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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 5: Effect of pretreatment of mice with naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.), theophylline (10 mg/kg, i.p.), l-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p.), glibenclamide (8 mg/ kg, p.o.), ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), atropine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), yohimbine (3 mg/kg, p.o.), and nifedipine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on the antinociceptive effect of HLE 30 mg/kg, p.o. (a and b) and morphine 3 mg/kg, i.p. (c and d) against the two phases of the formalin-induced licking test in mice. Each column represents mean ± SEM (n=5). *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 compared to respective controls (treated with vehicle); †P <0.05 compared to HLE 30 mg/kg; ‡P <0.05 and ‡‡P <0.01 compared to morphine 3 mg/kg (one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls post hoc test)

Figure 5: Effect of pretreatment of mice with naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.), theophylline (10 mg/kg, i.p.), l-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p.), glibenclamide (8 mg/ kg, p.o.), ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), atropine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), yohimbine (3 mg/kg, p.o.), and nifedipine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on the antinociceptive effect of HLE 30 mg/kg, p.o. (a and b) and morphine 3 mg/kg, i.p. (c and d) against the two phases of the formalin-induced licking test in mice. Each column represents mean ± SEM (n=5). *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 compared to respective controls (treated with vehicle); †P <0.05 compared to HLE 30 mg/kg; ‡P <0.05 and ‡‡P <0.01 compared to morphine 3 mg/kg (one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls post hoc test)