistin resistance by the reference method. While the categorical agreement between BD Phoenix M50 ID/AST system and reference test w. r. t in vitro colistin susceptibility results was 100% and 92.9% for K. pneumoniae & E. coli, respectively, it was much lower between MicroScan WalkAway 96 plus ID/AST system and the latter. Almost perfect agreement (96%; kappa: 0.834) was observed between BD Phoenix M50 system and reference method. Conclusions: The results of this study are preliminary and cannot be generalized. Multicentric studies with large sample sizes should be conducted throughout the country to gain a deeper understanding of the subject under consideration.
  720 90 -
Teaching pharmacovigilance to undergraduate students: Our experience in poor-resource setting
Mohammed Alshakka, Wafa Badullah, Abdullah AL-Dhuraibi, Sara Alshagga, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim
January-March 2022, 14(1):31-37
Using medicines associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) might cause serious health complications. The pharmacist plays a unique role in monitoring ADRs, either by themselves or with the assistance of other health-care professionals, to diminish the hazards of ADRs by distinguishing, reporting, and evaluating any proposed ADRs. To train future pharmacists who have adequate knowledge of ADRs and related aspects, it is highly recommended to introduce the WHO-ISoP pharmacovigilance (PV) in the core curriculum. In this article, we shared the suggested curriculum in Aden University. It is based on comprehensive outlines and reference books that offer a broad view of all aspects related to PV. A brief student course evaluation was carried out. Fifty students participated in the survey. Students expressed the importance of the course and indicated that they wanted to know more about the types of ADRs and common medication errors. Some of them lacked an understanding of the causal relationship between ADRs and risk assessment and not familiar with the reporting forms. They suggested for PV awareness programs for health-care staff and public. The curriculum should be tailored according to the country's needs because each country has its own medication safety issues and PV program. To reach the ultimate objective, this article reports the initiative to develop PV proficiencies in a university setting.
  690 102 -
Evaluation of smoking prevalence, secondhand smoke exposure, attitudes of tobacco control, and smoking cessation knowledge among pharmacy and medical students in a private university, Malaysia
Aziz-ur Rahman, Majory Mambali, Fazlollah Keshavarzi, Muhammad Ahsan Iftikhar Baig, Enti Hariadha, Muhmmad Junaid Farrukh
January-March 2022, 14(1):38-45
Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading causes of premature morbidity and mortality globally, causing over eight million deaths per year. One of the best approaches to reduce smoking-related deaths is to encourage future health-care professionals in tobacco control programs. Objectives: To assess the smoking prevalence, secondhand smoke exposure, attitudes toward tobacco control, and smoking cessation knowledge and associated factors among pharmacy and medical students in a private university in Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two campuses of a private University in Malaysia, and the data were collected online using the Global Health Professionals Students Survey questionnaire and analyzed using IBM-SPSS Version 20. Results: The overall smoking prevalence was 1.6% (P = 0.009). The exposure to secondhand smoke was 21% and 39% at home and in public places, respectively. About 92% of respondents had a good attitude toward tobacco control, whereas 53.4% had good smoking cessation knowledge. However, only 39.4% of the respondents had received formal smoking cessation training. Logistic regression revealed that significant predictors toward tobacco control are the ban of tobacco sales to adolescents, ban on the advertising of tobacco products, ban of smoking in restaurants, and obtaining a specific training on cessation techniques. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among pharmacy and medical students was low, but exposure to secondhand smoke was higher. Most of the respondents had a positive attitude and good knowledge of smoking cessation. However, future training needs to be conducted among upcoming health-care professionals to act as a role model for community transformation.
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